ON THE SEMANTICS OF THE PREPOSITION ZA AND THE PREFIX ZA- IN by m4N9Vg

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									  ON THE SEMANTICS OF THE
PREPOSITION ZA AND THE PREFIX
      ZA- IN BULGARIAN


     Svetlana Nedelcheva
Za - one of the primary prepositions

• used as early as the 9th to 11th century,
  the period of Old Bulgarian language
• Old Bulgarian spatial meaning of za - „a
  place beyond something‟
• contemporary Bulgarian primary meaning
  of za – ‘the purpose of an activity, the
  purpose of an object’
Deciding which is the primary meaning
  can be quite a problematic issue

• The Dictionary of Bulgarian Language
  (1977) shows 22 different meanings of za
  in Modern Bulgarian
• Eurodict (2003) associates za with a range
  of 14 meanings and 7 fixed phrases
• the primary sense and the functional
  element of za is that of PURPOSE
               Bulgarian aspect
Imperfective      Perfective        Secondary
                                    imperfective


пълзя („crawl‟) запълзя („start запълзявам
                crawling‟)      („start crawling‟)


карам („drive‟)   закарам („finish закарвам
                  driving‟)        („finish driving‟)
  The prefix za is associated with
  what seems to be contradictory
             meanings
• a „starting‟ sense (e.g. zacheta ‘start
  reading’);
• a 'completed' sense (e.g. zapisha ‘write
  down’);
• there appears to be no relation between
  these meanings and the meanings of the
  preposition za
I suggest that such a relation exists

• Talmy's spatially based theory of aspect
  (Talmy (2000))
• a previous analysis of the semantic
  network of the preposition za (Nedelcheva,
  Tyler (forthcoming))
• conceptual blending (Fauconnier & Turner
  (1998))
 The contemporary preposition ZA

• The movement to „the back side of a
  location‟ became a movement in the
  direction of that location.


                            
     
                           Patuvam za grada.
    Otivam zad granitsa.   (I) travel za city-Det.

    (I) go zad border.
 The Purpose sense of the preposition
                za
Otivam     za    hlyab.
(I) go     za    bread.
I’m doing to get bread.
                          
                                  purpose


• the purpose is experientially correlated
  with the physical destination
 The Prefix Za- and Bulgarian aspect

                                          Simplex imperfective
                                          пълзя („crawl‟)
                               (prefix)
                               за-
Derived perfective
запълзя („started crawling‟)
                               (suffix)
                                -ва
                                          Derived imperfective
                                          запълзявам („start
                                          crawling‟)
   In his Reference Grammar of Modern
Bulgarian, Scatton (1984: 291) defines three
              meanings of za-:
• movement or location behind
крия (hide)           закрия          (obstruct from view)
държа (hold)          задържа          (hold back, restrain)

• beginning of action or state
живея (live)            заживея       (begin to live)
спя    (sleep)          заспя         (fall asleep)
помня (remember)        запомня       (memorize)

• result
регистрирам    (register)     зарегистрирам (put in a register)
копая          (dig)          закопая       (bury, cover)
                However
• excess (i.e. завзема („conquer‟), завардя
  („guard‟), заграбя („grab‟)
• covering (i.e. закопая („bury‟), залея
  („pour all over), зациментирам („cover
  with cement‟)
• accumulation of quality (i.e. забременея
  (become pregnant‟), заболея („get ill‟),
  заквася („make sour‟)
The two most frequent meanings of
               za-
• “beginning of action or state” (i.e.
  забързам („hurry up‟), заговоря („start
  talking‟), заваля („start raining‟)) and

• “result”, which I call completion (i.e.
  закова („nail in‟), закрепя („fix‟), заловя
  („catch‟))
          I hypothesize that
• the image schemas of these two meanings
  of the prefix za- are related to the proto-
  scene of the preposition za
• the TR-LM relationships invoked by the
  perfective verbs prefixed with za- are the
  same as the TR-LM relationship of the
  spatial meaning of the preposition za – the
  Destination sense
           The Completion Sense

• 2nd in frequency
• ~23% of the total number of za-prefixed verbs

Peter zagasi ogynya.                     TR      za-LM
Peter za-extinguish-3p. sg. fire-Det.    
Peter extinguished the fire.                      activity

                                                       time
The motion has a goal – the completion of the activity
  (extinguishing the fire)=>the destination point (LM) of za.
The TR-LM correlations in the prefix and the
           preposition profiles
SPATIAL                        TEMPORAL
TR   za LM                    TR    za-LM
                 analogy     
      location                       activity
                      LM


                 TR
DESTINATIONS are Life GOALS (Lakoff &
 Johnson (1999: 62))
            The Ingressive Sense
• the most frequent one
• more than 58% of the total number of za-
  prefixed verbs
Kilimat      sashto       zadimya         i    plamatsite
      barzo plaznaha      kam bibliotekata.
Carpet-Det. also za-smoking and flames-Det.
      quickly crept       to library-Det.
The carpet started smoking as well and the flames quickly
  spread out to the library.
                                 rest TR   LM
                                           event
                                                     time
• The Completion sense MOTION → END
  OF MOTION = DESTINATION

• The Ingressive sense NON-MOTION →
  START OF MOTION = DESTINATION

• The Destination sense TR → LM =
  DESTINATION
                CONCLUSIONS
• za- makes the verb perfective
• it changes the speaker‟s perspective on events
  from unbounded to bounded
• the polysemous functional morphemes (za & za-)
  have semantic networks
• for the Completion and Ingressive sense of za-
  prefix and the spatial scene of the preposition za
  – the functional element is that of DESTINATION
• the only difference is that with za- prefix the
  relationship has been extended from the
  SPATIAL to the TEMPORAL domain
THANK YOU

								
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