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Speech Method ビジネスの基礎理論とテクニカルターム Ten Guidelines for Speaking 1. Make eye contact 2. Use nonverbal medium well 3. Modulate your voice 4. Use good grammar 5. Choose words carefully 6. Exhibit enthusiasm 7. Project self confidence 8. Be perceptive 9. Make the listeners feel comfortable Speeches • When you accept an invitation to speak, you need to obtain answers to several questions such as these; 1. What is the purpose of the speech? 2. What topics shall I choose (if no topics was assigned)? If a general topics was assigned, how shall I limit it to stay within the time allotted and still cover worthwhile points adequately? 3. Will I be the only speaker? 4. What size of audience is expected? 5. What are the characteristics of the people who are expected to attend (ages, knowledge of topics, types of employment, and so on)? 6. Should I plan for a question-answer session to follow the presentation? 7. What is the exact time for beginning the presentation? 8. How is the room laid out? Can I use graphics effectively? Can all the listeners see me well? Preparation for Speech • Consider the purpose – If it is to entertain, collect stories, jokes, witticism, and so on. – If it is to inform or to reinforce current knowledge, choose only three or four major points. Present these points in a logical, easy to follow sequence. Pints clearly stated and supported by applicable illustrations are well received by audiences. • Use various kinds of illustrations – Graphs, tables, photographs, chartings, drawings, and other graphics help to make certain points clear and help to emphasize them. – When you prepare a speech, keep in mind the topic, the listeners, and yourself. Establishing some common ground with listeners helps to get and maintain their attention. • Use a touch of humors advantageously • Don’t hesitate to simplify • Tell what you are going to tell, tell, and tell what you have told Introduction • Good beginning is extremely important. To get the listeners’ favorable attention early, some speakers attain this goal by telling a joke. However, a poorly told joke misses the mark, and can create embarrassment. • Other ways to attain the listener’ attention are beginning with startling fact, by reading or reciting an applicable quotation, by telling a short story, or by asking question that will stimulate interest. • After getting the listeners’ attention, mention the subtopics of your speech. You may present a significant point that is to be supported in the body of your presentation. Body • In the body of speech, present the three or four major points you choose. Use the style and techniques that best fit the topics, the audience, and you. • You can use a overhead projector, a film projector, an opaque projector, a flip chart, a felt board, or other medium. Keep the graphics clear, simple, and easy to read. Showing several graphics with only a few items on each one is much better than showing several items on few graphics. • While graphics are desirable for many presentations, you should not use them so much that they detract from you. • Present your chosen three or four major points in logical sequence. This sequence often builds to a climax. Conclusion • The conclusion of speech is just as important as the beginning. Whether your speech leads to climax or you simply completed the presentation of well-supported major points, and the speech smoothly-not abruptly. Usually, you should summarize the significant points by mentioning them briefly so that the listeners can easily relate them. This summary also helps the listeners to remember what you sais. Delivery • Even though you have prepared well, you can expect to feel a bit nervous when the time comes for you to speak. However, a small degree of nervousness is good; it helps us to perform better than we could. Learn to relax as much as you can. Here are helpful suggestions; • Enter the room when no one else is there and become familiar with the surrounding. • Before time for the meeting to begin, check out all facilities – electrical outlets, projectors, and so on. Make sure everything is operating properly. • Wear comfortable, attractive clothing in which you make good appearance. • Breathe deeply and quietly four or five times shortly before standing before audiences. Delivery • If your hands shake, use poster board instead of thin cards for your notes, or place thin papers on a heavy object such as a notebook or a hardback book. • When you deliver your speech, remember that the people in audience want you to feel comfortable and to do well. After you go to the lectern, wait a few seconds to begin your presentation. Smile at audience, try to make audience feel comfortable, and don’t say anything negative about yourself. • Remember that dynamic speakers do not stand motionless. Good posture helps you to feel confident and to exhibit self-confidence. Delivery • Pace the speech so that it will be interesting and easy to hear. Pause from time to time, but keep the pauses short. Don’t say okay, uh, um and a, I mean, you know, things like that, and so on. • Even if you should lose your trend of thought for a few seconds, remain quiet until you grace at your note cards and ready to continue with your well-prepared presentation. • Don’t read a large portion of your speech. • Look at the audience. If you have a large audience, look into the eyes of someone in each of various sections of the room; you will appear to be looking at everyone. Don’t look at the ceiling, at the floor, or out the window. • Exhibit enthusiasm. Discussion • Enticing people to discuss the matters that are to be handled can be challenge. While no set of rules can be formulated for leading a discussion, some suggestions that are usually effective in stimulating participation are; 1. Help the group member to relax. 2. Ask for specific questions or comments. 3. Avoid the trite “Are there any questions?” Questions • Why should a speaker look at the people in the audience while delivering a speech? • What can inexperienced speaker do to help themselves relax before an audience? • What are some of the graphic or visual aids besides those mentioned in this slides? • What are some of the characteristics of good speaker? And what are some of the characteristics of poor speaker? • What are some of the factors people can use to improve the delivery of their well-prepared speeches?
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