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									THE GROWTH OF MARKET IN IKARE AKOKO:
A CASE STUDY OF OSELE OF OSELE MARKET
          (1840 TILL PRESENT)




                   BY


   OGUNGBEMI TEMITOPE MEMUNAT




     BEING IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF
REQUREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR
OF ARTS (HONOURS) OF THE DEPARTMENT OF
  HISTORY AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES,
      UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, ILORIN.




              MAY, 2011.




                    i
                   CERTIFICATION

     This long essay has been read and approved as

meeting the partial requirement of the Department of

History and International Studies, University of Ilorin,

Ilorin, Nigeria.




     ____________________          _________________
     Dr. S. Y. Omoiya                   Date
     Project Supervisor




     ____________________          _________________
     Dr. Sam Aghalino                   Date
     Head of Department.




     ____________________          _________________
     External Examiner                  Date




                            ii
                     DEDICATION

     Dedicated with love and devotion to Almighty Allah,

to my wonderful parents, my siblings, my fiancé and me

– and what the future holds for me.




                           iii
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE     …     …    …        …   …   …   i
CERTIFICATION ..     ..   …        …   …   …   ii

DEDICATION           …    …        …   …   …   iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS         …        …   …   …   iv-v

ACKNOWLEDEMENT …          …        …   …   …   vi-vii
GLOSSARY..     …     …    …        …   …   …   viii
CHAPTER ONE

1.1   OBJECTIVE OF STUDY           …   …   …   1-3

1.2   SCOPE OF WORK       …        …   …   …   3-5

1.3   METHODOLOGY…        …        …   …   …   5-6

1.4   CONCEPTIONAL FRAMEWORK           …   …   6-7

1.5   LITERATURE REVIEW …          …   …   …   7-10

      FOOTNOTES      …    …        …   …   …   11-12

CHAPTER TWO          EARLY BEGINNINGS – 1840

2.1   HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF IKARE AKOKO.        13-20
2.2   THE ORIGIN OF OSELE MARKET           …   21-26

2.3   GOODS & SERVICES AT OSELE MARKET         27-30
2.4   SOCIO – CULTURAL ORGANIZATION        …   30-32
2.5   ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION            …   …   32-33

2.6   POLITICAL ORGANIZATION           …   …   33-34
      FOOTNOTES      …    …        …   …   …   35-37



                              iv
CHAPTER THREE – 1900 - 1960

3.1   THE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM ON
      IKARE 1900-1960    …       …   …   …   38-40

3.2   IMPACT OF OSELE IN THE ECONOMY
      OF IKARE      …    …       …   …   …   40-44

3.3   OSELE MARKET IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD 44-46
3.4   EFFECTS OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION
      ON OSELE MARKET. …         …   …   …   46-47

3.5   GUILD IN OSELE MARKET …        …   …   47-51

3.6   OSELE MARKET, THE OTHER IKARE MAINLAND

      MARKETS AND THE IKARE ECONOMY …        52-56

      FOOTNOTES     …    ….      …   …   …   57-59



CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   GENERAL IMPACT     …       …   …   …   60-61

4.2   ECONOMIC IMPACT    …       …   …   …   61-63
4.3   POLITICAL IMPACT   …       …   …   …   64-65

4.4   SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPACT          …   …   65-66
      CONCLUSION    …    …       …   …   …   66-68
      FOOTNOTES     …    …       …   …   …   69

      BIBLOGRAPHY …      …       …   …   …   70-73




                             v
                  AKNOWLEGEMENT
     Glory be to Allah the most glorious and the most

merciful. I glorify Allah for granting me the strength and

wisdom in carrying out this work.

     My profound gratitude also goes to my supervisor,

Dr. S. Y. Omoiya for his understanding and co-operation

throughout the course of this study and my stay in

school. I also tank all other members of staff in my

department notably Mr. Jide Ige, Mr. Ibrahim Bashir, Dr.

Olaoye, Dr. Adebayo, Mr. Lemuel Odeh for their affection

throughout my stay in the department.

     I cannot but express my love and sincere gratitude

to my parents for being so special for their love, care,

understanding, moral and financial support that got me

through my study in school. You are one in a million –

and to my siblings Lukman, Asimiyu, Sheriffdeen and

Muhammad Jamiu whom in all profound of.




                            vi
     My special gratitude also goes to my fiance – Alhaji

Abdulateef Ibrahim for his support, I love you fiercely.

     I am very grateful to my friends whose love,

understanding, concern friendly criticism and laughter

got me through this study – Aisha, Kafayat, Bashirat, to

my classmates and those who made my stay in Ilorin

pleasurable – Mr. Abdulrafiu Medupin (Brother – in – law)

for her loving encouragements, care and his lovely wife

and concern others whose name are too numerous to

mention.

     My appreciation would be         incomplete    without

thanking Allah once again for his protection, steadfast

love and for keeping me ALIVE!




                             vii
                      GLOSSARY

Asoju – Oja – Market representative

Oja – Market

Iya Oja – mother of the market.

Olori Obirin – head of market women




                           viii
                       CHAPTER ONE

1.1 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

        A market is a site where sellers and buyers

assemble daily or specific days to exchange goods and

services. Markets are not only important as centers for

the exchange of goods, ideas and fashions but also

perform significant social and political functions in the

community.       Moreover,   exchange       and   subsistence

activities were and still are integrated into market

systems.

        It is important to identify the factors which enable

markets to expand. These are namely.

  i.      The volume and value of goods and services

          transacted (food products, sundry provisions and

          herbal products) determine the size of the market

          in quantitative terms.

  ii.     Geographical location of the market which allow

          access from various directions.

                              1
  iii.     The number and social status of the groups

           engaged   in   exchange,   which    influence    the

           composition of the goods and services traded1.

         All these factors are present on Osele market which

is the subject of this essay. The concept of market is

appropriate to early as well as to move recent times. That

market can contract and that future trends are more a

matter of speculation than of accurate prediction.2

         During the pre-colonial period, market used to be

located at the centre of the town whereby, people from

different parts of the community came to buy and sell

varieties of goods (as it is today). In the course of the

marketing activities among the people some events which

warrant historical investigation take place.

         Undoubtedly, Osele market is not only one of the

most famous markets in Akoko but one of the most well,

attended market in Yoruba land. This is for the choice of

Osele market for this study. This study therefore aims at

                               2
examining the factors of growth of this famous Akoko

market with a view to bringing out the elements and

substance of its growth and importance.

     The extent to which Osele market attracted traders

not only from Akoko land but also from other places to

bring out how it had contributed to the inter-group

relations among the people in the pre-colonial period.

Furthermore it must be stressed that there is no gain

saying in the assertion that Osele market attracted

traders from Akoko and yorubaland.3



1.2 SCOPE OF WORK

     The study that make up this work is the topic of the

work. The topics of the work has been chosen carefully to

describe and analyze the development of the markets

from the simplest periodic markets though the retail and

large specialized markets in Ikare. It also deals directly



                            3
with the development expansion and stability of Osele

market which is the case study of work.

     The first – part of the work deals with the general

information of the study of the work. The second parts

deals with the origins and development of Osele market.

     The chapter also deals with the goods and services

in Osele market. The third chapter dates 1900 – 1960 it

starts by showing the significance of the colonial rule on

the development of Osele market. It then goes on to

examine the expansion and control of Osele market. This

chapter also deals with the impact of the market guild on

Osele. They are the social and political elements behind

the market functions and developments .The Forth part

of the study dates 1960 to present here the significance

of the Akoko North East Local Government is examined.

This part also shows the importance of Osele market in

relations to the other Ikare markets and Ikare economy.



                            4
The work concludes with the importance of market in the

growth of the Ikare economy.



1.3 METHODOLOGY

     The use of both secondary and primary sources are

valuable tools for the historical construction of the study

in this work. In gathering information for this work, I

greatly made use of the oral information from the market

traders who were both men and women but mostly

women. Their information were chiefly on the origins,

establishment and development of Osele market and the

spread of other Ikare markets.

     An amount of time was also spent collecting such

basic data as the names. Location and types of market

from the Akoko North East Local Government Secretariat

market section.

     It is with this material that I can best understand

the validity of the oral information. I also made as mush

                             5
as   possible    use   of   published   and   unpublished

newspapers were also useful.

     The markets have been showed to provide a vital

link in the chain of distribution and that it involves very

large daily involvement of people and goods and they

fulfil important social and political function and the lives

of the people.



1.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORKS.

     The topic of this “the Growth of market in Ikare. A

case study of Osele market” institutions in Ikare. The

emergence of the present network of market is examined

in light of natural, social and economic environment of

the area. It will be proper to analyse the characteristics

and processes of trading associated with markets.

     A distinction between periodic and daily market

necessary preliminary step in the analysis of market

types, distribution and economic functions It will be

                              6
argued that local exchange needs were important in the

creation of local markets8. The basic aims of most

household are to secure the products needed to maintain

their customary standard of living. All societies have an

economic system in that provide material goods to satisfy

biological and social needs. This study traces the origins,

distribution and developments of markets In Ikare. It

considers their present day importance in the commercial

change system relative to other institutions and examine

the functional area relationship resulting from market

activity.



1.5 LITERATURE REVIEW.

      There are considerable materials on the topic of this

study. A very important text that I have made use of is

B.W. Hodder and U.I Ukwu: Markets in West Africa.

Hodder illustrates on the origin and organization of

markets. He also looks at the non- economic function of

                             7
markets, the impact of the colonial rule on trade and

markets and shows the economic function of periodic

market4. The distributive chain included a multiplicity of

links where there were opportunities in this sphere, most

women having view alternative employment possibilities

due to lack of specialized skills are induced to trade to

make   money.    Trading   by      women   as   Hodder   has

suggested was not a nineteeth century phenomena, it

was a occupation which women had been engaged in long

before 19th century and that to the market women trade

is a way of life and that not all women traders are

interested in making profit.

     There is no evidence to conclude as Hodder did that,

this female predominance in rural marketing may date to

conditions of internal insecurity in which it was unsafe

for men to move away from their farm while women

enjoyed relative immunity for attacks5.



                               8
     Archival materials which prove indispensable to the

study is that of Ondo Prof. file No. 3271/2/ Annual

report on Akoko District, J. H. Beeley intelligence report

on Akoko District CSO 26 file No. 29669 and also Ondo

Prof. file No. 523/vol. III. They give useful information on

the activities and importance of women in the society and

gives an insight to the development of markets in Ondo.

     In unpublished theses and books, references were

made to the market. However, the views are worthy of

note as they provided a veritable source of information to

complement the oral information supplied in the study.

For Instance, S.B. Ogundena made partial reference to

the origin of Osele market to the activities of Ezele, a

Benin chief and trader who traded in Akoko in the 11th

century. However, in he original version that Osele

market was established by a man bearing “Osele” who

had come to settle at Ikare. He later called for the

establishment of the market.

                             9
     Information collected during the oral field works

deals with activities of women in the development of

markets especially Osele market. The role of markets,

market organization, market guilds and the interaction of

the market women with Local Government officials.

     O. Ekundare in his An Economic History Of Nigeria

1860 – 1960 sees a market as a distributive chain

through    which excess   goods   produce   gets   to   the

consumer. He also takes a look at factors responsible foe

expansion of a market.6

     Other materials that provided useful information for

the successful completion of this work were government

files on “markets”. The files generally gave rules guiding

the establishment organization, control, allotment of

stalls and sanitary conditions of markets. Laws of the

market are to ensure market peace and order as well as

to ensure on effective and smooth running of            the

market7.

                            10
                  FOOT NOTES

1.   A.G. HOPKINS, An Economic History of West

     Africa, (London, Longman, 197) P.5.

2.   Ibid, P.5.

3.   M.O. Oyewole (aged 69) “Significant social

     change in Ikare since the beginning of Osele

     market”? (Unpublished Long Essay submitted

     to the department of History, Ondo State

     University, June 1986) P.1.

4.   B.W. Hodder and U .I. Ukwu (ed), Market in

     West Africa (Ibadan university Press, 1969),

     P.24.

5.   Hodder and Ukwu, Markets, OP. cit. P.6.

6.   Oluyemi Ekundare, An Economic History of

     Nigeria 1860 -1960, (London, Methuen, 1973)

     ,P.49




                      11
7.   Government Publication, Akoko North East

     Local    government   file   on   market

     Administration, P.B

8.   Hopkins, Economic




                     12
                    CHAPTER TWO

2.1 HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF IKARE AKOKO

     Ikare is a town in Akoko area of the Northeastern

part of Yoruba land and it is the present administrative

headquarters of the Akoko North-East Local Government

Area of Ondo State. The town is about 96 kilometres form

Akure, the capital of Ondo State, the town with annual

rainfall of 0.6 metres in the forest area and spreads

towards the grassland1.

     Ikare is located between latitude 70 and 7.290 north

of the equator and longitude 50 and 60 east of the

Greenwich meridian2. In terms of geographical extent

Ikare shares common boundary with four major Akoko

towns. To the north of Ikare is Arigidi, it is bounded in

the south by Akungba. In the west and east, Ikare is

bounded by Ogbagi and Ugbe respectively. Thus, Ikare is

locatrf at the centre of Akoko, one of the reasons which

make it to attract people from various Akoko towns and

                           13
villages who occasionally came into the town to settle

permanently in search of what they could not get locally

in their towns as this study would reveal later.

     The town enjoys a relatively humid temperature for

the better part of the year except between December and

March.

     Thus,     Ikare    people    have     always   taken

predominantly to farming, the main crops are kolanut,

yam, maize and cocoyam. Farming is combined with

hunting and animal husbandry traditional industries

also are not lacking, dyeing and weaving being the most

prominent3.

     More than 80 percent of Ikare women in the pre-

colonial period were said to have been involved in

weaving thick clothing called Kijipa.

     Generally, the Yoruba people of the south–western

part of Nigeria did not possess writing ability until the

introduction of western education during the period of

                            14
Colonial   rule.   This   opportunity    was   through   the

European Christian Missionaries.

     Thus, the historical account of origin of lkare is

shrouded on oral traditions just like most other Yoruba

towns and villages. Nevertheless there are two different

versions of the origin of lkare.

     Various postulations have been made concerning

the origin and initial settlement of lkare .But all sources

agree that the people emigrated from Ile-Ife . A version

even Claims that the founders of lkare. Oka. Iboropa.

Owo left Ile- Ife at the same time in the twelfth century

AD. While not controvert this claim. It is who led one

version of the traditions of origin claimed that the first

group of settlers emigrated from Ile-lfe under the

leadership of Batimilehin, who finally settled at Oke- Ola.

     The period of settlement in the fourteenth century

A.D.4 According to this version, the Ikare emigrated from

Erunwa quarters in Ile-lfe5.       Batimilehin migrated with

                              15
his family and other friends. After man years of Journey,

which took the people through Ifon, Ikere Ekiti.       With

brief stop over at Iluomoba. The people later moved north

eastwards through Imesi, and settled in a transit palace

called Okagba, very close to present day Ikare6. Ikare it

was written in past record that Batimilehin was the first

Olukare of Ikare7.

     Yet another version, which is believed to be widely

accepted, claims that the „‟Ikare‟‟ was derived from an

event which took place in the period of early settlement

around the fifteenth century A. D, when the two groups

came together under different leaders8. The two leader

were close friends   but as a result of a power struggle for

power.   One   poisoned    the    other   and   consequently

emerged as the leader of the two groups. Thus, is said to

mean „‟Ika Ore‟‟ meaning „‟wicked friend „‟ or the „‟

wickedness of a friend; or the wickedness of a friend‟‟



                             16
     The second version also claimed that the Ikare

people settled at an area called Ikare, they belonged to

emigrant from Ile-ife. The 600 years journey from Ile-lfe

took them through the area initially mentioned. They

finally settled in Okorun very close to present day Ikare.

The version stated that Agbaode, one of the leaders of the

period eventually became the first Owa- Ale. The

Olukare‟s are:

           Batimilehin

           Atiba

           Akire

           Alila

           Ajaguna

           Mohmoh

     The other hand Alila reign was said to have

witnessed    series   of   wars.   He   was   succeeded   by

Entimogbo Ilekalu l, Atampa. Ilekalu ll. Ata Alegbe,



                              17
Oloura Ola. Ajagunan Mohonh l and Adu. Jubril, Adu

Jurbil ruled the town between 1956 and 1976, and when

he joined his ancestors, the incumbent Oba Akadiri

mohmoh did not succeed him until 1984.

     It is pertinent to note that the two principal versions

of origin of Ikare have generated much controversy

affecting the early settlers and the basis of rulership in

the town. Thus, Olukare family and athe Owaa Ale family

claim to have founded the first settlement in Ikare.

     However, a comparative analysis of traditions of

Origin in other Yoruba towns such as Ikere –Ekiti reveals

that such items or issues are not uncommon. In each of

these two, there existed an earlier ruling house, which

has now been relegated to the background in the scheme

of things and allowed to hold chieftaincy titles performing

religious functions9.

     A plausible explanation for the kingship issue an

power struggle in Ikare. There is no denying the fact

                            18
perhaps the Olukare, initially led the people to Ikare .it is

likely that this group wanted to loose leadership but

migrants settled it. Local praise which as „‟Ewi‟‟ for

Olukare such which compare him with kings of other

domains.

OMO Olukare Alila

Omo Arote moru

Omo Olukare Alila

Omo Arogun Mosa

Omo Arote Moru

Omo Adapa eye ni gbangba

Omo Oluke Meji tako tabo

Omo Bodunjo

Omo Atudi Aleseju Bo mi

Gbugbo na

Anu kan so ko Ekiti so ko Akoko

O hun kee keruku gbagbo

Ari yee, O dio.

                             19
Meaning

          The Great king

          Who killed bird with the shadow

          None is like him

          No tree can with stand the tempest

Like the Iroko

      There   is   no    doubt,      however,     however,    that

documents tendered at the, beginning of British colonial

rule pointed to the Olukare as the sovereign ruler, in

cause of both Ikare Ekiti an Ado Ekiti, which were cited

above the leaders of migrants who assumed new titles

and   have    since     political    leadership    replaced   the

indigenous rulers of the premigrants period, this to a

large extent, has influenced recent development in the

town10.




                                20
2.2 THE ORIGIN OF OSELE MARKET

     The word market has of course a great number of

meanings, referring to many things and ideas, and the

same can be said of the Yoruba word “Oja”11.1The

characteristics and functions of markets embrace for

more than this simple statement would suggest;. A widely

held theory about the origin of market institutions is that

market develops because of the individuals resulting in

the necessity for local exchange and the establishment of

local markets. The search for the origin of markets is

fruitless as the quest once undertaken by political

philosophers for the origins of states12.

     The precise origin of the Osele market can only be

traced through oral information. According to Osele

market was founded by the original founder. (The

Olukare of Ikare)13. After the settlement, he created the

market as a trading place. The market was established in

about 600 years ago after which the settlers migrated

                             21
from Ile-Ife14. Before the actual establishment however,

Ifa oracle thereby related that no other animal or human

must be used but pig. A pig was therefore used to

perform the sacrifice establishing the market15.

     Along with the use of pig, Esi concotions were

buried around the four corners of the market to lure

market attendants. At the middle where the pig was used

is the shrine called Orisa Osele. This shrine is still being

worshiped till today. The head worshipper of the Orisa is

the Aworo Orisa Osele – the chief priest of Orisa osele, he

alongside with other prominent women and amen of

concern worship the Orisa once in a year16.

     The name Osele was therefore claimed to be coined

from the word “O sele” meaning “it has happened” or “we

have finally settled”. They said to praise themselves of

their firm settlement17.

     They later completed the establishment of the

market. The Osele market was the first market in Akoko.

                             22
The date of the attendance was fixed for very nine-days,

market, in this way, Osele market was made to be unique

and it stood out as the major market in and around

Akolo in it earliest time18.

     Another factor of Uniqueness of the market was the

“Agbesun” meaning the “market eve”. The Agbesun

served as a kind of relief period before the market day for

the travelers or other people from a far. This enabled

them to be firmly prepared in the night before the actual

market day, so that they cooled easily secure a

comfortable place for themselves. These set of traders

include the Owo, Nupe, Yagba, Benin and Ekiti. As a

result of Agbesun, they co – interacted and became

familiar with the Ikare people and among other groups

who came for transaction19. The women hibernated

among the Ikare people as a result of which led to

intermarriages     and     inter-group   relations    among

themselves not to talk of using one as sacrifice20.

                               23
     There is yet another version which claims that a

man called Osele who had existed before the death of

Agolo in round 1717      (a hero among the Ikare people)

brought about the idea of establishing a market n Ikare.

That it would enabled the far away people to bring their

goods for sales at Ikare21. The man Osele had the ability

of bringing people together. A wealthy and charismatic

man who people swarmed around. He was not a native of

Ikare, he was traced to Ayere in the present Kogi State 22.

Osele and his family (or people) had come to settle in

Ikare for farming and other economic activities.

     He settled at Okoja (the street that it inhabits Osele

market). On his call for a market, the chiefs and other

natives thereby consulted the king (claiming to be

Agbaode group) who sanctioned that ifa be consulted

before the sitting and   prospect of the market. The Ifa

oracle related that a human being be used as sacrifice to

appease the gods of the land. The community heads

                            24
thereby put heads together as to who the victim would

be. And as usual in the Yoruba land, natives are hardly

used for sacrifice of such but an alien. As a result of this,

it was agreed among the chiefs that Mr. Osele, the man

who had forwarded the proposal for the market, be used

as sacrifice and data was fixed for the performance of the

sacrifice23.

     Over night, they dug a pit at the centre of the

proposed market place and put many dangerous and

harmful objects inside the pit after which mats were

spread over to make an altar. They carefully put a seat

on the laid mats aid decorations. On the day of the

sacrifice, Mr. Osele was made the chairman of the

occasion who was the sit on the entrapping alter. The

man sank as he was about to sit, the people who had

already prepared to complete his death began throwing

objects at him until he died24.



                             25
     All other necessary rituals were made and he was

left to be buried in the pit. His tomb remains the shrine

at the centre of the market being worshipped during the

Osele festival. They named the marker after him and ht

chief Aworo was appointed to carry on with the spiritual

needs of the market. And the song usually sing.

          “Osele Omope Enikan Owa”.

     From the foregoing accounts of historical origins of

the Osele market, it may be in fenced that the market

was established between the sixteenth and seventeenth

centuries as apparently observed from two of these

accounts. Also, ritual and sacrifices were performed

before the actual sitting and establishment of the market

as related from Ifa Oracle. Osele market has been parts of

the sources of Ikare to fame in Akoko land.




                            26
2.3 GOODS AND SERVICES AT OSELE MARKET.

     From the early beginnings of the Osele market, it

had been classified into the rural periodic day. The

market is a nine day periodic market commonly referred

to by the market women as a 9- day market. Osele

market is a very popular market in Akoko land. On

market days there are thousands of people from all over

the country to sell and buy in the market. Often the

market population overflows into the road, making it

extremely hazardous to drive a car through it.

     A market in this sense, has been defined as an

authorized public concourse of buyers and sellers of

commodities meeting at a place more or less strictly

limited or defined at an appointed time25. Market in

which buyers and sellers are in free intercourse with on

another, the prices of the goods, tend to equalize easily

and quickly.



                            27
     Extreme congestion and defaming noises caused by

endless haggling over process were the most common

characteristic features of Osele market on the market

days. The market attracts a lot of buyers and sellers,

people come from Owo, Benin, Ekiti, Kogi etc. The market

also attract a lot of people from the Northern Part of

Nigeria, who come on market days to buy kolanuts in

bulk. Goods and commodities are brought into Osele

market from towns and villages of Benin, Kogi, Ekiti26.

Most group of commodities and good that come into

Osele market are organized in trade guilds, each of which

had some kind of recognized heads.

     There is some specialization of activities among

market women, specialization within the market was a

traditional feature of the Osele market, and this in itself

does tend to bring about some degree of commodity

specialization. Specialization of commodities is a feature

of the market and was carried out to such and extent

                            28
that separate stalls and spaces were allocated to sellers

of pepper, fish, cassava, rice, textiles and manufactured

consumer items.

     In the early years of the establishment of Osele

market,    the   market   was    famous   for   its   cordial

relationship between buyers and sellers. The relationship

was famous so cordial that buyers buy goods on credit

(though it had long since no longer been encouraged), it

had helped in the growth and expansion of the market.

     All price variation of course express the operation of

a vast number of factors such as rainfall, yield crop

variety, supply, demand, transport, storage capacity, diet

habits and to an extent, price changes are controlled or

at least influenced by extraneous factors over which the

market women or market committee have little or no

control.

     The large numbers of traders selling in the market

and the small margin of profit mad at each transaction

                            29
with which most of them seem to be contented suggested

that there had been a liking for trade as an activity

among market women. Moreover, for a host of reasons

these market women traders provide a service which

could not be given in shops or stores.



2.4 SOCIO- CULTURAL ORGAISATION

     The Ikare had many traditionl fastivlas. Paramount

among these was e which was called Oro festival in some

other Yoruba towns Women were not allowed to see the

celebrants and it was believed that Gidigbe protected the

town from external attacks.

     There was Aringinya festival, celebrated by Ifa

devotees. During the festival, virgins danced naked to

Aringinya. This signifies their readiness for marriage.

Hence they received blessings from the goddess of

procreation.

     This festival is still celebrated in the town.

                              30
       Another significant festival was Ijeroba, the annual

new yam festival during which the King would eat the

new yam for the first time in the year, it was a toboo for

any trader to bring new yam to the market before the

King had eaten the new yam. Ijeroba also served as the

occasion when the Ling displayed the crown which he

brought from Ile-Ife.

       Ikare also has its own share of secret cults such as

the Ogboni cult, a common traditional cult was ancestors

from     heaven   who    had        come   back   to   resolve

misunderstandings among the people and bless them.

The masquerades, clothed in palm fronts, danced round

the town and they were showered with gifts. Sometimes

wearing ferocious look could become fearful terrifying,

chasing people all about the streets.

       The appearance of masquerades was usually an

annual event but when occasion demanded, Seru was

employed for specific atonement. Another aspect of

                               31
ancestral worship was made to departed ancestors. While

the introduction of western education, this aspect of

lkare socio cultural life is diminishing in importance

gradually.



2.5 ECONOMIC ORGANISATION

     In terms of economic activities, the people of Ikare

are predominantly farmers planting cash crops such as

cocoa, coffee Kolanuts and food crops such as cereals ,

yams, cassava. The people of Ikare have both himstead

farms (OKO Etile) and long distant farms in places like

Arimogija, imesi. Emure ile, Aba Dauda and soon.

     The Osele market (subject of this study) serves as

the major market at which the people of Ikare offer their

goods and services for sale and also procure goods which

they could not produce locally. There is a tradition which

claims that the popular Osele market in IKare owed its

origin-land name) to the activities of Ezele, a Benin Chief

                            32
and trader who traded with Akoko in the sixteenth

century. He was said to have been a popular and

prosperous trader and the representatives of Oba Benin‟s

trading interest in Akoko. He opened a trading centre at a

site which later became Osele market. Over the years, the

market developed into an important commercial centre

where the Nupe.    Ilorin and Benin traders as well as

traders from nearby towns and villages transacted

business. The market has been singled out as one of the

factor for the economic growth of Ikare and Akoko as a

whole.



2.6 POLITICAL ORGANISTION

     According to oral tradition, the people settled in

family clusters among these hills and later appointed

family heads. Thus settlements were made around the

family unit with extended members of a family settling

close to one another in compounds.

                            33
     The eldest man in the clan was usually the head,

later, the town was gradually divided into quarters by the

Oba for effective administration. A Chief who was

selected by the people of the quarter and confirmed by

the Oba, headed each quarter.

     Power was delegated to other Chiefs by the Oba,

thus the Chiefs were charged with the responsibility of

settling cases. Because the Oba had always been in

contact with the various clan leaders it was not difficult

to establish a hierarchy of authority among them. The

Oba presided over most of the town meetings especially

those of the traditional high Chiefs and the community

council that is Igbimo made up of the later and the lesser

Chiefs and elders. The king was not only the only the

head of the settlements but was also the personification

an reincarnation of all his ancestors.

     However, the Oba could not make lawa or take any

decision on matters fundamentally.

                            34
                        FOOTNOTES

1.   S.O.     Animasau,”    Write   up   of    Ikare   “National

     Concord, Saturday 22nd December, 1984.p.5

2.   Ibid, p.5

3    M.O.Oyewole,”Significant Social Change in Ikare

     since        the      Beginning      of       the        20th

     Century”(Unpublished Long Essay submitted to the

     Department of History,Ondo State,University ,June

     1986) p.1.

4    J. O. Dada ”Refugee in 19th Century Akoko”

     (Unpublished       Long   Essay     submitted       to   the

     Department of History, Ondo State, University,

     June 1986) p.5

5    Oral Interview with Oba Akadir Momoh(Olukare of

     Ikare)

6    Oyewole,”Significant Social change in Ikare”

7    Oral Interview with S.K.A.Adedoyin.

8    Ibid.p.6

                               35
9    V.Olotu “The History of pre – colonial Ikare”

     (unpublished     long   essay   submitted      to   the

     Department of History, Ondo State, University,June

     1989)

10   Ibid, p.5

11   B.W.Hodder and U.I.Ukwu,market,op.cit p.19

12   A.G. Hopkins, Economic History op. cit. P.5.

13   Pa James Akinola (aged 90) a community leader in

     Okoia street, Ikare.

14   Oba Akadr Saliu Mohmoh (aged 77). The Olukare of

     Ikare Akoko at His palace in Ilepa.

15   Ibid P.2

16   Mr femi Alohun, a retired history teacher (aged 72)

17   Ibid P.5

18   Folusho Aminu and Kolawole, Akoko land: History

     nad distinguished people (Ibadan Lizab Nigeria

     Ltd,1997) P.13

19   Ibid P.14

                             36
20   Ibid P.14

21   Oba S.K.A. adedoyin the Owa Ale of Ikare .At His

     palace in Okorun.

22   Chief Sasere of Okoja (aged 80) in Ikare
23   Ibid P.5.
24   Oba S.K.A. Adedoyin. OP. cit.

25   B.W. Hodder and U.I. Ukwu, markets, OP. cit. P.19

26   Madam Adebisi Mariam      (Iya Oja).




                          37
                   CHAPTER THREE

3.1 THE IMPACT OF COLONIALISM ON IKARE 1900-

1960

     The period of Colonial rule in Ikare can be described

as a crucial period in the history of the people because of

major agencies of change which entered Ikare since

1900. Factors of an economic nature was another major

agency of change in the Society Since 1900.The new

pattern of economic activities created new occupational

opportunities for the people. Farming, as in the pre-

colonial period remained the dominant Occupation of the

people but it became more lucrative. New cash crops

such as coca, coffee and tobacco were introduced.

Subsistence crops like corn, beans, Yam, cassava. Pepper

and fruits became more profitable. All these gave greater

incentive to farmers. While the agricultural community

became increasingly commercialized and monetized, they

remained as technologically backward as ever the

                            38
primitive back –breaking hoe and cutlass culture still

dominated among the farmers. The significant distortion

brought about by cocoa and other cash-crop cultivation

on    the   societal   economy        with   the   progressive

transformation of the time-honored system of land tenure

and land use1. Up to the introduction of cash crop

farming, the dominant principle guiding and tenure was

that of communal ownership either by whole community

or extended family. Under this system, Land could not be

alienated permanently to or by any individual However, a

the   commercial       ethos    and     grasping    individual

engendered, by grasping individualism engendered, by

cash crop economy became firmly established, influential

and financially ambitions elements in the community

began to appropriate vast acreages of farmland for their

own exclusive use and the expense of the weaker and

less aggressive members of the community2.



                               39
     Apart for arming people engaged in petty trading –

serving as middlemen between trading companies and

consumer in case of European goods, and producer in

the case of agricultural products. With respect to the

later, there emerged a group of traders known as

produce. Buyers who usually buy cash crops for the

farmers. The produce buyers became very wealthy.

Prominent among the produce buyers of the period were

people like Fele Ogunjobi, Oria-Banjoko Akeredolu,

Momoh, Orungbemi and some others. These people

acquired   substantial   wealth   as   a     result   of   their

participation in the trade in cash crops3.



3.2 IMPACT OF OSELE IN THE ECONOMY OF IKARE

     The importance and significance of Osele market in

the Ikare economy cannot be over emphasized. Right

from its existence, the markets has been making great



                             40
impact Ikare as a community and even individuals. This

impact is reflected in many ways.4

     The Osele market make business traders in the

market are allocated shops in such a way as to facilitate

easy identification and location of goods. 1 the market is

divided into sections. The traders who sell similar line of

goods are located together in shops. For instance, there

are section where yam is sold, the section where live

chicken are sold, other section include the provision

section.5   The   sectionalisation of    the    market make

consumers to have easy access to any commodity or

goods of their choice without any difficulty in locating the

area where such goods are available.

     The    management      of    the   Osele   market   also

encourage more people, especially women to engage in

trade.6 As indicated earlier, the rents levy on each shop

in the market are so love and affordable that people with

little amount of money could easily pay for a shop and

                             41
establish any business of        their choice. The highest

amount of money collected on a shop (LOCK UP) to

traders between 180 and 400 naira monthly, while the

large open and junior open area rented to people at the

rate of 80 and 20 naira monthly depending on the

location. This low rent attracts many who wish to engage

in trading.

     At Osele market, there are fixed prices on goods and

commodity. The markets is known for its operation of

market price which allows for common price on similar

goods. In order to minimize distortion and to prevent

unnecessary increase in prices of goods by some greedy

market women, any bulk carried into the market is

svrutimlised.7 By this prices of goods contained in such

bulk must have the same valve in terms of price with

similar goods in the market. This the traders therefore

enjoy increased sale as people prefer to go to the market



                            42
to buy knowing fully well that the prices of the goods in

the market are cheap and stable.

     Besides, the Osele market also serves as a source of

revenue for the Akoko North east local government.8

Though the shop rent is low, local government provide

facilities for the traders in he market. For example, roads,

latrine and some other essential facilities through the

revenue generated.

     Another impact of Osele market on the economy of

Ikare is that it has been able to encourage the

development of financial organisation9. Osele market

acted as the catalyst that led to the establishment of an

arm of the Ifesowopo cooperative society drew majority of

its members from the traders in the market10. This

organization assist the market women in relating their

financial   burden.   Although    the   market   women   do

contribute money to the pursue of the organization.



                             43
     As it were, Osele market has been able to impact

positively on the economy as well as the well being of the

people of Ikare. A side functioning as an avenue of

carrying out economic activities, it has also been able to

have social impact on the whole of the town.



3.3 OSELE MARKET IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD

     In the pre-colonial period, traders from various

places would not bother so much about the risks and

rigors involved in trekking such long distances to get to

the Osele market in order to buy or sell waves. There

existed about four main trade routes in Akoko even

before the adventure of the Nupe in Akoko.

     Akoko had always traded among themselves apart

from their trade with others outside the Akoko nation11.

Osele market was not just neighborhood along side

Arigidi, Oka, Ayere, Kabba, Supare, Irun and others.



                            44
     The important routes were the trade routes starting

from Arigidi passing through Ikare, Ogbagi anf Irun to

Ekiti. It was the route the Ekiti trader usually used12.

     The route starting from Arigidi through Afa, Oyin

passing through Omuo and truncating at Kabba or

beyond towards Bida. This was the routes Nupe trader

used for their trade with Akoko people.

     While the third route to Osele market in Ikare

Akoko passing through Akingba, Oka, Oba and Owo

joining the rote from Benin at Okeluse. The rooth starting

from Oba in the southern part through Ikun, Afo, Ipe and

to Isua where it splits into two, one going to Ibilo in the

north passing through Ise, Auga, Ikakumo and Ikaram13.

     This made Osele market gained popularity among

the market then in 16th century. Moreover, Osele market

paved opportunity to some villages, towns and cities to

construct road which led to their villages. Also Osele



                             45
market contributed to the development of most cities

include, Owo, Ose and some other places.



3.4 THE EFFECTS OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION ON

       OSELE MARKET

       The construction of roads to link Ikare with other

places constitutes an important legacy of British colonial

rule. In pre-colonial times, as pointed out earlier, the

town     was   linked   by    bush   paths    (routes).14   The

introduction of road transportation had great effects on

the development of the Osele market. The introduction

helped the free movement of the carriers of goods and

commodities from the producing centre to the market.15

Those goods that had formerly been handled down along

a chain of intermediaries from one area to another were

now moved in longer distances. The road transport

system     increased    the    movement      of   goods     and

passengers.16

                               46
     They have increased mobility, quickened economic

development and served other important social functions

in the society. The Ikare-Owo road was constructed in

1922 and opened to traffic in 1927. The construction of

Ikare – Arigidi-Okeagbe road begin in1928 was opened to

traffic on 1931 while the Ikare-Ado Ekiti road was begun

and completed in 192717.

     With the building of roads including the whole

complex   of   modern      communication   systems,   the

movement of people into the market became very easy.

These greatly facilitated the expansion of the Osele

market, there was an increase in trading activities and

they had important and eventually decisive effects on the

growth of the market.



3.5 GUILD IN OSELE MARKET

     Osele market had been a well- organized market

since the beginning of the early trading activities in the

                             47
market. Though Osele market was built on a public land,

with power vested in Sasere, the ruler of the area, the

real power of the market is vested in the Herb sellers,

who had been the first settlers and traders in Osele

market. They are referred to as the market elders. They

are also the oldest trade guild in the market with a lineal

system18.

     Before the arrival of all the various commodities

sellers in Osele market, the Herb- sellers were the only

traders in Osele market. After the Osele market became a

registered market and was declared a public market in

1840, under the colonial administration, other traders

began to settle in Osele with different kinds of goods in

which they were organized into trading guilds, marking

the 33 trading groups in the 1930s to 1960s.

     During this period, the herb- sellers were the

dominant group in the market they had come to be

recognized as market elders and market heads. They

                            48
head all the trading guilds in the market and were

referred to as the market chiefs. They committed the

affairs and welfare of the market to them.

     There is a market association that heads all the

trade guilds in Osele market and this association is made

up   of   market   elders   of        the   herbal   section.   This

association is recognized by the council19.

                In the association, there is the Iya oja

(mother of the market) she is the oldest woman in the

market. She settles all market and trade disputes. She

also gives consent to traders aspiring to sell in Osele.

     There is the Asoju oja (market representative) she

represents the market in all activities and on important

occasions, she sees to the smooth running of all the

trading guilds. She is the representative of Osele market

in the Local Government for administrative purposes.




                                 49
     There is the Olori obinrin (head of all market

women) From all market traders, whenever she wishes,

on behalf of the market master.20

     There are the recognized elders and heads of the

market association from the time Osele market became a

registered market. They have duties and responsibilities

to the market. They sees to the day- to- day running of

the activities in the market, they are also responsible for

organizing all market days, the collection of taxes and

rents, they settle all trades and market disputes and

most of all, they organize, the various traders in market

into trade guilds and each of these trade guilds or

association   have   heads    or    chairperson,   who   is

responsible for the day–to-day administration of their

associations. In essence there were 33 trading guilds or

trading sections in Osele market as at this period. The

guilds were and still known as Egbe (section).21



                             50
        There were groups of textiles sellers, food stuffs

sellers, pepper sellers etc. Each of these groups with its

head, meet within themselves. On several occasions the

whole bodies of the trade guilds meet together–members

and heads. Important matters are referred to the market

association (elders).

        Some of these various trade guilds heads have been

largely responsible for regulating the supply of some

basic food items, thereby creating artificial scarcity and

higher prices with a view to increasing the profit margin

of their members.22

        The position of the trade guilds in the market is in

their precise location. The extent to which they have been

successful is correlated with the extent to which they

have been able to cultivate and exploit various economic

and social relationships as well as with the degree of

their     operational   flexibility   within   the   marketing

structure.

                                51
3.6 OSELE MARKET, THE OTHER IKARE MAINLAND

     MARKETS AND THE IKARE ECONOMY

     Osele market is an indigenous institution. This

indigenous market is distinct in many ways from the

modern established in recent years. The market is not

only important as a centre for the exchange of goods,

services and money but also perform significant role in

the Ikare economy as a periodic general market. The

market days take place nine day periods. The local people

refer to these periods using the term 9 day or 9 – 9 day

market23. On market days, it opens as early as 8.00 in

the morning to 6.00 in the evening.

     Osele is one of the multi–purpose markets in Ikare

which sells the widest range of goods including Herbal

products to textiles, food – stuffs, sundry provisions and

pottery to hard wear and so on. The organization of the

market gave the consumers a sense of specialization. The

                            52
basic aim of most households is to secure the products

needed to maintain their customary standard of living.

     Osele market is specialized in supplying certain

particular Herbal products and local food – stuffs. What

ever the origin of a rural periodic market an element of

specialization is necessary for its survival24. People know

which market to visit for their specific purchases. This

specialization in Osele had resulted in thee emergence of

part–time and full–time traders to serve a predominantly

large population in the Ikare mainland. It is reasonable to

state that the threshold population is necessary to

sustain the market. If a society could survive without the

need for exchange, the market would be redundant.

     It is important to note that the local exchange needs

were important in the creation of markets in Ikare

mainland. Osele as a periodic general market function

party as a wholesale and redistribution centre, which



                            53
supplies daily markets in Ikare such as Jubilee, Oja Oba,

Oja kore and so on.25

     These markets depend on Osele for the daily supply

of goods and food products for their markets. These

markets operates in Ikare mainland as daily markets.

     The dominant economic function of periodic market

is the collection, bulking and distribution of local food

products and Herbal products in bulk. Local food- stuffs

such as maize, cassava, yam beans, yam flour, Kola,

Pepper tomatoes, Okra etc.

     All these are brought into Osele by the women

traders – with all these ranges and varieties of goods and

products, majority of the population in Ikare(Household

consumers and Daily markets retailers) depend on

traders in Osele who sells goods that these customers are

interested in.

     At the Osele market, there are various trade guilds

based on the nature of articles of trade, there is the Garo

                             54
sellers trade guild and others. They play significant roles,

specializing in one or two particular commodities, they

assist customer in buying, collecting and bulking food-

stuffs and other products for customers and to some

extent help    in transporting goods      to   other Lagos

mainland market sites. The members of these groups

(trade guilds) promote a sense of communalism among

other market traders and their customers.

     Osele as a recognized market had made local

exchange possible and more encouraged and facilitated

the perpetuation of social relationships and public order

among all the various types of markets in the Ikare

mainland. Markets in the Ikare mainland are organized

around a powerful hierarchy of traditional market

leaders, who maintain strict supervision over all the main

market in the Ikare mainland (Osele, Jubilee, Oja Oba,

Oja Kore etc). This tradition still remains the single most

effective mechanism for resolving conflicts and enforcing

                             55
discipline among the thousand of Ikare mainland traders

who are in daily competition.26

     Prices of goods and commodity in Osele are

determined largely by haggling. All price variations of

course express the operation of a vast number of factors

such as rainfall. Yield, crop variety, supply demand,

transportation. Storage capacity changing diet habits and

t occurrence of festivals.

     Osele as a periodic market operated in Lagos with

as much regularity and as disciplined organization. It is

difficult to assess the value of trade in the traditional

sector as a proportion of the total commercial activity in

Ikare, however a substantial percentage of the city‟s

wealth can be founded in the indigenous market. The

market system encouraged keen competition which

helped to lower price level, stimulated the use of available

resources and kept cash in constant circulation.



                             56
                   FOOTNOTES

1.   NAI, J.H. Beeley ,Intelligence report on Akoko

     District CSO 26 file No 29669.

2.   Ibid.

3.   Folusho Aminu and Kolawole, Akoko land:History

     and Distinguished people(Ibadan Lizab Nigeria

     Ltd. 1997) p.35

4.   Oral interview with the chief priest of Osele deity

     at his resident in Okoja on the 3rd of January,

     2011

5.   Ibid

6.   Oral interview with Mr. Femi Alohun

7.   Oral interview with Mr. Femi Alohun

8.   Oral interview with Bisi Ajana, Akoko North East

     Local Government, information department, Age

     45, 8th December, 2010

9.   Oral interview with Yusuf Muhammad

10. Oral interview with Yusuf Muhammad

                         57
11. NAI, J. H. Beeley Intelligence report on Akoko

    District CS0 26, file No. 29669.

12. Folusho   Aminu      and     Kolawole,   Akoko      land:

    History and Distinguished people (Ibadan Lizab

    Nigeria Ltd. 1997) p.33Oral interview with Oba

    S.K A. Adedoyin the Owa Ale of Ikare at His

    Palace in Okorun on the 19th of November, 2010.

13. Oral interview with Chief Sasere of Okoja (aged

    77) in Ikare on the 30th December, 2010

14. NAI, Ondo Prof. file No. 3271/2/ Annual report

    on Akoko District.

15. Akomolafe, “Akoko under British Rule” pg 22

16. O. Ilesanmi – Population and settlement patterns

    in Akoko (unpublished ) Nsukka 1964, P: 15

17. V. Olotun, “The      History of pre-colonial Ikare”

    (unpublished   long        essay   submitted   to    the

    department of history, Ondo State; University,

    June 1989)

                          58
18. Oral Interview with Chief Sasere of Okoja (aged

    80) in Ikare, 19th December,2010.

19. Madam Adebisi Mariam,Iya Oja

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid.




                       59
                   CHAPTER FOUR

GENERAL IMPACT

     Every society needs a market for its economic

growth, markets are necessary for the flow of need

satisfying goods and services from the producers. Thus

all societies must provide for needs of their members to

enhance standards of living through business. The

creation of a convenient place where buyers and sellers

meet face to face to exchange goods and services such

Osele market becomes necessary.

     The impact on markets such as Osele market on the

social, economic, political, and cultural spheres of a

commonly are varied and cannot be over emphasized.

     Markets are necessary for the enhancement of the

social, political and economic development of the Ikare

community in many varies ways1.

     The advent of Osele market in 1840 created a

meeting point for buyers and sellers to exchange their

                           60
goods and services in the community. Members of the

community were able to earn decent living improving

their standard of living, prior to the creation of Osele.

     The market being the major destination for buyers

and sellers to converge in Ikare township provides a large

number of stalls for rent to traders to house their share

and for the transaction of their business2.

     The convenience factor created by the situation of

the market within the community thereby affording

people and services needed without much difficult. Prior

to the creation of Osele market producers and consumers

in Ikare had to journey to bordering to trade such as

Oka, Akungba, Arigidi, Isua and Oyin3.



ECONOMIC IMPACT

     The market has considerably improved the quality

of life of the people in Ikare community. Trader within the

market     has    also    brought     about     considerable

                             61
improvement in the economy of the community that is

evidenced in better standards of living of the inhabitants

and     also    creates     financial      independence   and

empowerment as skilled and semi-skilled craftmen. With

the improvement on their financial status the indigenes

can afford to free children from farm activities and sat

them to school to be educated4.

      Which is obvious in the improvement of health

services and practices. The market has also provided

opportunities for employment to people who otherwise

would    have    been     jobless.   The    local   government

authorities employs cleaners, security, revenue collectors

while shop owners employ the services of sales persons,

as well as security.

      The local regulatory bodies also for goods and

services supplied in term of health quality, processing

methods and storage procedures; which ensure improved

living conditions. The market as stated above serves as

                               62
the major revenue earner for the local government

authority?

     Osele market boosts small scale manufacturing and

industrialization in Ikare community. Osele market

provides a ready made outlet for goods and services

produced by the small manufactures. This is obvious by

the situation of so many small scale industries within

Osele and the community5. Osele market serves as a

source of raw materials for the production of the small

scale industry.

     Osele market also boosts small scale agriculture, it

provides an outlet for the disposal of farm products by

small scale farmers in Ikare and its environment. Traders

in Osele markets also form co-operative societies formal

or informal, whereby members involved save or donate

certain amounts periodically6.




                            63
POLITICAL IMPACT

     According to the oral tradition, the people settled in

family dusters among these hills and later appointed

family heads. Thus settlements were made arroud the

family unit with extended to members of a family settling

close to one another in compound7.

     A chief who was selected by the people of the

quarter and confirmed by the Oba, headed each quarter.

Power was delegated to the chiefs by the Oba, thus the

chiefs were changed with the responsibility of setting

cases. Because the Oba had always been in contact with

the various clan leaders it was not difficult to establish a

hierarchy of authority among them.

     The Oba presided over most of the town meetings

especially those of the traditional high chiefs and the

community council (that is, Igbimo) made up of the latter

and the lesser chiefs and Elders. However, the Oba could



                             64
not make laws any decision on matters fundamentally

affecting the town



SOCIO- CULTURAL IMPACT.

     Osele market promotes socio- cultural development

within the Ikare community As the market witnesses the

patronage of a very diverse group of people from all over

the state. The bringing about interaction of people from

varied background and cultures. In Osele market we

have the Fulani/Bororo, the Igbo, the Hausa, and Yoruba

traders to name a few.

     The exchange of goods and services for money

opens up various avenues for cultural interactions and

hence     cultural development and respect for people

cultures. Since the market place is populated by traders

who contumely migrate from far and wide to play their

trade such as new fabrics, food and services, methods

and processes are exchanged.

                           65
      The   stall   owners   in   the   market   also   form

associations and societies under whose banner they

formulate and implement policies to improve the market

new    friendships     acquire    new    experiences    and

disseminate information.



CONCLUSION

      The number, location and size of the Osele market

had changed to suit the need of the population, but

majority of the consumers in Ikare still depend on traders

in Osele. On market days, the market is full of thousands

of people from all over the country. There is a saying

about this OJA OSELE LO MO PE ENIKAN OWA O. i.e,

the absence of anybody from the market, does not have

any impact on market trade. The existence of Osele

market in the Ikare mainland as in any other place, no

doubt is a function of economic force of the law of supply

and demand.

                             66
      The Osele market woman and their organization

contributed to the management of the markets through

their representative in the council‟s market committee

and through petition which they send to the council‟s

office.

      The importance of the Osele market has been

emphasized    almost   to   the   point    of   exhaustation.

However, more are still not mentioned. It is not repetition

to mention here again that the market afforded the

Akoko, particularly Ikare, the opportunity of interacting

with non-natives which culminated in eventually inter-

marriages, among other things.

      Moreso, important festivals and celebration were

brought to the fore on Osele market day. The most

umportant Egungun (Masquerades) in Ikare woukd come

to the market place, dancing to entertain people while

people would be showering it with gifts.



                            67
     Osele market meant more than a mere trading

centre in its earnest time. People on the farm camps and

villages around. Ikare always came to relax on the Osele

market   day.   Some   might     even    came   for   a   mere

sightseeing. There was no weekend, Osele day was a

premier day. Much importance was attached to the

market. People did greeted “O to san” meaning; it is nine

days ago we‟ve met last, retaining to the last market day.

     Lastly, the choice of Osele market as theme of this

study is an attempt to investigate deeply into the

economic past of Akoko people. Although the study does

not claim all in – all in the economic past of the people

but will serve as a foundation to be built upon and as

such it would be filling a major vacuum in the history of

Akoko land as well as a modest contribution to the

existing literatures on Akoko history.




                            68
                      FOOTNOTES

1.   Oral interview with chiefs Sasere of Okoja ( aged 77)

     on the 11th of October, 2010

2.   Oral interview    from Mr. femi Alohun, a retired

     teacher in history (aged 68), Ekan Quarters, Ikare

     Akoko on 11th October, 2010

3.   Oral interview with Oba S. k .A. Adedoyin the Owa

     Ale of Ikare Akoko aged73), his chamber on the 11 th

     October. 2010.

4.   Oral interview with Owa Ale of Ikare O p. Cit.

5.   Oguntomisin G. O , Yoruba Towns and cites P. 24

6.   Oral interview with Femi Alohun OP. Cit.

7.   Oral interview with Ale of Ikare on      11th October,

     2010.

8.   Ibid P. S

9.   Oral interview with chief priest of Osele deity at his

     Okoja resident, on 11th October, 2010.



                            69
                     BIBLIGRAPHY

A.   PRIMARY SOURCES (INTERVIEW)

1.   Oba S.K.A. Adedoyin the Owa Ale of Ikare, (aged 73)

     at his Palace Okorun quarters, Ikare Akoko on 2nd

     December, 2010.

2.   Oba Saliu Akadir Mohmoh IV, the Olukare of Ikare

     (aged 74), at his Palace on the 19th of December,

     2010.

3.   Chief James Akinola, the head of Osele Compound

     in Ikare.

4.   Chief Sasere of Okoja, at his residence, on the 5th of

     November, 2010

5.   Chief Oni Ajagunna, the Chief Priest of Orisa Osele

     L/A 53, Ilepa, Ikare Akoko, on 6th of October 2010

6.   Mr. Femi Alohun, A retired teacher in History, (aged

     63), N/A 17, Ekan Quarters, Ikare, on the 2nd and

     17th of October 2010



                            70
7.   Madam Bisi Ajana, A Prominent market woman

     (aged 75), A/13. Okela, Ikare Akoko on the 12th of

     October, 2010

8.   Mrs. Adebisi Marriam, the Iyaloja of Osele Market

     (aged 62) at her residence, Okela, Agbo Quarters,

     Ikare, on 24th of October, 2010



B.   SECONDARY SOURCES (THESIS)

1.   Akomolafe, C. O. “Aspect of Akoko History”. A

     Research      work        presented       to     the     Academic

     Community of University of Ife (OAU) and Ondo

     State   College      of    Education,          now     College    of

     Education, Ikere Ekiti.

2.   Akomolafe     C.     O.    “Akoko        under       British    Rule

     (unpublished       B.     A.    Thesis    submitted        to    the

     University of Ife, 1971).

3.   Oyewole M.O. “Significant Social Changes in Ikare

     since   the    beginning            of   the     20th     century”

                                    71
     (unpublished   long     essay   submitted     to   the

     Department of History, university of Ado-Ekiti June,

     1986.

4.   Oshodi T.W., “The History of Ikare in the pre-

     colonial era (unpublished long essay submitted ti

     the Department of History, Ondo State, University,

     now University of Ado – Ekiti (UNAD), June 1989.

5.   Olotu V. “The Advent and Growth of Christianity in

     Ikare, (unpublished long essay submitted to the

     Department of history, Ondo State, University, new

     University of Ado-Ekiti (UNAD), June, 1989.



C.   ARCHIVAL MATERIALS

     NATIONAL ARCHIVES IBADAN

1.   Ondo Prof. file No. 3271/2/ Annual report on Akoko

     District.

2.   J. H. Beeley intelligence report on Akoko District

     CSO 26 file No. 29669

                             72
3.   Ondo prof. file No. 523/vol. III.



D.   BOOKS

1.   Folusho Aminu and Kolawol (1997) Akokoland

     History and Distinguished People, (Ibadan, Libzab)

2.   Felix Olufemi Lowen (2004) Omo Oloko Meji: Tako:

     THE HISTORY of Ikare, Her Monarch, Her People.

     (Lagos: Zion Network Communications (Ltd).

3.   G. O. Oguntimisin (2003). Yoruba Towns and Cities,

     Vol. 1. Ibadan Bookshelf Resources Ltd.



E.   NEWSPAPER

1.   Prince Toyin Adegbite “Re Write up on Ikare”. Daily

     Times Thursday Feb. 14th, 1985.

2.   S.O. Animasaun “Write up on Ikare” National

     Concord, Saturday 22nd December, 1984 p.5




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