# Industrial Thermal system

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```					Industrial Thermal System

Training program conducted
Pune
25-08-2008 to 29-09-2008

TRAINING PROGRAM ON INDUSTRIAL THERMAL SYSTEM   i
1   Objective ................................................................................................................. 1
2   Thermodynamics ..................................................................................................... 2
2.1 1st Law of thermodynamics ............................................................................... 2
2.2 2nd Law of thermodynamics ............................................................................... 2
2.3 0th Law of thermodynamics ............................................................................... 2
2.4 Thermodynamic systems ................................................................................... 3
2.5 2nd Law of thermodynamics ............................................................................... 5
2.5.1 Carnot theorem........................................................................................... 9
2.5.2 Kelvin (thermodynamic) Scale ................................................................. 10
2.5.3 Clausius Inequality ................................................................................... 10
2.6 Thermometry .................................................................................................. 13
3   Ideal Gas ............................................................................................................... 14
3.1 Equation of state of an Ideal Gas ..................................................................... 15
4   Open System ......................................................................................................... 18
5   Properties of steam ................................................................................................ 22
6   Heat Transfer Devices ........................................................................................... 25
6.1 Boilers............................................................................................................. 25
6.2 Mixer / Mixing chamber .................................................................................. 26
6.3 Throttling Process ........................................................................................... 27
6.4 Heat exchanger................................................................................................ 28
6.5 Venturi meter – Liquid .................................................................................... 29
7   Work transfer devices ............................................................................................ 30
7.1 Steam turbines ................................................................................................. 31
7.1.1 1st Example: ............................................................................................. 33
7.1.2 2nd Example: ............................................................................................ 35
7.2 Air Compressor ............................................................................................... 37
7.3 Pumps ............................................................................................................. 39
8   Steam Power Plant ................................................................................................. 40
8.1 1st Example ..................................................................................................... 41
9   Co-generation Plant ............................................................................................... 45
10 Turbines ................................................................................................................ 50
10.1    Nozzles (Stationary blades).......................................................................... 50
10.2    Blades .......................................................................................................... 51
10.3    Velocity coefficient (ψ) ............................................................................... 52
10.4    Impulse Turbine........................................................................................... 53
10.5    General Turbine ........................................................................................... 54
10.6    Degree of Reaction DOR ............................................................................. 54
10.7    Losses in a Stage (Nozzle + Blade) .............................................................. 55
10.8    Ideal impulse stage: Symmetric blades ......................................................... 55
10.9    Real impulse stage: Symmetric blades ......................................................... 56
10.10 1st Example: ................................................................................................. 57
11 Partial Admission .................................................................................................. 61

TRAINING PROGRAM ON INDUSTRIAL THERMAL SYSTEM                                                                     i
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Change in Entropy for different process ...................
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Description: Describing in detail about thermodynamics of steam turbines
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