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Cognitive-Emotional Theories and Trauma by xD5m63


Theories and Trauma

   Meagan L. Howell, M.S.
   Saint Louis University
          Theories of PTSD

 Cognitive Models
     Changes in memory function

     Automatic processing

     Shattered core beliefs
        Janoff-Bulman
    Stress Response Theory

 Initial emotional reaction to trauma

 Efforts to “assimilate” new info from the
  trauma into knowledge base
Information Processing Theory

 Trauma memories processed in
  separate & distinct way

 Incomplete processing leads to PTSD
    Cognitive Behavioral Theory

 Aaron T. Beck
 Examine the
  interactions between
                         THOUGHT              EMOTION
  thoughts, emotions,
  and behaviors.
 Experience over time
  impacts the patterns
  we develop
           CBT and Trauma

 Focus is on victim’s:
     Memory functioning
     Information processing
     Shattered or challenged core beliefs
     Avoidance strategies
     Self-criticism
Social Learning Theory

                Albert Bandura
                Observational
                Modeling
                Key for Learning:
            Learned Helplessness

 Martin Seligman

 Lack control in

 Related to depression and
  anxiety responses
Attributions / Locus of Control

        Internal   v. External
  Internal:

  External:
Attributions / Locus of Control

      Global v. Unique

Attributions / Locus of Control

     Stable v. Unstable


 Internal               External
 Global                 Global
 Stable                 Unstable
          Victim’s Appraisals

 Negative appraisals that develop can be
  either external or internal:
     External appraisals are typically related to
      viewing the world and others as potentially
      dangerous and harmful
     Internal appraisals are more often related
      to a sense of responsibility for the trauma
         Types of Appraisals

 Overgeneralization of the traumatic
  event into normal events
 Appraisals of one’s emotional and
  behavioral responses during the event
     These appraisals are thought to lead to
      feelings of shame, responsibility, and guilt
          Kubany’s Model

 Connects PTSD to social psychological
  elements including hindsight bias,
  responsibility, and determinism
 The key is the symptom of post-
  traumatic guilt
        Post-Traumatic Guilt
 Define guilt as, “an unpleasant feeling with an
  accompanying belief (or beliefs) that one should
  have thought, felt, or acted differently” (p.429).
 Guilt is an important factor in the development
  and maintenance of PTSD symptoms in combat
  veterans, victims of domestic violence, rape,
  child sexual abuse, and reckless drivers
 Hindsight bias cognitions “should have, could
  have, if only” contribute to post-traumatic guilt
 Guilt tends to be tied to one’s behaviors

 Sense of public exposure of some
  mistake or failure, accompanied by
  feelings of disapproval in the eyes of
  others and a negative evaluation of the
  self (Tangney, Miller, Flicker, & Barlow,
 Shame is tied more closely to the Self

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