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Access and Equity in Oregon Community Colleges in Oregon Community

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									                         Access and Equity
                            in Oregon
Oregon State Board      Community Colleges
of Education retreat
Tualatin, Oregon
August 21-23, 2002
                        Sandwiched between
                       Schools and Universities
                         h l     d
           y
Presented by:
David Longanecker
Executive Director            Elementary
                              The Oregon
WICHE                          Community
                             and Secondary
                               University
                                 Colleges
                               Education
                                System
Where you stand: Access is at risk

 Participation: D
                     Fig. 14 Proportion of Recent High School Graduates
                            First Time Freshmen, 1994, 1996, 1998
                  Who Were First-Time Freshmen 1994 1996 1998, and 2000

     60%

     50%

     40%                                                                   1994
                                                                           1996
     30%                                                                   1998
                                                                           2000
     20%

     10%

      0%
           Percent of Graduates Enrolled   Percent of Graduates Enrolled
                      In-State                       Anywhere
Where you stand: Average success

 Completion: C
                                  Fig. 21 Average Graduation Rates by
                                    Institutional Type,
                                    I i i l T 1997 and 2000 d
      70%
      60%
       0%
      50%
                                                                                       1997
      40%
                                                                                       2000
      30%
      20%
      10%
      0%      y
            2-year          y
                          4-year    Doctoral                y
                                               Less than 4-year     Doctoral   Total
                       non-doctoral granting    4-year non-doctoral granting
                         granting                        granting
                     Public Institutions           Independent Institutions
Where you stand: Excellent on equity


                    Fig. 16 Total Enrollment in Institutions of Higher Education
                              by Race/Ethnicity, Fall 1990 and 2000
    160,000
    140,000
    120,000
    100,000                                                                           1990
                                                                                      2000
     80,000
     60,000
     40,000
     20,000
         0
                f
               African               d /
                          American Indian/         / f
                                             Asian/Pacific   Hispanic     h
                                                                         White Non-
              American     Alaska Native       Islander                   Hispanic
Why Access is at risk




    Access:      demands supply
   Why Access is at risk

         Demand factors
                           Affordability: D-
                   Fig. 23 Resident In-District Tuition and Fees                 Fig. 31 Estimated Need-Based Aid Dollars
         at Public Two-Year Institutions, 1991-92, 1996-97, and 2000-01                per Undergraduate FTE, 1999-2000
$2,400                                                                    $400
               Oregon
               WICHE Avg w/o CA                                           $350
$2,000
$2 000
               WICHE Avg w/CA
               US                                                         $300
$1,600
                                                                          $250
$1,200                                                                    $200

 $800                                                                     $150
                                                                          $100
 $400
                                                                          $50
   $0                                                                     $0
              1991-92               1996-97               2001-02                Oregon Average       WICHE Average         US Average
          Why Access is at risk
               Demand factors
                                   Preparation: C-
                    Fig. 10 State Course Credit Requirements and Exit Exam for                                              Fig. 11 High School Completers
                       High School Graduation Core Academic Subjects, 2000                                             as a Portion of 9th Graders 4 Years Earlier
                                                                                               78%
State               Math      Science   English    Social      Arts      Total     Exit Exam
                                                   Studies               Credits   Required                                                                Oregon
Alaska
Al k                2         2         4          3           0         21        yes
                                                                                               76%
Arizona             2         2         4          2.5         0         20        yes
                                                                                               74%
California          2         2         3          3           1         13 & L    yes
Colorado            L         L         L          L           L         L         no
                                                                                               72%                                                               WICHE
Hawaii              3         3         4          4           0         22        yes
Idaho               4         4         4          2.5         1         21        no          70%
Montana             2         2         4          2           1         20        no
Nevada              3         2         4          2           1         22.5      yes         68%
New Mexico          3         2         4          3           0         23        yes                                                                   US
North Dakota        3         4         4          3           0         17        no          66%
Oregon              2         2         3          3           1         22        yes               1992-93/1995-96       1993-94/1996-97     1994-95/1997-98       1995-96/1998-99
S th Dakota
South D k t         2         2         4          3           0.5
                                                               05        20        no
Utah                2         2         3          3           0         24        yes
Washington (1998)   2         2         3          2.5         1         19        no
Wyoming             3         3         4          3           0         13 & L    no
Why Access is at risk
 Demand factors
  Demographic shifts
      Enrollment
     •Enrollment growth                                                           8% to 20%
      R
      Race/Ethnicity hift
          /Eth i it
     •Race/Ethnicity shifts
               Fig. 13 Distribution of High School Graduates by Race/Ethnicity,
                                    2001-02 and 2011-12
      90%
      80%
      70%
      60%
                                                                                   2001-02
      50%
                                                                                   2011-12
      40%
      30%
      20%
      10%
       0%
             African   American Indian/   Asian/Pacific   Hispanic   White Non-
            American    Alaska Native       Islander                  Hispanic
Why Access is at risk
 Supply factors:
    Financial
   •Financial resource not the problem

                    Fig. 42 Expenditures of Unrestricted Educational
              and General Funds per FTE Student, Public Institutions, FY 2000
    $30,000

    $25,000
                                                                                Oregon
    $20,000
                                                                                WICHE
    $15,000
                                                                                US
    $10,000

     $
     $5,000

        $0
               Two-Year        Baccalaureate/ Master's   Research/Doctoral
 But may be a problem tomorrow
                                                                                                            State
                   j
   State Fiscal Projections                                                                                 Rank
   Year 2005-2006
                                                                           North Dakota        0.9%          3
   State and Local Surplus or Shortfall                                             -0.1%   Oregon           12
   as a Percent of Baseline Revenues –                                    -2.8%             California       23
   WICHE Region and US                                             -3.8%                    United States

                                                                  -4.3%                     Utah             28

                                                              -5.0%                         South Dakota     32

                                                          -5.7%                             Montana          34

                                                      -6.7%                                 Washington       36

                                                      -7.0%                                 Colorado         38

                                             -10.5%                                         Arizona          44

                                              10 6%
                                             -10.6%                                         Wyoming
                                                                                            W   i            45

                                    -12.0%                                                  New Mexico       46

                              -13.2%                                                        Idaho            47

                    -15.1%                                                                  Hawaii           48
             -16.4%                                                                         Alaska           49

    -18.3%                                                                                  Nevada           50


Source: State Policy Research, Inc., 1998.
But may be a problem tomorrow
State
Rank

 2           Nevada                                                               4.9%

 3            Hawaii                                                       4.3%

 4       New Mexico                                           3.3%

 5           Arizona                                          3.3%

 6      South Dakota                                          3.2%

 11      Washington                                    2.7%

 17           Alaska                            2.1%

 19         Montana                       1.7%                    Impact on Higher Education
 20         Colorado                      1.7%
                                                                    Projected Annual State
 21        California                     1.7%                Spending Increase Needed for
 23     North Dakota                       5%
                                         1.5%                  Higher Education to Maintain
 24          Oregon                   1.4%                        Current Services – WICHE
        United States             1.0%                                       Region and US
 33            Idaho           0.6%

 35         Wyoming      0.3%
                         0 3%

 36             Utah    0.1%

                                           Source: Calculated from The Outlook for State and Local Finances (Washington,
                                           D.C.: National Education Association, 1998).
Why Access is at risk
 Supply factors:
    Maldistribution
   •Maldistribution of students
                         Fig. 17 Undergraduate Full-Time Equivalent Enrollments
                              in Institutions of Higher Education by Sector, 2000


                          Independent                                               Public Two-Year
                             15.1%                                                      42.6%




      Public Research/
         Doctoral
          33.1%                                   Public Baccalaureate/Master’s
                                                              9.2%
Why Access is at risk

 Supply factors:
    Effects of current policy:
      Finance policy is access friendly
      Light touch is access benign.
So where to from here?

 What have your friends done for
   h h          f    d d     f
 you lately?


                    Elementary
                   The Oregon
                     Community
              and Secondary Education
                    University
                      Colleges
                      y
                     System
Your handles of control

 On participation
   Collaborate with OUS
   Use di t       d  ti
   U distance education
   Finance policies
Your handles of control

        l
 On completions
   Articulate up
   Articulate down
   A ti l t d
   Measure and pronounce your worth
   Finance policy
Your handles of control

 On preparation
   Do unto yourself as you would have others do
   unto you
     Articulate
     Reach over and pull across
     Encourage achievement a.p.
     Finance policy
Your handles of control
                y
 On affordability
   Remain so … you’re priced about right
   Collaborate on financial aid
   Focus on value added – ROI
                                                                           Fig. 58 Top Ten Occupations Requiring Postsecondary Education
                                                                            Projected to Have the Largest Numerical Growth, 1998 to 2008

                                       p       pp     p
                                    Computer Support Specialists
                         Marketing and Sales Worker Supervisors
                                            Computer Engineers
      Office and Administrative Support Supervisors and Managers
                                                Systems Analysts
                                    Teachers, Elementary School
                                   College and University Faculty
                                     Teachers, Secondary School
                                               Registered Nurses
       Property, Real Estate and Community Association Managers

                                                                    0   1,000     2,000      3,000     4,000      5,000      6,000     7,000   8,000


   Finance policy
Assuring Access to Success in Oregon
Community C ll
C        i Colleges
          It s
          It’s your choice


              Elementary
              The Oregon
               Community
             and Secondary
               University
                Colleges
                C ll
               Education
                System



      To be sandwiched between
Assuring Access to Success in Oregon
Community C ll
C        i Colleges
          It’s your choice
          It s


              Elementary
              The Oregon
               Community
             and Secondary
               University
                Colleges
                C ll
               Education
                System



      To be sandwiched between
                  or
     to be the meat of the system

								
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