Augmented reality check

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					cover story Michael Liebhold

       Basic facts            NAME   Michael Liebhold TITLE Senior Researcher, Distinguished Fellow
       EMPLOYER Institute for the Future AGE67 HEADQUARTERS Palo Alto, California, US

  10 • EBR #3 2011
If you thought mobile broadband put a
strain on telecom networks, wait until you
get a look at augmented reality and its
need for millimeter−precision positioning
for each and every pixel, says visionary
technologist Michael Liebhold.
                       TEXT   Nathan Hegedus
                       PHOTOS    Chris Maluszynski

                                                     EBR #3 2011 • 11
Within five to 10 years, “the unadorned world                                                                with this method can be up to several meters.
                                                                                                               The solution lies in innovative positioning
                                                                                                             networks that use both location beacons and,
will be history,” and our reality will have become                                                           more importantly, photo positioning, in which
                                                                                                             what is seen through a viewfinder is compared
a mix of the real and the digital.                                                                           with a massive database of images and there-
                                                                                                             by located precisely to the millimeter.
                                                                                                               Liebhold says that telecom could play a dom-
                                                                                                             inant role in this new augmented reality web
         REVOLUTION IN PERCEPTION is in the air,          Of course, Liebhold can’t actually do this.        by building these positioning networks and by

A        a transformation decades in the mak-
         ing. It will require a radical shift in
viewpoint, as the way we experience data and
                                                       It’s a mental exercise, one based on his dec-
                                                       ades of research and thought on augmented
                                                                                                             developing the necessary photo-reference da-
                                                                                                             tabases. He also sees especially strong syner-
                                                                                                             gies between augmented reality and the Inter-
information revolves  degrees from our tra-             “We have to recognize that this is an inex-        net of Things, in which connected devices will
ditional bird’s-eye view of maps, paper and            orable trend,” he says. “We will soon be freed        provide much of the data that people will see
screens to a more natural cinematic vision of          from the constraint of the page and map.”             through those fancy tailor-made glasses.
the real world, one overlaid with digital infor-          Today a few leading players such as Layar,           “If operators build the new sensor and ac-
mation virtually attached to specific places.          Wikitude, Metaio and Google (with its Goog-           tuator networks, then they can capture the rev-
   And while augmented reality may still be in         le Goggles app) provide basic consumer-based          enue from those networks,” Liebhold says. “So
its infancy – with smartphone viewfinders dis-         augmented reality through smartphone view-            the Internet of Things and augmented reality
playing floating objects that are only vaguely         finders. But Liebhold says there are two basic        are theirs to lose. But if they build platforms
connected to real places – don’t let that fool you.    challenges to bringing augmented reality ful-         without thinking about applications, then they
   The changes could reach far beyond mobile           ly to life.                                           could get caught in the same commoditization
broadband and potentially be as profound as                                                                  of data they are facing now.”
the development of the World Wide Web, says            THE FIRST IS THE NEED for better tools to expe-
Michael Liebhold of the Institute for the Future.      rience augmented reality, namely augmented            BUT LIEBHOLD SAYS THE MORE pressing, and lu-
   Liebhold forecasts that within five to  years,    reality-enabled glasses and contact lenses.           crative, project for telecom companies in terms
“the unadorned world will be history,” and our            “The current wearables are atrocious right         of augmented reality is a basic one – ensuring
reality will have become a mix of the real and         now,” Liebhold says, adding that they induce          adequate mobile broadband access for every-
the digital. Telecom companies need to be              nausea “at best” and that the overlaid data is        one.
ready, he says, to meet the demands of networks        only vaguely connected to the physical loca-             “We just don’t have enough bandwidth now,”
in which we are connected right before our eyes.       tions (see page  for a more detailed expla-         he says. “What we really need is network build-
                                                       nation of augmented reality).                         out so all the G access points will have ade-
A YEAR TECH VETERAN with stints at iconic              Liebhold forecasts that high-quality mass-         quate backhaul. If we had truly unfettered G
companies such as Apple, Atari and Netscape            market glasses will be on the market within           access, we wouldn’t need LTE radios.”
Communications, Liebhold already sees digi-            the next decade, and he believes purpose-built           He uses Palo Alto, California (where the In-
tal data interwoven with the physical world.           contact lenses could be out of the lab and onto       stitute for the Future is located) as an exam-
When he looks at the plain front of a coffee           the market by the early s.                        ple of the bottlenecks that will occur ever more
shop, he envisions information floating every-            The second challenge is more crucial to tel-       frequently in the augmented reality web.
where – historical data on the building, health        ecom players: the need to vastly improve po-             “The problem is that all the access points
inspections and customer reviews of the cof-           sitioning accuracy. Mobile devices currently          here are already congested,” he says of this Sil-
fee shop, and the probability of him getting hit       best determine location by blending GPS with          icon Valley hub filled with bandwidth-hogging
by a car as he crosses the street to go in.            Wi-Fi access points, but the margin of error          smartphones. “There is still adequate

              “This is going to stir people up”
               ▶ A POTENT MIX of augmented reality and           But in many ways, this problem is “al-          Google isn’t the only major tech player
               facial-recognition software will drive         ready out of the bag,” with cameras of all       with sophisticated automatic facial-rec-
               major controversies over privacy and           kinds already recognizing us on the street       ognition capabilities. Facebook rolled out
               civil liberties in the near future, says Mi-   “all the time. This is going to be very hard     similar features earlier this year, which
               chael Liebhold of the Institute for the Fu-    for the authorities to control.”                 caused an outcry over privacy in some
               ture.                                                                                           quarters.
                  Imagine a world in which everyone can       GOOGLE IS ALREADY holding back advanced            And in , Apple acquired Polar
               identify everyone else simply by looking       facial-recognition technology for its aug-       Rose, a Swedish company with a range of
               at them through a pair of internet-con-        mented reality app Google Goggles ow-            augmented reality products, including an
               nected glasses. Or where your public in-       ing to privacy concerns, though it does in-      app that shows an augmented reality view
               formation, such as political affiliations      clude facial recognition in programs such        of a user’s social networks clustered
               registered on Facebook, would be visible       as its Picasa photo-management system.           around their head.
               to everyone you meet.                            “We won’t add face recognition to Gog-
                  The key questions are how much per-         gles unless we can figure out a strong pri-                                      ”
                                                                                                               “THIS IS GOING TO stir people up, Liebhold
               sonal information we will display in pub-      vacy model for it,” Google said in a writ-       says. “And it is a debate and controversy
               lic, and what controls we will have over       ten statement in April. “We haven’t fig-         that, over the next decade, is going to get
               that information, Liebhold says.               ured it out.”                                    bigger before it gets smaller.” ●

12 • EBR #3 2011
                                                                 Michael Liebhold   cover story

                          “Google is set to dominate
                          everything,” Liebhold says,
                          noting the tech giant has the
                          largest-scale pattern-match-
                          ing program in the world.
                          “They understand that cloud-
                          served supercomputing is an
                          intrinsic element of
                          augmented reality.”

Mobile augmented reality forecast 2011 to 2016

 Global application downloads by operating system
 1 000
                                                                       Other OSes




                 2011              2012           2013    2014         2015         2016
   Source: ABI Research

                                                                                           EBR #3 2011 • 13
cover story Michael Liebhold

  14 • EBR #3 2011
         “Augmented reality will not exist separately       Law-enforcement agencies will see long-range
          from the commercial tensions on the inter-
           net,” Liebhold says. “As data becomes rich,
             we will need textual filters. Google is in a
         great position. They already want to be able
                                                            patterns in geocoded data and predict the
           to perform proactive searches for people.”
                                                            likelihood of crimes or accidents taking
                                                            place at a certain street corner.

                                                            time to provide the essential infrastruc-          at a building and see the architectural
                                                            ture we need, and some carriers do rec-            drawings beneath its ‘skin’ and conduits
                                                            ognize this. But this is not a business ven-       under the asphalt.”
                                                            ture that will give a return on investment            An early breakout could be in infra-
                                                            in three, six or  months. Some capital           structure management, Liebhold says,
                                                            investment is required, and now is the             pointing to Earthmine, a US company that
                                                            time to start.”                                    is collecting detailed and accurate D
                                                                                                               street-level imagery from around the
                                                            IN THE POPULAR PRESS, consumer applica-            world. Every pixel of every image in the
                                                            tions get the most buzz, and Liebhold              Earthmine database is located accurately
                                                            forecasts that games and entertainment             to the millimeter, Liebhold says.
                                                            will be the first augmented reality seg-              “The Earthmine network provides near-
                                                            ments to break out. But he is adamant that         term revenue possibilities, such as in cat-
                                                            augmented reality is also a transformative         aloging physical plant, like the exact loca-
                                                            business technology, speaking excitedly            tion of utility poles, with precise views of
                                                            about its potential in everything from             the equipment on the pole,” he says. “It
                                                            public safety to the automotive and health         costs companies a lot of money to survey
                                                            care sectors.                                      for maintenance and to upgrade physical
                                                               Law-enforcement agencies will see               plant, and it’s not just network operators
                                                            long-range patterns in geocoded data and           that have such infrastructure.”
                                                            predict the likelihood of crimes or acci-
                                                            dents taking place at a certain street cor-        IF LIEBHOLD SOUNDS EAGER to see the world
                                                            ner, he says. Journalists will be able to use      through those augmented reality contact
                                                            those same dense patterns to give a long-          lenses, that’s because in some ways, he has
                                                            term context to their work, as well as ex-         been waiting for them since . That’s
                                                            plore the creative possibilities of augment-       when he got his start in computer science,
                                                            ed reality storytelling. And businesses of         working with researchers from Massachu-
                                                            all kinds will get real-time market and            setts Institute of Technology in the US. A
                                                            demographic information from a com-                few years earlier, the same group of re-
                                                            mercial perspective.                               searchers had created the Aspen movie
Background check                                               “The range of enterprise applications is        map, a laser-disc-based maneuverable cin-
                                                            vast,” he says. “Factory floors will become        ematic plan of that US city in Colorado.
▶ 2004–present Senior Researcher,                           annotated with real-time logistical and               “From that day on, I’ve been thinking in
  Distinguished Fellow, Institute for the                   production information. You could look             a cinematic view,” Liebhold says.
▶ 1980–present Head of US consulting firm
  Starhill Networks
▶ 2003–2004 Visiting Researcher, Intel Labs
▶ 2001–2003 CTO, VIP Tone (a Sun
                                                             Augmented reality through smartphone viewfinders
  Microsystems spinoff )
▶ 1997–2000 Senior Vice President,
  Business Development, Tachyon
▶ 1995–1997 Senior Services Architect,
  Netscape Communications
▶ 1994–1996 Vice President, CTO, Times
  Mirror Company
▶ 1984–1994 Senior Scientist, Broadband                                                                                                        t
                                                                                                               office        Italian R 12 3334445
  Development, Apple                                           Current augmented                       Doctor’s 12 3456789    Phone: +0
                                                                                                       Phone: +0
▶ 1983 Director, Advanced Development,                         reality services take
  ByVideo                                                      geo-tagged digital infor-
▶ 1981–1983 Administrative Director,                           mation and attach it to a
  Systems Research, Atari division, Warner                     physical location viewed
  Communications                                               through a smartphone
▶ 1979–1981 General Manager, HW                                viewer.

                                                                                                                                                    EBR #3 2011 • 15
  ”I don’t want to take out my phone and see
  restaurant reviews. I want to see historical
  richness. I want to see people playing games in
  public spaces. I want to see serendipity in art.”

    He took that inspiration with him to a       cles exploring augmented reality, and is a
  series of top jobs at high-profile tech com-   regular speaker at augmented reality con-
  panies, serving as a Director at the Sys-      ferences in Silicon Valley and beyond.
  tems Research Lab at Atari and as a Sen-
  ior Scientist at Apple, where “we were         LIEBHOLD TELLS A STORY about waiting on
  pushing cameras around in carts in ,       hold for two hours to order a PDF version
  trying to figure out how we were going to      of a user manual for a broken dishwasher,
  overlay digital information on the physi-      and how while waiting he imagined the
  cal world.” He has also worked as a Senior     manual immediately floating before his
  Services Architect at Netscape Commu-          eyes, the appliance’s secrets immediately
  nications and a Visiting Researcher at Intel   revealed to him.
  Labs.                                             “Dynamic views are what I’m interest-
                                                 ed in,” he says. “I don’t want to take out my
  BUT LIEBHOLD IS NOT YOUR average techie.       phone and see restaurant reviews. I want
  In the s, he did graduate-level work       to see historical richness. I want to see
  in animation, as well as working as a Man-     people playing games in public spaces. I
  ager for Warner Elektra Atlantic Music and     want to see serendipity in art.
  then Vice President of Landes Design, a           “I would love to see the health proper-
  firm producing “avant-garde architectur-       ties of things. I would love to see happi-
  al products.” In the mid-s, he devel-      ness indices and crime stats. And, within
  oped an early internet presence for the ma-    limits, I want to know about the people
  jor US newspaper chain the Times Mirror        around me.”
  Company and later led startups working            Yet every day after work, he retreats
  on large-scale international public IT ser-    from his futuristic focus to the mountains
  vices and IP networks for rural regions in     into what he calls a “th-century lifestyle”
  China, India, Europe and Latin America.        amid giant redwood trees between Silicon
     For the past six years, Liebhold has been   Valley and the Pacific Ocean, caring for
  doing his forward thinking as a Senior Re-     his horses and llamas.
  searcher and Principal Technologist at the        But even in the still-unconnected for-
  Institute for the Future, a non-profit or-     est, his mind stretches forward, envision-
  ganization that, as Liebhold puts it, helps    ing digital identification of leaves and an-
  corporate and governmental clients “think      imal tracks as he peers into the s and
  systematically” about the future, looking      the technological challenges of a world in
  five to  years out instead of the stand-     which almost every human on the planet
  ard three to five.                             will likely have access to smartphone-style
     Liebhold applies his wide-ranging exper-    computing capability.
  tise in computing, telecommunication, me-         He forecasts that, with the help of aug-
  dia, data and software at the institute, but   mented reality, there will be powerful
  augmented reality clearly remains his pas-     computing on the massive amount of in-
  sion. A long-standing member of the geo-       formation that will be connected to phys-
  spatial community, he led investigations       ical places, including the development of
  into location-based multimedia products        supercomputing apps that will combine
  at Apple, launched strategic partnerships      spatial information from multiple sourc-
  with National Geographic and later did         es and then provide real-time analytics.
  high-level work with the navigation com-          “Just like with the web, we have to re-
  pany Jeppesen. He has also continued his       member that augmented reality is not the
  highly technical personal research into        end point,” he says. “It is simply a platform
  geospatial issues, is often quoted in arti-    for what comes next.” ●

16 • EBR #3 2011
      Michael Liebhold           cover story

What do you think
will most surprise us
about life in 2025?
▶ The richness and pervasiveness of digi-
tal information and locative media layered
on the physical world.

So far in your career,
what development has
surprised you the most?
▶ In 2003 I met with Larry Page – past and
current Google CEO – and other senior
management, and presented a detailed
proposal for Google to build geospatial,
search, mapping, location services and
augmented reality capabilities. Page told
me this is “not even in the top 100 things
we want to do.”
  Two years later, they did everything I
suggested – Google Earth, Google Maps,
Google Places, and more – after Larry’s
partner Sergey Brin discovered a company
called Keyhole, the startup that built
Google Earth, and sold the idea to him.

          Liebhold says he is surprised that game
        designers have not picked up augmented
         reality “in a big way,” but he still expects
        gaming and entertainment to be the “big
         winners” in the first wave of augmented
                             reality development.

                                         EBR #3 2011 • 17
technology report

                                       AUGMENTED REALITY: A REVOLU
       Augmented reality has become a viable
       technology for businesses and consumers.
       It has already made inroads into the main-
       stream through smartphone apps, but in
       the coming decades, it could redefine the
       way we access the internet and all the infor-
       mation on it.
       ▶ There are two primary types                                 department stores in the US.
       of augmented reality: location-                                  Besides Metaio, companies
       sensed and marker-based. In                                   such as Blippar and Zappar
       marker-based augmented reali-                                 offer marker-based augmented
       ty, a scanner at a kiosk, on a                                reality apps that recognize
       computer or in a smartphone is                                things such as posters, art work
       used to read a marker on an                                   and barcodes. This could allow
       object – anything from a soda                                 for a vast expansion of aug-           Augmented reality has its roots in
                                                                                                            the imagination of science fiction.
       can to clothing to a printed ad-                              mented reality marketing, or
       vertisement – and then places                                 even turn a printed newspaper
       enhanced digital information                                  or magazine into a rich digital       view seen through special               development of one kind or an-
       (in the form of text, photos,                                 playground.                           glasses or contact lenses.              other.
       video or D images) over that                                    While marker-based systems            Mobile augmented reality is
       object.                                                       have a significant upside, most        on the verge of, well, reality          Photo positioning
          For instance, using the                                    people think the true revolution      owing to three converging               Right now, mobile augmented
       Metaio platform, consumers                                    will take place in the field of lo-    trends: powerful mobile devices,        reality apps rely on a combina-
       can now hold a box of LEGO                                    cation-sensed – or markerless –       cloud computing and pervasive           tion of GPS and Wi-Fi position-
       building blocks in front of a                                 augmented reality. This is aug-       mobile broadband. And it has            ing, as well as accelerometers
       store kiosk and see a potential                               mented reality untethered, with       the backing of big players, with        and other smartphone sensors,
       finished product on the kiosk                                  geo-coded digital information         Google, Microsoft, Nokia, Intel         all linked to a fast-growing
       screen. Or shoppers can try on                                overlaid on either a phone            and Qualcomm all seriously in-          amount of geographically-
       clothes virtually at J.C. Penney                              viewfinder or, eventually, the         volved with augmented reality           tagged digital data from con-
        University of Washington, US

                                                                                                           developing augmented reality           cuits, and miniature antennas
                                                                                                           contact lenses that could pos-         into the lens using custom-
                                                                                                           sibly come to market some-             built optoelectronic compo-
                                                                                                           time in the s.                     nents. Those components will
                                                                                        Within 20 years,      Developed by Babak Parviz,          eventually include hundreds
                                                                                            we might all   an associate professor in bio-         of light-emitting diodes
                                                                                             access the    nanotechnology, self-assem-            (LEDs), which will form images
                                                                                       internet through
                                                                                         a contact lens.   bly, nanofabrication and               in front of the eye, such as
                                                                                                           microelectromechanical sys-            words, charts and photo-
                                                                                                           tems, each lens could feature          graphs. Much of the hardware
                         Through the lens … clearly                                                        an antenna at its periphery            is semitransparent so wearers
                                   ▶ Holding up a smartphone          consumer-apparel company –           that would collect radio-fre-          can navigate their surround-
                                   to see the world is awkward.       maybe Oakley or Nike – or            quency energy from a sepa-             ings without crashing into
                                   Many people predict that in        even Apple will bring high-          rate portable transmitter.             them or becoming disorient-
                                   the near future we will see        quality augmented reality-              Here is how Parviz de-              ed. In all likelihood, a separate,
                                   glasses, and even contact lens-    enabled glasses to market in         scribed the display function of        portable device will relay dis-
                                   es, serve as platforms that are    the next five to eight years.         the lens in an article in IEEE         playable information to the
                                   as powerful and flexible as the       But researchers at the Uni-        Spectrum:                              lens control circuit, which will
                                   tablet or smartphone is today.     versity of Washington in the            “We [will] integrate control        operate the optoelectronics in
                                     Liebhold predicts that a         US are taking it even further,       circuits, communication cir-           the lens.”

18 • EBR #3 2011
                                                                                                                               technology report

                                                                                                                                  Just touch
                                                                                                                                  the wall
                                                                                                                                  ▶ Researchers at Microsoft

UTION IN PERSPECTIVE                                                                                                              Research and Carnegie
                                                                                                                                  Mellon University in the
                                                                                                                                  US are working on two
                                                                                                                                  projects that demonstrate
                                                                                                                                  novel approaches to touch
                                                                                                                                  and gestures. OmniTouch
                                                       ing them with others in massive
                                                                                             A short
                                   Chris Maluszynski
                                                                                                                                  gives users the ability to
                                                       databases. For instance, a photo                                           transform anything from a
                                                       of a woman in front of the Syd-
                                                       ney Opera House in Australia
                                                                                             history                              wall to a body part into a
                                                                                                                                  touch surface, while Pock-
                                                       could be mapped precisely by          of reality                           etTouch enables users to
                                                                                                                                  interact with smartphones
                                                       examining the angle from which        ▶ The term augmented real-           inside a pocket or purse.
                                                       the curved roof in the back-          ity was coined in  by               The wearable Omni-
                                                       ground is seen, as compared with      Tom Caudell, a researcher at         Touch prototype uses a
                                                       other geo-tagged photos of the        the American aircraft manu-          laser-based pico projector
                                                                                                                                  and a depth-sensing ca-
                                                       same building.                        facturer Boeing. But the             mera, an advanced, custom
                                                          The leading players in location-   ideas behind augmented re-           prototype from the Israeli
                                                       sensed augmented reality in-          ality date back at least to the      firm PrimeSense.
                                                       clude Layar and Wikitude, but         s and the work of
                                                       Google seems set to dominate.         American filmmaker Morton
                                                       The company’s smartphone app          Heilig, and then, later, to the      More Facebook
                                                       Google Goggles already performs       inventions of US computer            friends, denser
                                                       fairly accurate pattern and image     scientist Ivan Sutherland in         brains
                                                       recognition, and it is moving fast    the s.                           ▶ Researchers
                                                       on developing a massive photo                                              at the Univer-
                                                                                                The development of aug-
                                                                                                                                  sity College of
   nected maps, sensors, machines,                     database using some publicly          mented reality has tradition-        London have
   web pages and social-media                          available images from sites such      ally been closely tied to re-        found that
   networks.                                           as Flickr.                            search into both geospatial          people with the greatest
      At the moment, it works like                        But what language will this        data and virtual reality, a          number of friends on Face-
                                                                                                                                  book tend to have a higher
   this: a user points their phone at,                 geo-coded web speak? Specifi-          close cousin in which an en-         brain density – more gray
   say, a storefront. The augmented                    cally, what kind of coding lan-       tire digital world is created,       matter, so to speak, in
   reality app matches available dig-                  guage should developers use?          rather than overlaying digital       regions linked to social
   ital information with the position                                                        information on a real scene.         skills. The finding suggests
   identified by the phone. This is                     Simplest possible code                                                     that either social networ-
                                                                                                The development of com-
                                                                                                                                  king changes these brain
   accurate to about five to  me-                     Creating standards for augment-       mercial augmented reality            regions, or that people
   ters – enough to tell you that a                    ed reality is not simply about        apps became possible large-          born with these kinds of
   certain building houses, say, an                    agreeing on common program-           ly as a result of the            brains behave differently
   Italian restaurant or a dentist’s                   ming languages. The focus right       launch of the Global Posi-           on sites like Facebook.
   office.                                               now is on an extensible frame-        tioning System (GPS), a
      But to achieve true augmented                    work that would allow many            group of satellites that al-         Giant satellite
   reality – where you can immedi-                     computing domains to interop-         lows for semi-accurate geo-          blasts off for
   ately identify a bird sitting in a                  erate, just like on the World Wide    graphic positioning on the           broadband
   tree or get the specifications for a                 Web. The goal is to develop the       ground through GPS receiv-           ▶ With the potential to
   tiny chip on a box on a utility                     simplest possible code to attach      ers. In the past decade, the         deliver broadband services
   pole – GPS, Wi-Fi and smart-                        a digital annotation to an object     development of the smart-            to most of North America,
   phone accelerometers are simply                     or place, something fundamen-         phone was a crucial step in          one of the most powerful
                                                                                                                                  satellites ever produced –
   not accurate enough to provide a                    tally like an HTTP URL (Hypertext     furthering augmented reali-          called Viasat-1 – launched
   seamless experience.                                Transfer Protocol Uniform Re-         ty, both for its processing ca-      on a Russian Proton
      Future systems will most likely                  source Locator).                      pability and built-in acceler-       rocket in October from the
   depend on photo positioning –                          The only current standards-        ometers, and its ability to          Baikonur Cosmodrome in
   using massive databases of imag-                    based augmented reality web           coordinate with GPS.                    The satellite has a total
   es to pinpoint your precise loca-                   browser, called Argon, was devel-        What’s next? Liebhold says        data throughput of about
   tion, including even the                            oped at Georgia Institute of Tech-    that advances in cloud-              140Gbps, more capacity
   viewfinder angle – and place the                     nology – commonly known as            served supercomputing are            than all other commer-
   digital information with millime-                   Georgia Tech – in the US, and is      necessary to help augment-           cial satellites over North
                                                                                                                                  America put together and
   ter precision.                                      based on a hybrid of Keyhole          ed reality live up to the            double the throughput
      Photo-positioning systems will                   Markup Language and HTML             dreams of fiction writers             of Eutelsat’s K-Sat, which
   depend on a mix of geo-coded,                       (the fifth revision of the Hyper-      and big-budget Hollywood             launched in May to provide
   or tagged, images as well as “reg-                  text Markup Language or HTML          filmmakers.                           European broadband. Both
                                                                                                                                  these giant satellites ope-
   ular” photos mapped by compar-                      standard). ●
                                                                                                                                  rate in the Ka-band, which
                                                                                                                                  allows for particularly high
                                                                                                                                  data rates.

                                                                                                                                                  EBR #3 2011 • 19

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