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					    Review: Basic First Aid
         Area Check
Perform a general check of the scene

•   Are you in control or are you assisting someone?
•   Is there anything in that scene that can threaten
    personal safety- “no glass, no gas, no fire, no
    wire”
• Are there any present witnesses or bystanders
    that can tell you what happened
•   Assess the situation
                  Primary Assessment
                         Vitals
•   LOC (level of consciousness)
• Conscious or unconscious:
• Loudly speak in their ear or bang on the ground beside them to see if they
    are awake
• Reassure them that everything is fine and help is on the way
• Call 911 or have someone with you call
Check
Airway-Open airway
Breathing- See if they are breathing or not
Circulation-Carotid artery check pulse
• Check for Medical Alert Jewellery
• Keep victim warm
• Check for cuts on head, neck and shoulders
• No pulse or breathing=CPR
    Secondary Assessment

Check for bleeding and broken limbs-ask if
 they can feel any sensations as you are
 checking their body over
If there is a reaction to pain stop
Monitor their breathing and check pulse
Verbalize out loud: no cuts, no bleeding
                   Scenario
 You are at a friend’s house. Your friend is making
 some frozen pizza in the microwave. As your
 friend goes to take the pizza out of the
 microwave, the sizzling hot pizza on the plate
 slides onto your friend’s hand. Your friend
 screams with pain and the pizza drops to the floor
• Apply cold compress
• Run cool water
• Pain reliever
                      Scenario
•   It is the middle of the summer, Erin and Reba
    have decided to paint their house. They put the
    radio on and their swimming suits. When they
    have finished their first coat, Erin begins to feel
    faint. Reba checks her pulse finding it weak and
    fast but her skin is sweaty and cool. What can you
    do to help Erin

•   Heat Exhaustion

•   Lay down in cool room and drink water (de-
    hydration)
               CPR
         Cardio Pulmonary
          Resuscitation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8I3yk7T8W34&feature=player_emb
                             edded
               What is it?
    When a persons heart has stopped CPR
    techniques will help you to maintain that
    persons breathing and circulation until 911
    arrives
 Cardio-pushing in the persons chest forces
    blood to flow through the body
   Pulmonary-mouth-mouth breathing provides
    oxygen to the lungs
     4R’s of CPR
Risk, Recognize, React,
      Resuscitate
                        Risks
Risks: factors in your life that predispose you to developing

 heart problems

Smoking-causes lung cancerleading to heart disease

High blood pressure-damages heart and blood

 vesselsincrease chance of heart attack and stroke

 meaning the heart has to work harder to pump the blood

Sedentary lifestyle-making the heart work harder during an

 exercise

Others:
Obesity-risk factor to heart disease
Stress
Diabetes
                Recognize
5 P’s (signs of a heart attack)
Pain-described as heaviness or tightness, squeezing or
 pressure “sitting on chest”-may come and go
Pale skin-sweaty, cold and clammy
Puffing-trouble breathing
Pooped-feeling very tired
Puking-feeling sick to the stomach or actually
 vomiting
ALSO: Denial-think they are to young to have a heart
 attack-Fear of going to the hospital
            One Person Adult CPR
•Check for hazards
    • Survey the scene-determine what
      happened
    • Hazards include: electrical wires, fire,
      gas, glass, needles
    • “no gas, no glass, no fire, no wire”
    • Protect your own personal safety
•Assess victims responsiveness (LOC)
• Level of Consciousness
        •   “hey, hey are you okay”-by ear and hit
            the floor to assess consciousness
        •   Awake and responsive? Yes or No
oCallfor help -911
    o=REACT
    o“hey you in the red shirt, call 911 and
     report back to me”
oOpen air way
    oCheck for breathing
    oTilt head back and lift chin
    oLook at chest and stomach for
     breathing movements-as well as
     listening 5-10 seconds
oBreathing?=monitor  breathing-make sure they
 are in recovery position- do secondary survey
 Compressions
     Landmark
        Locate sternal notch(xiphod process)
        Place heel of hand on the notch and other hand on
         top
        Keep fingers off chest
     Give 30 compressions
        Shoulders over hands/arms
        Arms straight
        Compress about 1.5-2 inches
        Count out loud “ 1 and 2 and 3
        Push hard and fast
oBreaths
     oPinch  the victims nose shut and seal your
      lips tightly around the persons mouth
     oGive TWO (2) full breaths
     oWatch the see the victims chest rise and
      fall to ensure breaths are going in
oCheck pulse-if there is a pulse continue giving
 breaths
oNo breathing or pulse= Compressions Airway
 Breathing (CAB)
o   Repeat
       o   30 compressions
       o   2 breaths
       o   (4 times- 1 minute cycle)
o   Do until 911 arrives
                  Definitions
•   Emergency Response System

    •   An ERS is a community-wide system for
        responding to sudden illness or injury. It may
        include ambulance services, paramedics, police,
        firefighters and other people trained in first aid
        and emergency systems

•   Angina

    •   A pressure pain in the chest created when the
        heart is deprived of oxygen ex) blocked by
        hardened arteries from fat or cholesterol,
        causing reduced blood flow
                Definitions
•   Heart Attack

    •   If an artery supplying the heart remains
        blocked, the pain remains and the area of the
        affected heart muscle starts to die. This is
        what is called a heart attack

•   Cardiac Arrest

    •   When the heart stops beating and no longer
        pumps blood and oxygen to the rest of the body
           Definitions

• Defibrillation
  • Use of a small computerized device
    that deliver a shock to heart that
    resets the heart muscle and
    restores smoothing pumping action
                 Video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8I3yk7T8W34&
feature=player_embedded

http://video.about.com/firstaid/How-to-Perform-
Hands-Only-CPR.htm
             Scenario
You are walking past your neighbour’s
 house on a warm summer day. Suddenly
 you hear your neighbour frantically
 shouting that her son has fallen into the
 pool. He can’t swim. When you reach the
 pool deck you see his body beneath the
 surface. He is not moving. You are able to
 reach him and get him out of the pool, but
 he is unconscious. What do you do?
            Scenario
An elderly gentleman is sitting on a
 park bench. He begins to complain of
 chest pain. He says he has had it
 before. As you consider what to do
 next, you realize that his pain is
 increasing. What do you do?
              Scenario
 A middle-aged fan at a hockey game has
  been very excited throughout the
  contest. After the opposition scores the
  go-ahead goal, he becomes extremely
  angry, shouting at the referee that the
  play was offside. In mid-shout, he stops,
  clutching his left arm. He sits down and
  seems to be having difficulty breathing.
  He says he feels as though someone is
  standing on his chest. What do you do?
           Scenario
You are driving on a back road just
  after thunderstorm. Up ahead you
  see a power line down. As you get
  closer you see the body of a young
  women lying close to the downed
  line. She is not moving. What do
  you do?
             Scenario
 You are awakened one morning by
  your mother’s scream. Running into
  your parent’s bedroom you see your
  father motionless on the floor. You
  learn from your mother that your
  father has been feeling ill for several
  hours and has vomited. He came out
  of the bathroom clutching his chest
  and in apparent pain. Suddenly he
  collapsed on the floor what do you
  do?
                             Didn’t       OK                                      YAY
Criteria                     Do
Area Check                                Performed area check                    Performed area check with
                                                                                  phrase saying and observing
                                                                                  the scene
LOC Check               Rubric Criteria   Checked to see if person was awake or   Check to see if person was
                                          not                                     awake by banging the floor and
                                                                                  yelling loudly
911 Call                                  Called 911                              Told someone of called 911 and
                                                                                  asked person to report back to
                                                                                  them with information
Open Airway                               Checked airway                          Checked airway by tilting head
                                                                                  and lifting chin using proper
                                                                                  hand placement
Breathing Check                           Listening for breathing                 Listened for breathing by tilting
                                                                                  head and watching chest rise
                                                                                  and fall
Landmark                                  Hands in right spot                     Hands in correct placement on
                                                                                  the chest
Compressions                              Gave 30 compressions                    Gave 30 compressions
                                                                                  counting and arms were
                                                                                  straight
Breaths                                   Gave 2 breaths                          Gave 2 breaths effectively by
                                                                                  pinching nose and sealing
                                                                                  mouth
Continuation of cycle                     Repeated cycle                          Repeated cycle effectively by
                                                                                  giving 2 breaths appropriately
                                                                                  and 30 compressions correctly

				
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posted:12/5/2011
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