ASCII character map by keralaguest

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									ASCII character map
      ASCII, the history
      ASCII character set table
      ASCII control codes in detail

ASCII, the history
The most used computer standard is without doubt ASCII, the American Standard Code for
Information Interchange. When people started to develop computers, they had to define a way
to represent certain types of information in a digital format. For numbers this was relatively
easy, but text representation was far more difficult. Morse code was developed in the 19th
century, but could not be easily adapted to the binary system in computers because the codes
used for characters have different lengths and there is no obvious sorting method.

IBM came in the sixties of the previous century with it's own solution EBCDIC, Extended
Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code used on their mainframes and AS/400 systems. But
this system had some drawbacks. The letters of the alphabet were placed in blocks which is
not very useful for sorting. At the same time that IBM was developing her EBCDIC solution,
others computer developers were creating their own.

It became evident that exchanging data between various computer systems would be a huge
problem if this diversity would not stop. It was therefore that Bob Bemer—now often called
the Father of ASCII—compiled all different coding methods in a huge list. It was this list that
made computer manufacturers realize that something had to be done about this situation
quiclky. Bob Bemer started standardization committees, and the first implementation of
ASCII was introduced in 1963. Extensions for foreign languages were adopted to ASCII in
1967, and in 1968 it finally became an official government standard.

Nowadays 100% of all computers use the ASCII coding as their primary coding system.
Extensions for foreign languages are all coded as a superset of ASCII. Therefore we can say
without doubt that ASCII is the most used computer standard in the world.

ASCII character set table
The ASCII character set has been adopted as the standard in information exchange. The first
32 characters and the last one are control codes, the others are printable characters. The
control codes DC1 (XON) and DC3 (XOFF) are used in software flow control applications.
The following table shows the ASCII character set.
                                     The ASCII character set
                             0      1    2     3      4      5     6      7
                       0 NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL
                       8    BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
                      16 DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB
                      24 CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
                      32 SP         !     "    #      $     %      &      '
                     40    (     )     *     +     ,     -     .     /
                     48    0     1     2     3     4     5     6     7
                     56    8     9     :     ;     <     =     >     ?
                     64    @     A     B     C     D     E     F     G
                     72    H     I     J     K     L     M     N     O
                     80    P     Q     R     S     T     U     V     W
                     88    X     Y     Z     [     \     ]     ^     _
                     96    `     a     b     c     d     e     f     g
                    104    h     i     j     k     l     m     n     o
                    112    p     q     r     s     t     u     v     w
                    120    x     y     z     {     |     }     ~    DEL

ASCII control codes in detail
0 – NUL – Null character
      The NUL character in the ASCII character set was originally ment to be treated as a
      NOP, a character to be ignored. This would be useful on paper tapes where additional
      information had to be added in between existing information. However, some printing
      devices had the NUL implemented as a wite space instead. Later on, the importance of
      the null character increased significantly when it was defined as the string terminator
      in the C programming language. It made it possible to define strings of infinite length
      in programming languages. Until then most languages like Pascal defined a string as a
      length indicator, followed by an array that contained the characters.
1 – SOH – Start of heading
      If the communication primarily exists of commands and messages, the SOH can be
      used to mark the beginning of each message header. In the original 1963 definition of
      the ASCII standard the name start of message was used, which has been renamed to
      start of heading in the final release. Nowadays we often see the SOH used in serial
      RS232 communications where there is a master-slave configuration. Each command
      from the master starts with the SOH. This makes it possible for the slave or slaves to
      resynchronize on the next command when data errors occured. Without a clear
      marking of the start of each command a resync might be problematic to implement.
2 – STX – Start of text
3 – ETX – End of text
      A message based communication protocol will probably use messages with a header
      containing addressing information, followed by the actual content. The ASCII STX
      indicates the start of the content part in such a message. This control code
      automatically ends a previous header, i.e. there is no control code to close a header
      started by SOH. The end of the message content is signalled with control character
      ETX. The actual contents of a message are not defined by the ASCII standard and are
      protocol dependent. Interesting to note is, that in the 1963 draft of the standard,
      naming conventions differed. STX was in this draft called EOA, end of address and
      ETX started its life as EOM, end of message. This is because in the original draft a
      message always contained a start and stop control character. The new definition
      allowed to use only the SOH to send a fixed length command, without the need to end
      the command with a trailing control code. In fact, in current serial protocols we see
       this commonly used where fixed length messages are sent without a distinction
       between the header and content.
4 – EOT – End of transmission
5 – ENQ – Enquiry
6 – ACK – Acknowledgment
7 – BEL – Audible bell
       The BEL code is an interesting one in the ASCII set as it is not primarily used for data
       coding or device control. Instead it is used to attract human attention with an audible
       sound. It was intended to be used on both computers and devices like printers. In the
       programming language C the control code \a is used the bell signal.
8 – BS – Backspace
       The functionality of the backspace has changed over time. In the beginning it was
       primarily ment to move the cursor one character backwards on printers and teletypes
       to make accents on characters possible. For example to generate the character â one
       could send the sequence aBS^ to the printer. This method was a practical copy of the
       way how characters with accents were handled on mechanical typewriters, but when
       CRT's were introduced it was no longer supported in that way. Therefore now the
       backspace is most often used to not only reposition the cursor, but also delete the
       actual contents on that position. You can use this control character as \b in the
       C programming language.
9 – HT – Horizontal tab
       The HT control character in the ASCII character set is defined for layout purposes. It
       instructs the output device to proceed to the next table column. Table column width is
       flexible, but on many devices the distance between table columns defaults to 8. The
       use of the horizontal tab not only reduced the work for data typists, but also
       introduced a method to reduce the amount of storage space necessary for formatted
       texts. We will now laugh about it, but keep in mind that the ASCII standard was
       developed 40 years ago when every byte of storage was valuable, and compression
       methods like ZIP, didn't exist. The control character HT is available as \t in the
       C programming language.
10 – LF – Line feed
       The line feed character is one of the characters in the ASCII character set that has been
       misused. Originaly, the LF character was ment to move the head of a printer one line
       down. A second control character CR would then be used to move the printing head to
       the left margin. This is the way it was implemented in many serial protocols and in
       operating systems like MS-DOS and Windows. On the other hand the C programming
       language and Unix operating system redefined this character as newline which ment a
       combination of line feed and carriage return. You can argue about which use is
       wrong. The way C and Unix handle it is certainly more natural from a programming
       point of view. On the other hand is the MS-DOS implementation closer to the original
       definition. It would have been better if both line feed and newline were part of the
       original ASCII definition because the first defines a typical device control
       functionality where the latter is a logical text separator. But this separation is not the
       case. Nowadays people tend to use the LF character mainly as newline function and
       most software that handles plain ASCII text files is capable of handling both single LF
       and CR/LF combinations. The control character is in the programming language C
       available as \n.
11 – VT – Vertical tab
       The vertical tab is like the horizontal tab defined to reduce the amount of work for
       creating layouts, and also reduce the amount of storage space for formatted text pages.
       The VT control code is used to jump to the next marked line. To be honest, I have
       never seen a situation or application where this functionality was implemented. In
       most situations a sequence of LF codes is used instead.
12 – FF – Form feed
       The form feed code FF was designed to control the behaviour of printers. When
       receiving this code the printer moves to the next sheet of paper. The behaviour of the
       control code on terminals depends on the implementation. Some clear the screen,
       whereas others only display the ^L characters or perform a line feed instead. The shell
       environments Bash and Tcsh have implemented the ASCII form feed as a clear screen
       command. The form feed is implemented as \f in the C programming language.
13 – CR – Carriage return
       The carriage return in the ASCII character set in its original form is ment to move the
       printing head back to the left margin without moving to the next line. Over time this
       code has also been assigned to the enter key on keyboards to signal that the input of
       text is finished. With screen oriented representation of data, people wanted that
       entering data would also imply that the cursor positioned to the next line. Therefore, in
       the C programming language and the unix operating system, a redefinition of the LF
       control code has taken place to newline. Often software now silently translates an
       entered CR to the LF ASCII code when the data is stored.
14 – SO – Shift out
15 – SI – Shift in
       Even as early as in the sixties, the people who defined the ASCII character set
       understood that it would be valuable to make the character set not only available for
       the English alphabet, but also for foreign ones. The shift in and shift out were defined
       for this purpose. Originaly it was ment to switch between the cyrillic alphabet and
       latin. The cyrillic ASCII definition which uses the shift characters is KOI-7. Later on
       these control codes were also used to change the typeface on printers. In this use SO
       produced double wide characters where condensed printing was selected with SI.
16 – DLE – Data link escape
       It is sometimes necessary in an ongoing data communication to send control
       characters. There are situations where those control characters might be understood as
       part of the normal data stream. The DLE has been defined in the ASCII standard for
       these situations. If this character is detected in a datastream, the receiving party
       knows, that one or more of the following characters must be interpreted in a different
       way than the other characters in the stream. The exact interpretation of the following
       characters is not part of the ASCII definition, just the availability to break out of a
       communication stream with the data link escape. In the Hayes communication
       protocol for modems, the data link escape has been defined as silence+++silence. In
       my opinion it would have been a better idea if the Hayes protocol had used the DLE
       instead, as it does not need to embedded by communication silence, and it would fit
       within an existing standard. However, the developers of Hayes decided otherwise and
       now the +++ sequence is used far more often then the original DLE.
17 – DC1 – Device control 1 / XON – Transmission on
       Although originally defined as DC1, this ASCII control code is now better known as
       the XON code used for software flow control in serial communications. The main use
       is restarting the transmission after the communication has been stopped by the XOFF
       control code. People who used to work with serial terminals probably remember that
       sometimes when data errors occured, it helped to hit the Ctrl-Q key. This is because
       this key-sequence in fact generates the XON control code, which unlocks a blocked
       communication when terminal or host computer accidentaly interpreted an errornous
       character as XOFF.
18 – DC2 – Device control 2
19 – DC3 – Device control 3 / XOFF – Transmission off
20 – DC4 – Device control 4
21 – NAK – Negative acknowledgment
22 – SYN – Synchronous idle
23 – ETB – End of transmission block
24 – CAN – Cancel
25 – EM – End of medium
       The EM is used at the end of a serial storage medium like paper tape or magnetic
       reels. It indicates the logical end of the data. It is not necessary that this is also the
       physical end of the data carrier.
26 – SUB – Substitute character
27 – ESC – Escape
       The escape character is one of the inventions in the ASCII standard that was proposed
       by Bob Bemer. It is used to start an extended sequence of control codes. In this way it
       was not necessary to put all thinkable control codes in the ASCII standard. As new
       technologies would need new control commands, the ESC would be present to be the
       starting character of these multi-character commands. Escape codes are widely used in
       printers and terminals to control device settings like fonts, text positioning and colors.
       If ESC had been absent in the original ASCII definition, the standard would likely
       have been superseeded by some other standard in the past. The escape possibility
       allowed developers to literaly escape from the standard where necessary, but use it
       whenever possible.
28 – FS – File separator
       The file separator FS is an interesting control code, as it gives us insight in the way
       that computer technology was organized in the sixties. We are now used to random
       access media like RAM and magnetic disks, but when the ASCII standard was
       defined, most data was serial. I am not only talking about serial communications, but
       also about serial storage like punch cards, paper tape and magnetic tapes. In such a
       situation it is clearly efficient to have a single control code to signal the separation of
       two files. The FS was defined for this purpose.
29 – GS – Group separator
       Data storage was one of the main reasons for some control codes to get in the ASCII
       definition. Databases are most of the time setup with tables, containing records. All
       records in one table have the same type, but records of different tables can be
       different. The group separator GS is defined to separate tables in a serial data storage
       system. Note that the word table wasn't used at that moment and the ASCII people
       called it a group.
30 – RS – Record separator
       Within a group (or table) the records are separated with RS or record separator.
31 – US – Unit separator
       The smallest data items to be stored in a database are called units in the ASCII
       definition. We would call them field now. The unit separator separates these fields in
       a serial data storage environment. Most current database implementations require that
       fields of most types have a fixed length. Enough space in the record is allocated to
       store the largest possible member of each field, even if this is not necessary in most
       cases. This costs a large amount of space in many situations. The US control code
       allows all fields to have a variable length. If data storage space is limited—as in the
       sixties—this is a good way to preserve valuable space. On the other hand is serial
       storage far less efficient than the table driven RAM and disk implementations of
       modern times. I can't imagine a situation where modern SQL databases are run with
       the data stored on paper tape or magnetic reels...
32 – SP – White space
       You can argue if the space character is a real control character as it is so widely used
       in normal texts. But, as the horizontal tab and backspace are also called control
       characters in the ASCII set, I think it is most natural to call the white space or forward
       space also a control character. Afterall it doesn't represent a character by itself, but
       merely a command to the output device to proceed one position forward, clearing the
       information in the current field. In many applications like wordprocessors the white
       space is also a character that can cause lines to wrap, and web browsers combine
       multiple spaces to just one output character. This stengthens my belief that it is not
       just representing a unique character, but an information carrier for devices and
       applications.
127 – DEL – Delete
       One might question why all control codes in the ASCII character set have low values,
       but the DEL control code has value 127. This is, because this specific character was
       defined for deleting data on paper tapes. Most paper tapes in that time used 7 holes to
       code the data. The value 127 represents a binary pattern were all seven bits are high,
       so when using the DEL character on an existing paper tape, all holes are punched and
       existing data is erased.

								
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