Mapping_North by qingyunliuliu


									                                          “Mapping North”

Guest: Benjamin Carter, Ph. D. , archaeologist


An archaeologist studies people and what they did in the past from the things they left behind. Dr. Carter has
studied the Manteno (800 A.D. – 1600 A.D.) of coastal Ecuador, the Red Paint People (7000 years ago) of
Maine and the Moravian settlement of Bethlehem, PA (c. AD 1742-1860).

To keep an accurate record of the things (artifacts) left behind, archeologists must carefully record where the
artifacts are found. One task is to create a map of the site and the items found within it. This information
helps archaeologists understand what occurred at that location.

A transit is used to “survey” the site. It is an instrument used to collect data including angles and distances
between points in a given area. The instrument is used by establishing north as 0º, and the instrument is the
point of “origin” of the angle measures and distances.


In this project you will use trigonometric methods and equipment to create a map of various points at North
in a specified area, the “site”. .


       Chalk
       Measuring tape

       Chart to Record Your Measurements

       Scientific calculator

       Transit

       Stadia Rod

1. Orient the transit using a compass so that 0º is due North.
2. Indicate each point on the preliminary sketch.
3. Hold the stadia rod on the point.
4. View the stadia rod through the eyepiece lining up the center vertical line with the center of the stadia rod.
5. Read the angle measure on the transit.
6. Read top horizontal line measurement. Read the bottom horizontal line measurement. Record each in
the data table.

Preliminary Sketch:           Use the space below to sketch a map of the given points.
Indicate North, South, East and West. Indicate North as 0º and mark “T”, the location of the transit as the

       Point    Angle    Distance measured to Point as viewed
               Measure   through the transit (Meters)

        A                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        B                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        C                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        D                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        E                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        F                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        G                Top Reading:
                         Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        H                Top Reading:
                          Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
         I               Top Reading:
                          Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        J                Top Reading:
                          Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =
        K                Top Reading:
                          Bottom Reading:

                         ( ____ - _____)(100) =

WORKSHEET (Use the space below to calculate the vertical (N/S) and horizontal (E/W) component
from the transit to each point. Draw a sketch for each indicating “T” the transit, the point, the distance
to the point and the angle measurement from North. )

Point A                    Sketch                      Point B                     Sketch

Point C                    Sketch                      Point D                     Sketch

Point E                    Sketch                      Point F                     Sketch

Point G                    Sketch                     Point H                    Sketch

Point I                    Sketch                     Point J                    Sketch

Mapping the Site

After completing the worksheet, record the distances calculated in the data chart as (x, y). Using your
preliminary and the data chart, accurately mark each point using the calculated (x, y ) on graph paper.


Write a paragraph explaining how the transit works. That is, explain how the angle measured and distance to
the point are used to calculate the vertical and horizontal components. Explain why the angle measured
needs to be “adjusted” in order to complete the trigonometric calculations.

What did you learn by doing this activity? Did you enjoy it?

                       Description                        Points           Self           Teacher
                                                         possible      assessment       assessment
 Preliminary Sketch                                         5

Filled in data chart                                           10

Worksheet:                                                     10
Showed work for calculations
Included sketches for each

Completed Map on Graph Paper                                   15

Complete Description of how transit works and                  5

Neat, Complete, Organized, On Task, On Time                    5


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