JSA Minutes by 4VtD7tW

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									                                 Contractor HSE Symposium
                          Job Safety Analysis – Good Practices
Contractors attending the Joint BP-Shell-ChevronTexaco HSE Symposium in October 2003
identified Job Safety Analysis (JSA) as one of the key areas for achieving safety improvement in
the oil and gas industry. It was agreed that there were already many examples of good practices
in the industry, and that the greatest opportunity would be to promote these widely. This report
summarises the results of a follow-up work group formed from representatives of operators and
contractor companies to identify these good practices. Key findings were:
     Strict standardization of JSA and risk assessment processes was not necessary, so long as
         there is a common understanding of the terms involved and that processes conform to
         certain basic requirements
     Demonstrated management commitment to the JSA process was a key factor in ensuring
         its effectiveness. The report identifies opportunities for management to demonstrate this
         commitment through active engagement in practical situations.
     Getting the right participants involved and ensuring that they are fully engaged is a key
         success factor. It was also recognized that there is a balance between the need to capture
         lessons learned, through tools such as generic JSAs, and the need to actively engage those
         actually carrying out the task and keep the JSA fresh.
     Other good practices for JSA preparation have been identified, which include being clear
         on process, planning properly, improving hazard recognition, and pre-job inspection.
     Implementation is a fruitful area for improvement and good practices have been
         identified in the areas such as JSA Auditing, Management of Change, and post job
     Training and support resources are available from a number of sources (described in the

1.     Introduction
       A survey of contractors attending the Joint BP-Shell-Chevron Texaco HSE Symposium
       in October 2003 identified Job Safety Analysis (JSA) as the number one area for
       achieving safety improvement in the oil and gas industry. During the meeting the
       participants agreed that there were already many examples of good practices in the
       industry, and that the greatest opportunity would be in promoting these more widely.

       In order to progress this initiative a workgroup was established representing the three oil
       and gas operators, and a range of service industries (Appendix 1). The objectives of the
       workgroup were:
            Develop a common framework for understanding Risk Assessment and JSA
            Identify Good Practices and barriers to improving the effectiveness of JSA & Risk
            Identify the potential for common practices to be established with the industry in
              Gulf of Mexico.
            Evaluate potential tools for promoting best practices within the industry

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     One of the first actions of the team was to solicit input from a cross section of people
     directly involved in implementation of JSA practices in the field through a workshop.
     The workshop was highly successful and much of this report is based on the direct
     feedback from the field personnel involved, combined with the experience and input from
     the work team members.

2.   Understanding JSA and Risk Assessment Terms and Process

     2.1    Risk Assessment and JSA Framework
            It was clear from the outset that there is a considerable range of interpretations as
            to what exactly is meant by a “Job Safety Analysis”. In particular a number of
            companies use the terminology of “risks assessment” interchangeably with JSA.
            Also risk assessments can cover a wide range of situations – from task risk
            assessments to full-scale facility or project assessments. In order to overcome this
            problem the team adopted the framework described in Appendix 2. The work
            group agreed that the focus of attention was on what was termed the “Pre-Job
            JSA”, which is performed on location by those carrying out the task and involves
            identifying appropriate controls for each step in the job. Having agreed to focus
            on the activities actually carried out on the site, the team also included in the
            framework some important aspects of the implementation and follow up to the
            JSA. For example, audits of JSA implementation, managing changes, and
            learning afterwards were all seen as being key contributors to the overall success
            of the JSA process. A “Stop Work” process for situations where participants
            believed there was the potential for an unsafe situation was another example of a
            good practice.

     2.2    JSA Basic Documentation Requirements
            Having characterized the overall context within which a JSA is carried out, the
            team also looked at the basic requirements for a documented JSA. This was seen
            as important because operators, contractors, and sub-contractors, are often
            involved in collaborative work or in simultaneous operations (SIMOPS). This
            leads to the need to interface between the systems of different companies. It was
            also felt that by identifying an agreed minimum set of requirements for a
            documented JSA, then in certain circumstances this could reduce the need for
            contractors to rework JSAs. It was agreed that all JSA documentation should
            include at least the following (see Appendix 3):
                 List of Job Tasks
                 List related Hazards associated with each Task
                 Lists Hazard Mitigation (See Appendix 4 for a typical hazard Checklist)
                 Include Hazards to the Environment
                 Assign Accountability for mitigation
                 Include PPE check in Hazard Mitigation
                 Supervisor signs and attendees documented (Note operators represented
                    on the JSA Work Team require sign-off by all participants)
                 Hazard Checklist to support is a good practice (Appendix 4)

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3.   Good Practices
     The following areas were identified as those that were key to having an effective JSA:
          Management Commitment
          Involving the Right People
          Engagement of participants
          Quality of JSA preparation
          JSA Process, including auditing, managing change, and continuous improvement
     In the sections that follow these are expanded upon with examples of good practice or
     with proposals for improvement. JSA Training was also seen as a key ingredient in
     supporting all of these areas, and further information on support resources is given in
     Section 4.

     3.1    Management Commitment
            The workforce provided a clear message that management commitment to the
            JSA process was a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of the process. This
                 Management making a clear statement of the importance of conducting
                   quality JSAs and stopping the job when conditions change
                 Management observing JSA meetings during site safety visits
                 Involvement in informal or formal auditing of JSA implementation during
                   work site safety visits.
                 Management should provide feedback on quality and implementation of

     3.2    Involving the Right People
            The purpose of the JSA is to ensure that those executing the task understand the
            hazards and corresponding control measures, and so the appropriate people must
            be involved. Feedback from field personnel points to a number of situations that
            need to be planned for:
                 JSAs may be conducted before the subject expert for the task has arrived
                    at the site
                 Third Party Inspectors need to be in tune with JSAs
                 Crew may be split between shifts and rotations
                 Both contractors and operating company employees all need to be
            Sign in sheets are one way of providing an auditable trail of who was involved.

     3.3    Engagement of Participants
            There can be an enormous difference between a well run JSA meeting that fully
            engages the participants in the process, and those where the participants are
            simply going through the motions. For example:
                Reading a JSA word-for-word soon loses people’s attention. It is
                   important that the JSA leader asks questions and promotes discussion
                   among the participants.
                Repetitive tasks can be an issue. A fresh perspective is needed to avoid
                   complacency. It is important to avoid a “Check-the-box” thought process.

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              Involving different personnel in the JSA can bring fresh perspectives and
              help develop trending
           Full involvement and true understanding leads to crew ownership of the
              JSA, giving the best chance of success
           Morning meeting JSA review - ne way to keep JSA’s fresh is to review
              one or two at routine meetings. These might be selected at random
           New Employees may need particular attention, as others may take for
              granted the understanding of a JSA
           Recognize that in some cases JSA is the bridge between a HAZID & the
              Toolbox talk
      To some extent, all of these can be affected by the cultural perception of the
      importance of JSA’s and an understanding that at the end of the day the process is
      there to protect those carrying out the task.

3.4   JSA Preparation
      The importance of having a common understanding of the basic JSA process has
      already been emphasized. Having identified the basics, the following are some of
      the key points in preparing a quality JSA
           Be clear what tasks require a JSA and be clear on the Permit – JSA
           Planning should allow time to do proper JSA
           Have a plan for developing JSAs for tasks that may not be fully defined
           Poor hazard recognition is one of the most common weaknesses in JSA
             preparation. Involving a range of people with different experience and
             training are two ways in which hazard recognition can be improved. Also
             “Seed JSA’s” or “Master JSA’s” may be used to capture the learning from
             previous times the task was done. These are prewritten and define the key
             elements of the activity. They can be modified to after a the activity has
             been completed so that the lessons learned can be passed on for the next
             time that activity is carried out. However, it is important to recognize the
             unique attributes of any particular job and not to fall into the trap of
           Avoid generic hazard statements such as “slips, trips, falls”
           The value of doing the JSA on the worksite has already been emphasized
             and it is good practice to require a pre-job inspection to ensure that
             everything has been covered
           Accountability for hazard mitigation is assigned where necessary
           The process for “Stopping the Job” in the event of a potential unsafe
             condition or a change in circumstances should be reinforced at this stage.
      One of the best tools identified by the work group for supporting quality JSA’s
      was the flowchart reproduced in Appendix 5.

3.5   JSA Implementation Process: Managing Change, Continuous Improvement,
      and Auditing
      Any JSA is only as good as the implementation, and this was seen as one of the
      areas where most could be done to improve performance. Demonstration of

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leadership commitment through management involvement has already been
identified and further good practices are highlighted below:
     Management of Change - Need sufficient time to adequately change JSA
         when conditions change
     During Job Time Out or Check – Ask questions did anyone get hurt?
     Post Job Evaluation of JSA – Post Job to review highlights and areas for
         improvement post completion
     Following incidents the investigation should feedback any lessons learned
         for the JSA process
     Auditing JSA compliance, supported by JSA audit forms / checklist
The following sections expand on good practices in the areas of auditing and post
job critique.

3.5.1 Post Job JSA Evaluation (or Critique)
Critiquing the JSA after the job is completed should be simple, straightforward
and short, and carried out by those carrying out the task. If the system for
critiquing is too cumbersome, it will be avoided or given a cursory treatment. A
simple format addressing the following concerns should be sufficient:
      Did everything match the original planned JSA? If there were differences
        were they substantial enough to warrant revising the prewitten JSA?
      Were the results as expected? Were risks anticipated and mitigated
      If not, what went wrong?
      What improvements can be made to the permanent JSA?
      If the JSA is to be revised, who will be responsible for the revision before
        the next time the job is done?

3.5.2 JSA Auditing
Providing a framework for auditing JSA compliance was seen by the team as
being of value, particularly as it applied to routine tasks for which “Seed” JSA’s
or “Master” JSA’s already exist. The auditing process format may take the form
of a “Desktop Audit” in which a randomly selected JSA would be reviewed
against a listing of key data entry points. The following are some of the key
pieces of information to be reviewed.
     Does the description of the JSA contain sufficient information to clearly
        identify the task that the JSA is intended to cover?
     If there is a requirement that JSA’s undergo a periodic review, is the date
        of the last review current?
     Does the JSA identify the correct location for the work to be performed?
     Is the JSA legible and detailed enough to assure understanding?
     Is the JSA sufficiently brief to avoid confusion or a missed step?
     Does the JSA sufficiently address the behavior and actions of each person
        working under the procedure?

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       Are the steps required to mitigate each identified hazard, within the work
        crew’s ability to perform?
       Has the JSA been approved for use?
       Have all required entries been made on the JSA Form?
       Are you (the reviewer) satisfied with the overall quality of the JSA?
       Observe a JSA meeting being conducted. Are the right people involved
        and are the participants suitably engaged?

JSA auditing may also be in the form of a field audit in which an independent,
competent person does a check on the quality of the task performed, and the work
crew’s adherence to each step of the JSA. In addition to assessing the quality of
the work execution, an effective field audit should also assess the quality of both
the pre-job meeting and the post-job JSA Evaluation (or critique).

In the pre-job meeting…
 Has Management Commitment to the process been exemplified by providing
    adequate time to properly plan the job? (Section 3.1 of this document)
 Does it appear that the right people have been brought together to perform the
    task safely and efficiently? Are all needed skill sets represented? (Section
 Has the team leader effectively engaged each of the participants? Has each
    participant been challenged to carefully think their responsibilities through
    with an eye for potential risks? (Section 3.3)

In the post-job critique…
  Was each of the critique elements listed in Section 3.5.1 above addressed?
  Was each of the participants encouraged to discuss how their portion of the
     task proceeded?

Both positive feedback and opportunities for improvement should always be
discussed with the work crew at the conclusion of the job, and may be of
particular value with routine tasks.

Regardless of the auditing process used, there must be a mechanism in place for
the development of an action plan to remediate identified shortcomings. Like any
corrective action process, this process should have provisions for accomplishing
the following:
     Recording the deficiency,
     Determining the corrective action,
     Assigning responsibilities and completion dates for each action,
     Tracking to closure.

Most importantly, if the corrective action plan should include a modification of
the means and methods by which a task is to be completed in the future, the audit
process should include how this revised information will be communicated to
those who need to know.

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            It is the JSA work team’s belief that the inclusion of both auditing strategies into
            the JSA program provides the best chances for ensuring the success of this

4.   Training and Support Resources
     It is clear that JSA quality will depend on the experience and training of the participants.
     The workforce recognizes this factor and has suggested that JSA Training for industry
     should be more standardized. The work-group considered the merits of developing a new
     training vehicle, but concluded that existing commercially available products may have
     the potential to fulfill this need. Appendix 6 contains a listing of publicly available JSA
     training and support materials. .

                                        Page 7 of 13
                                        Appendix 1
                                Contractor HSE Symposium
                          Risk Assessment/JSA Work Group
Steve Flynn, HSE Manager, Projects, BP America Inc (Chair)
Beau Brown, HSE Advisor, Shell Exploration & Production Co., CSMP Team
Jeffrey Schmoll, Facilities Engineering Supervisor, ChevronTexaco
Dave Thomas, HSE/Quality Manager, Halliburton
Tim Duffy, HSE Manager, Dril-Quip, Inc
John Auth, HSE Manager, Diamond Offshore Drilling, Inc.
Jerome Shaw, EHS Manager Shelf, Cal Dive International
Tim Church, HSE Coordinator, BP America Inc
Steven J. Hebert, Safety Director, Western Hemisphere, Global Industries Ltd.
Bob Moschetta, Corporate HSE Director, Oceaneering International, Inc.
J.A. (Joey) Peterson, Safety Coordinator, Premier Industries, Inc.
Marchelli Huddleston, HSE Coordinator, Versabar
Cor Verdult, Project Director, Heerema Marine Contractors Nederland B.V

                                         Page 8 of 13
                                           Appendix 2

                           Risk Assessment/JSA Frame Work - Draft

Plan – At various levels of sophistication
    Facility Hazard or Risk Analysis – this applies at facility level (eg vessel or
       platform) does not normally change unless a facility is modified. This type of
       analysis deals with Major Hazards and is mainly done by risk engineers or safety
       professionals. Such an analysis may take months to complete.
    Project Risk Analysis or HAZID/HAZOP – may involve project managers and
       discipline engineers, as well as operations. Tends to focus on major risk drivers
       and major decisions in the project plan (eg which vessel). This type of analysis
       may take days or weeks, and generate many actions for subsequent closure.
    Risk Assessment – Identifies Hazards, and probabilities, and subsequent controls
       in carrying out a job. It helps define the steps in a job to manage risks. Master
       JSA might be another term, which would be a generic document related to a task.

        Pre-Job JSA – Takes each step in a job and identifies appropriate controls for
         each step or task. Performed on location by the people who will perform the task.
         (Diamond flow-chart is an example of a best practice to support this process.)
         Requirement to ‘Stop-the Job’ in the event of unsafe condition, uncertainty, or
         changed circumstances.
        Pre-Task meeting – Good practice is prior to carrying out a defined segment of
         the job in the JSA; eg a lift. In the BP JSA each step would be a task. Good
         practice is to stop for a pre-task meeting eg for a ‘huddle’, might identify when
         you have time-outs. Note the requirement to Stop-the Job.
        Stop-the-Job! when necessary

    During Job Time Out or Check – Ask questions did anyone get hurt?
    MoC – something changes, need to revisit

Review & Improve
    Post Job Analysis – Review or revision of JSA.
    Audit/Investigation – independent, competent person does a check on quality
      and adherence to standard.

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                                            Appendix 3

                                    JSA Documentation Basics

JSA documentation should include at least the following:

Title and date

Summary description of the job to be done

List of Job Tasks – this is the sequence of basic steps

List related Hazards associated with each task step

Lists Hazard Mitigation (See Appendix 4 for a typical hazard Checklist)

Include Hazards to the Environment

Assign Accountability for mitigation

Include PPE check in Hazard Mitigation

Supervisor signs and attendees documented (Note operators represented on the JSA Work Team
require sign-off by all participants)

Hazard checklist to support the JSA process is a good practice and an example is shown in
Appendix 4

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                                Appendix 4
                   JSA Hazard Checklist/Worksheet Example

                               Potential Hazards
Chemical Exposure                  Ignition Sources               Fire/Explosion
Hazardous Atmosphere               Pressure                       Spills
Confined Spaces                    Lifting                        Slips/Trips
Noise                              Overhead                       Chips/Slivers
Working/Walking Surfaces           Falls                          Pinch Points
Environment/Weather                Machinery                      Hot Surface
Arc/Flash                          Heat Stress                    Simultaneous
Open Hole                                                         Operation
Other -

              Hazard Controls and Emergency/Contingency Plans

Personnel Protective Equipment                        Spill Control/Contingency Plan
Physical Barriers                                     Fire Fighting
Safety Equipment                                      Emergency Evacuation Procedures
Ignition Source Controls                              Eyewash/Safety Shower Location
Lock Out Tag Out                                      Material Safety Data Sheets
Required Work Permits                                 Simultaneous Operations
Fall Protection/Open Hole Policy                      Hot Bolting Policy
Other -

                           Safety Equipment Required
Hard Hats                    Work Vest/Life Jacket                   Respirator
Safety Shoes                 Full Body Harness                       Fire Extinguisher
Safety Glasses               Double Lanyard w/ Shock                 Fire Retardant
Face Shield                  Life Line
                             Absorber                                Lock
                                                                     TarpsOut Tag Out
Goggles                      Safety Cable                            Gas Detector
Cotton Gloves                Safety Barricade                        Hearing Protection
Leather Gloves               Caution Tape                            Adsorbent Pads
Rubber/Chemical              Clothing                                Containment Pans
Gloves Apron
Chemical                     Work Permit                             Proper Tools

                                   Page 11 of 13
                                                                 Appendix 5
                                                              DODI JSA Flowchart

The team would like to thank Diamond Offshore Drilling, Inc for permission to reproduce this

                                                   Decision Making Guide for JSEA

                 For Every Job,
                 START HERE

                   Could I hurt
                    myself or                           Does                                 Using
                  someone else         Yes                                                   master
                                                          a                                  JSEA
                  doing this job


                                                       JSEA                                job specific
                  someone hurt
                  me while I am        Yes                                                    JSEA
                  doing this Job                        exist


                  Could this job
                   pollution?                                                           What type of
                                                                                        JSEA Review
                                                         job                             should I do

                   Have I done
                  this lob safely
                                                                                        Does this Job                     Using
                 before and do I
                                        NO                                            involve more than          yes
                 know all of the
                                                                                           my team
                 steps involved                                                                                        Master JSEA
                                              Complete a
                    Yes                                                                              No
                                              Master JSEA                                                              do a detailed
                                              before doing                           Has my team done
              Proceed with Job at                 Job                               this Job safely within
              supervisor's dicretion
                                                                                        the past 3 day                    JSEA
                     Decision 1                 Decision 2                                                        No     Review

             Decision 1      Decision 1-No JSEA required                                          yes                   including a

            Decision 2      Decision 2 - Complete a Master JSEA
                                                                                      Has something
            Decision 3     Decision 3 - Using Master JAES, do a routine              changed that may
                           JSEA Review                                                 affect the safe
            Decision 4     Decision 4 - Using Master JSEA, do a                     outcome of this job ?        Yes
                           detailed JSEA Review with walkthrough

                            Definitions                                                           No
        Routine JSEA Review includes :                                             Utilizing Master JSEA, do a
        - Pre-Job meeting - all personnel involved                                 Routine JSEA review as a            Decision 4
        - Use of master JSEA                                                                 minimum
        - Interactive discussionwith all involved
        - May be led by other team members
        JESA Review including a walkthrough includes:
                                                                                          Decision 3
        A JSEA is not complete with out a walk through to identify site-specific
        -Pre-Job meeting - all personnel involved
        - Use of master JSEA
        - On site hands on equipment
        - On site walkthrough of steps in procedure
        - Usually led by Supervisor in charge
                                                                    Page 12 of 13
                                         Appendix 6

                             Risk Assessment/JSA Work Group

                    Examples of JSA Training & Support Information

    Moxie Media “Thinking Through Safety” www.MoxieTraining.com
    Coastal Training: “Job Safety Analysis” www.coastal.com

    IADC HSE Reference Guide – a manual that is available on CD ($65) (iadc.org)
    Step Change – Risk Assessment Document
    CST Website – manual & CD available to members
    OSHA has guide on JSA available on osha.gov

(Note: The documents and products listed above are given as examples not necessarily endorsed
by the work team of the companies that they represent.)

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