Ten Guidelines for Speaking
1. Make eye contact
2. Use nonverbal medium well
3. Modulate your voice
4. Use good grammar
5. Choose words carefully
6. Exhibit enthusiasm
7. Project self confidence
8. Be perceptive
9. Make the listeners feel comfortable
• When you accept an invitation to speak, you need to obtain answers to
several questions such as these;
1. What is the purpose of the speech?
2. What topics shall I choose (if no topics was assigned)? If a general topics
was assigned, how shall I limit it to stay within the time allotted and still
cover worthwhile points adequately?
3. Will I be the only speaker?
4. What size of audience is expected?
5. What are the characteristics of the people who are expected to attend (ages,
knowledge of topics, types of employment, and so on)?
6. Should I plan for a question-answer session to follow the presentation?
7. What is the exact time for beginning the presentation?
8. How is the room laid out? Can I use graphics effectively? Can all the
listeners see me well?
Preparation for Speech
• Consider the purpose
– If it is to entertain, collect stories, jokes, witticism, and so on.
– If it is to inform or to reinforce current knowledge, choose only three
or four major points. Present these points in a logical, easy to follow
sequence. Pints clearly stated and supported by applicable illustrations
are well received by audiences.
• Use various kinds of illustrations
– Graphs, tables, photographs, chartings, drawings, and other graphics
help to make certain points clear and help to emphasize them.
– When you prepare a speech, keep in mind the topic, the listeners, and
yourself. Establishing some common ground with listeners helps to get
and maintain their attention.
• Use a touch of humors advantageously
• Don’t hesitate to simplify
• Tell what you are going to tell, tell, and tell what you have told
• Good beginning is extremely important. To get the
listeners’ favorable attention early, some speakers
attain this goal by telling a joke. However, a poorly told
joke misses the mark, and can create embarrassment.
• Other ways to attain the listener’ attention are
beginning with startling fact, by reading or reciting an
applicable quotation, by telling a short story, or by
asking question that will stimulate interest.
• After getting the listeners’ attention, mention the
subtopics of your speech. You may present a significant
point that is to be supported in the body of your
• In the body of speech, present the three or four major
points you choose. Use the style and techniques that best
fit the topics, the audience, and you.
• You can use a overhead projector, a film projector, an
opaque projector, a flip chart, a felt board, or other
medium. Keep the graphics clear, simple, and easy to read.
Showing several graphics with only a few items on each one
is much better than showing several items on few graphics.
• While graphics are desirable for many presentations, you
should not use them so much that they detract from you.
• Present your chosen three or four major points in logical
sequence. This sequence often builds to a climax.
• The conclusion of speech is just as important
as the beginning. Whether your speech leads
to climax or you simply completed the
presentation of well-supported major points,
and the speech smoothly-not abruptly. Usually,
you should summarize the significant points
by mentioning them briefly so that the
listeners can easily relate them. This summary
also helps the listeners to remember what you
• Even though you have prepared well, you can expect to feel a bit
nervous when the time comes for you to speak. However, a small
degree of nervousness is good; it helps us to perform better than
we could. Learn to relax as much as you can. Here are helpful
• Enter the room when no one else is there and become familiar with
• Before time for the meeting to begin, check out all facilities –
electrical outlets, projectors, and so on. Make sure everything is
• Wear comfortable, attractive clothing in which you make good
• Breathe deeply and quietly four or five times shortly before
standing before audiences.
• If your hands shake, use poster board instead of thin
cards for your notes, or place thin papers on a heavy
object such as a notebook or a hardback book.
• When you deliver your speech, remember that the
people in audience want you to feel comfortable and
to do well. After you go to the lectern, wait a few
seconds to begin your presentation. Smile at audience,
try to make audience feel comfortable, and don’t say
anything negative about yourself.
• Remember that dynamic speakers do not stand
motionless. Good posture helps you to feel confident
and to exhibit self-confidence.
• Pace the speech so that it will be interesting and easy to hear. Pause from
time to time, but keep the pauses short. Don’t say okay, uh, um and a, I
mean, you know, things like that, and so on.
• Even if you should lose your trend of thought for a few seconds, remain
quiet until you grace at your note cards and ready to continue with your
• Don’t read a large portion of your speech.
• Look at the audience. If you have a large audience, look into the eyes of
someone in each of various sections of the room; you will appear to be
looking at everyone. Don’t look at the ceiling, at the floor, or out the
• Exhibit enthusiasm.
• Enticing people to discuss the matters that are
to be handled can be challenge. While no set
of rules can be formulated for leading a
discussion, some suggestions that are usually
effective in stimulating participation are;
1. Help the group member to relax.
2. Ask for specific questions or comments.
3. Avoid the trite “Are there any questions?”
• Why should a speaker look at the people in the
audience while delivering a speech?
• What can inexperienced speaker do to help themselves
relax before an audience?
• What are some of the graphic or visual aids besides
those mentioned in this slides?
• What are some of the characteristics of good speaker?
And what are some of the characteristics of poor
• What are some of the factors people can use to
improve the delivery of their well-prepared speeches?