Chapter 5 Handouts Stress Disorders Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 5e – Chapter 5 Slides Handouts by Kar

Document Sample
Chapter 5 Handouts Stress Disorders Comer Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology 5e – Chapter 5 Slides Handouts by Kar Powered By Docstoc
					                 Chapter 5 Handouts

                                                   Stress Disorders




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5
Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D.                         1
          Stress, Coping, and the Anxiety
                     Response
     The state of stress has two components:
            ______________: event creating demands
            ______________: reactions to the demands
                    Influenced by how we appraise (a) __________, and (b)
                     ________________________________
                             People who sense that they have the ability and resources to
                              cope are more likely to take stressors in stride




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                   2
          Stress, Coping, and the Anxiety
                     Response
      When we appraise a stressor as threatening, the natural
       reaction is fear
             Fear is a “package” of physical, emotional, and cognitive
              responses
      Stress reactions, and the fear they produce, are often at
       play in psychological disorders
             People who experience a large number of stressful events are
              particularly vulnerable to the onset of GAD, social phobia,
              panic disorder, and OCD, as well as other psychological
              problems

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                   3
          Stress, Coping, and the Anxiety
                     Response
        Stress also plays a more central role in certain
         psychological disorders, including:
                Acute stress disorder
                Posttraumatic stress disorder
                Technically, DSM-IV-TR lists these patterns as anxiety
                 disorders
        …as well as certain physical disorders called
         psychophysiological disorders
                These disorders are listed in the DSM-IV under
                 “psychological factors affecting medical condition”

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                4
                  Stress and Arousal:
             The Fight-or-Flight Response
     The features of arousal and fear are set in
      motion by the hypothalamus
            Two important systems are activated:
                    ________________________________________
                             An extensive network of nerve fibers that connect the central
                              nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) to the body’s other
                              organs
                             Contains two systems: sympathetic and parasympathetic
                    ________________________________________
                             A network of glands throughout the body that release hormones

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                     5
                  Stress and Arousal:
             The Fight-or-Flight Response
     There are two pathways by which the ANS and
      the endocrine systems produce arousal and fear
      reactions:
            Sympathetic nervous system
            Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   6
                  Stress and Arousal:
             The Fight-or-Flight Response
     When confronting a dangerous situation, the
      hypothalamus first activates the
      ____________________, which stimulates key
      organs either directly or indirectly
     When the perceived danger passes, the
      ___________________________________
      helps return bodily systems to normal


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   7
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   8
                  Stress and Arousal:
             The Fight-or-Flight Response
     The second pathway is the ______________
      ____________________________________
            When confronted by stressors, the hypothalamus
             sends a message to the pituitary gland, which signals
             the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids – the
             stress hormones – into the bloodstream




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5           9
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   10
                  Stress and Arousal:
             The Fight-or-Flight Response
     The reactions displayed by these two pathways
      are referred to as the fight-or-flight response
     People differ in their particular patterns of
      autonomic and endocrine functioning and
      therefore also in their particular ways of
      experiencing arousal and fear…



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   11
                  Stress and Arousal:
             The Fight-or-Flight Response
     People differ in:
            Their general level of anxiety
                    Called “___________________”
                    Some people are usually somewhat tense; others are
                     usually relaxed
                    Differences appear soon after birth
            Their sense of threat
                    Called “___________________”
                    Situation-based (example: fear of flying)

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                12
                       The Psychological Stress
                             Disorders
      During and immediately after trauma, many people
       become highly anxious and depressed
             For some, feelings persist well after the trauma
                     These people may be experiencing:
                             Acute stress disorder
                             Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
             The precipitating event usually involves actual or threatened
              serious injury to self or others
                     ____________________________________________________
                      (unlike other anxiety disorders)

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                    13
                       The Psychological Stress
                             Disorders
     Acute stress disorder
            Symptoms begin within four weeks of event and last
             for less than one month
     Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
            Symptoms can begin at any time following the event
             but must last for longer than one month
            May develop from acute stress disorder


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5    14
         The Psychological Stress Disorders

     Symptoms of the two disorders include:
            Re-experiencing the traumatic event
            Avoidance
            Reduced responsiveness
            Increased arousal, anxiety, and guilt




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   15
           What Triggers a Psychological
                 Stress Disorder?
      Can occur at any age and affect all aspects of life
      ~4% of U.S. population affected each year
      ~7% of U.S. population affected sometime during life
      Around 2/3 seek treatment at some point
      Ratio of women to men is 2:1
             After trauma, 20% of women and 8% of men develop disorders
      Some events – including combat, disasters, abuse, and
       victimization – are more likely to cause disorders than others



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                 16
           What Triggers a Psychological
                 Stress Disorder?
      Combat and stress disorders
             It has long been recognized that soldiers experience distress
              during combat
                     Called “shell shock,” “combat fatigue”
                     Post-Vietnam War clinicians discovered that soldiers also experienced
                      psychological distress after combat
             ~______% of Vietnam combat veterans suffered acute or
              posttraumatic stress disorders
                     An additional 22% had some stress symptoms
                     10% still experiencing problems

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                               17
           What Triggers a Psychological
                 Stress Disorder?
     Disasters and stress disorders
            Acute or posttraumatic stress disorders may also
             follow natural and accidental disasters
                    Civilian traumas have been implicated in stress disorders
                     at least 10 times as often as combat trauma
                    Types of disasters include traffic accidents, weather,
                     earthquakes, and airplane crashes




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                       18
           What Triggers a Psychological
                 Stress Disorder?
      Victimization and stress disorders
             People who have been abused, victimized, or terrorized often
              experience lingering stress symptoms
             Common victimization is ___________________
                     ~_________ women is raped at some time during her life
                     Psychological impact is immediate and may be long-lasting
                     One study found that 94% of rape survivors developed an acute
                      stress disorder within 12 days after assault




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                            19
           What Triggers a Psychological
                 Stress Disorder?
     Victimization and stress disorders
            Ongoing victimization and abuse in the family may
             also lead to stress disorders
            The experience of terrorism or the threat of
             terrorism often leads to posttraumatic stress
             symptoms




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   20
             Why Do People Develop a
           Psychological Stress Disorder?
     Clearly, extraordinary trauma can cause a stress
      disorder
            _______________________________________
     To understand why only some people develop
      stress disorders, researchers have looked to the
      survivors’ biological processes, personalities,
      childhood experiences, and social support
      systems, and to the severity of the trauma itself
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   21
             Why Do People Develop a
           Psychological Stress Disorder?
     Biological and genetic factors
            Traumatic events trigger physical changes in the
             brain and body that may lead to severe stress
             reactions, and, possibly, stress disorders
                    Some research suggests abnormal NT and hormone
                     activity (especially norepinephrine and cortisol)
                             _______________________________________________
                    Evidence suggests that other biological changes and
                     damage may also occur as a stress disorder sets in

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                      22
             Why Do People Develop a
           Psychological Stress Disorder?
      Personality factors
             Some studies suggest that people with certain personality
              profiles, attitudes, and coping styles are more likely to
              develop stress disorders
                     Risk factors include
                             Preexisting high anxiety
                             A history of psychological problems
                             Negative worldview

             A set of positive attitudes (called resiliency or hardiness) is
              protective against developing stress disorders

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                      23
             Why Do People Develop a
           Psychological Stress Disorder?
      Negative childhood experiences
             A wave of studies has found that certain childhood
              experiences increase risk for later stress disorders
             Risk factors include:
                     An impoverished childhood
                     Psychological disorders in the family
                     The experience of assault, abuse, or catastrophe at an early age
                     Being younger than 10 years old when parents separated or divorced




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                 24
             Why Do People Develop a
           Psychological Stress Disorder?
      Social support
             People whose social support systems are weak are more likely
              to develop a stress disorder after a negative event
      Severity of the trauma
            The more severe the trauma and the more direct
             one’s exposure to it, the greater the likelihood of
             developing a stress disorder
                    Especially risky: mutilation and severe injury; witnessing
                     the injury or death of others

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                        25
                How Do Clinicians Treat the
               Psychological Stress Disorders?
     Symptoms have been found to last an average of
      3 years with treatment and 5½ years without
      treatment
            Treatment type varies depending on type of trauma
            General goals:
                    ____________________________________
                    Gain perspective on traumatic experience
                    ____________________________________


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5       26
          How Do Clinicians Treat the
         Psychological Stress Disorders?
      Treatment for combat veterans
             ________________________________
                     Antianxiety and antidepressant medications are most common
             ________________________________
                     Reduce specific symptoms, increase overall adjustment
                     Use flooding and relaxation training
                     Use eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
             ________________________________
                     Bring out deep-seated feelings, create acceptance, lessen guilt
                     Often use family or group therapy formats; rap groups
             ________________________________


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                              27
          How Do Clinicians Treat the
         Psychological Stress Disorders?
      Psychological debriefing
             A form of crisis intervention that has victims of trauma talk extensively
              about their feelings and reactions within days of the critical incident
                     Four-stage approach:
                             Normalize responses to the disaster
                             Encourage expressions of anxiety, anger, and frustration
                             Teach self-help skills
                             Provide referrals
             Relief workers themselves may become overwhelmed
             Research on this type of intervention has called into question its
              effectiveness

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                28
           The Physical Stress Disorders:
           Psychophysiological Disorders
     In addition to affecting psychological
      functioning, stress can also have an enormous
      impact on physical functioning
     The idea that stress and related psychosocial
      factors may contribute to physical illnesses has
      ancient roots – René Descartes called a variation
      on this idea _________________


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   29
           The Physical Stress Disorders:
           Psychophysiological Disorders
     About 80 years ago, clinicians first identified a
      group of physical illnesses that seemed to result
      from an interaction of psychosocial and physical
      factors
     Early versions of the DSM labeled these
      illnesses psychophysiological, or psychosomatic,
      disorders
            DSM-IV-TR calls them psychological factors
             affecting medical condition
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   30
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   31
           The Physical Stress Disorders:
           Psychophysiological Disorders
     It is important to note that these
      psychophysiological disorders bring about
      ___________________________________
            They are different from “apparent” physical illnesses
             like factitious disorders or somatoform disorders,
             which are discussed in Chapter 6




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5       32
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
     Before the 1970s, the best known and most
      common of the psychophysiological disorders
      were ulcers, asthma, insomnia, chronic
      headaches, high blood pressure, and coronary
      heart disease
     Recent research has shown that many other
      physical illnesses may be caused by an
      _____________________________________

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   33
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
      ________________
             Lesions in the wall of the stomach that result in burning
              sensations or pain, vomiting, and stomach bleeding
             Affect up to 20 million people at some point in their lives
             Causal psychosocial factors:
                     Environmental stress, anger, anxiety, dependent personality style
             Causal physiological factors:
                     Bacterial infection



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                34
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
      _________________
             A narrowing of the body’s airways that makes breathing
              difficult
             Affects up to 20 million people in the U.S. each year
                     Most victims are children at the time of first attack
             Causal psychosocial factors:
                     Environmental pressures, troubled family relationships, anxiety, high
                      dependency
             Causal physiological factors:
                     Allergies, a slow-acting sympathetic nervous system, weakened respiratory
                      system


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                        35
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
     ___________________
            Difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep
            Affects 35% of people in the U.S. each year
            Causal psychosocial factors:
                    High anxiety or depression
            Causal physiological factors:
                    Overactive arousal system, certain medical ailments


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                 36
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
      __________________________
             Tension headaches affect 40 million Americans each year
             Migraine headaches affect 23 million Americans each year
             Causal psychosocial factors:
                     Environmental pressures; general feelings of helplessness, anger,
                      anxiety, depression
             Causal physiological factors:
                     Abnormal serotonin activity, vascular problems, muscle weakness



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                37
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
      ________________________
             Chronic high blood pressure, usually producing no overt
              symptoms
             Affects 65 million Americans each year
             Causal psychosocial factors:
                     Constant stress, constant environmental danger, general feelings of
                      anger or depression
             Causal physiological factors:
                     10% caused by physiological factors alone
                     Obesity, smoking, poor kidney function, high proportion of collagen
                      rather than elastic tissue in an individual’s blood vessels


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                  38
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
      ___________________________
             Caused by a blocking of the coronary arteries
             Includes angina pectoris (chest pain), coronary occlusion (complete
              blockage of a coronary artery, and myocardial infarction (heart attack)
             Leading cause of death in men older than 35 years and women older than
              40 years in the U.S.
             Causal psychosocial factors:
                     Job stress, high levels of anger or depression
             Causal physiological factors:
                     High level of cholesterol, obesity, hypertension, the effects of smoking, lack
                      of exercise



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                             39
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
     A number of factors contribute to the
      development of psychophysiological disorders,
      including:
            Sociocultural factors
            Psychological factors
            Biological variables



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   40
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
     Sociocultural factors
            Stressful demands placed on people by their culture
             may ______________________ for
             psychophysiological disorders
                    Examples include poverty, violence, and nuclear threat
                     (such as Three Mile Island)




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                    41
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
     Psychological factors
            According to many theorists, certain needs, attitudes,
             emotions, or coping styles may cause people to
             repeatedly overreact to stressors, thereby increasing
             their likelihood of developing psychophysiological
             disorders
                    Examples: a repressive coping style, Type A personality
                     style


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                     42
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
     Biological factors
            Defects in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are
             believed to contribute to the development of
             psychophysiological disorders
            Other more specific biological problems may also
             contribute
                    For example, a weak gastrointestinal system may create a
                     predisposition to develop ulcers


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                      43
        Traditional Psychophysiological
                   Disorders
      Clearly, sociocultural, psychological, and biological
       variables combine to produce psychophysiological
       disorders
      Although once thought to be unusual, the interaction of
       psychosocial and physical factors is now considered the
       rule of bodily function, not the exception
      In recent years, more and more illnesses have been
       placed in this category


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5     44
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Since the 1960s, researchers have found many
      links between psychosocial stress and a range of
      physical illnesses




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   45
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Are physical illnesses related to stress?
            The development of the Social Adjustment Rating
             Scale in 1967 enabled researchers to examine the
             relationship between life stress and the onset of
             illness




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5       46
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   47
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Are physical illnesses related to stress?
            Using the Social Adjustment Rating Scale,
             _________________________________________
             _________________
            Overall, the greater the amount of life stress, the
             greater the likelihood of illness
                    Researchers have even found a relationship between
                     traumatic stress and death


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                48
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Are physical illnesses related to stress?
            One key weakness of the Social Adjustment Rating
             Scale is that it fails to take into account the particular
             stress reactions of specific populations
                    For example, women and men have been shown to react
                     differently to certain life changes measured by the scale;
                     college students face different stresses, etc.




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                        49
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Researchers have increasingly looked to the
      body’s immune system as the key to the
      relationship between stress and infection
     This area of study is called
      psychoneuroimmunology




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   50
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Psychoneuroimmunology
            The immune system is the body’s network of
             activities and cells that identify and destroy antigens
             (foreign invaders such as bacteria) and cancer cells
                    Among the most important cells in this system are the
                     lymphocytes
                             Lymphocytes are white blood cells that circulate through the
                              blood system and attack the invaders
                             Lymphocytes include helper T-cells, natural killer T-cells, and B-
                              cells


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                     51
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Psychoneuroimmunology
            Researchers now believe that stress can interfere
             with the activity of lymphocytes, slowing them down
             and ______________________________
             _______________________________________
            Several factors influence whether stress will result in
             a slowdown of the system, including biochemical
             activity, behavioral changes, personality style, and
             degree of social support
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5         52
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Psychoneuroimmunology
            Biochemical activity
                    Stress leads to increased activity of the sympathetic
                     nervous system, including a release of norepinephrine
                    In addition to supporting nervous system activity, this
                     chemical also appears to slow down the functioning of the
                     immune system
                    Similarly, the body’s endocrine glands reduce immune
                     system functioning during periods of prolonged stress
                     through the release of corticosteroids

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                   53
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
      Psychoneuroimmunology
             Behavioral changes
                     Stress may set into motion a series of behavioral changes – poor sleep
                      patterns, poor eating, lack of exercise, increase in smoking and/or
                      drinking – that indirectly affect the immune system
             Personality style
                     An individual’s personality style, including their level of optimism,
                      constructive coping strategies, and resilience, plays a role in
                      determining how much the immune system is slowed down by stress




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                54
                     New Psychophysiological
                           Disorders
     Psychoneuroimmunology
            Social support
                    Level of social support appears to play a role in immune
                     system functioning
                             People who have few social supports and feel lonely seem to
                              display poorer immune functioning in the face of stress than
                              people who do not feel lonely
                             Studies have shown that social support and affiliation with others
                              may actually speed up recovery from illness or surgery



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                    55
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     As clinicians have discovered that psychosocial
      factors may contribute to physical disorders,
      they have applied psychological treatment to
      more and more medical problems
            The most common of these interventions are
             relaxation training, biofeedback training, meditation,
             hypnosis, cognitive interventions, insight therapy,
             and support groups


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5        56
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     The field of treatment that combines
      psychological and physical interventions to treat
      or prevent medical problems is known as
      __________________________




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5   57
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
      Relaxation training
             People can be trained to relax their muscles at will, a process
              that sometimes reduces feelings of anxiety
             Relaxation training can be of help in preventing or treating
              medical illnesses that are related to stress
                     Often used in conjunction with medication in the treatment of high
                      blood pressure
                     Often used alone to treat chronic headaches, insomnia, and asthma




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                                 58
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Biofeedback training
            Patients given biofeedback training are connected to
             machinery that gives them continuous readings
             about their involuntary bodily activities
                    This procedure has been used successfully to treat pain
                     from muscle tension, headaches, and muscular disabilities
                     caused by stroke or accident
                    Some biofeedback training has been effective in the
                     treatment of asthma, irregular heartbeat, migraine
                     headaches, and high blood pressure

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                   59
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Meditation
            Although meditation has been practiced since
             ancient times, Western clinicians have only recently
             become aware of its effectiveness in relieving
             physical distress
            Meditation involves turning one’s concentration
             inward and changing one’s level of consciousness
                    Meditation has been used to treat pain, high blood
                     pressure, heart problems, insomnia, and asthma


Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                60
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Hypnosis
            Individuals undergoing hypnosis are guided into a
             sleeplike, suggestible state during which they can be
             directed to act in unusual ways, to remember
             unusual sensations, or to forget remembered events
                    With training, hypnosis can be done without a hypnotist
                     (self-hypnosis)




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                     61
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Hypnosis
            This technique is now used as an aid to
             psychotherapy and to treat medical conditions,
             including asthma, insomnia, high blood pressure,
             and infection




Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5      62
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Cognitive interventions
            People with physical ailments have sometimes been
             taught new attitudes or cognitive responses as part
             of treatment
                    One intervention is self-instruction training, in which
                     patients are taught to rid themselves of negative self-
                     statements and to replace these with positive self-
                     statements
                    This technique has been used in pain management,
                     headaches, ulcers, and back disorders

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                     63
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Insight therapy and support groups
            If negative psychological symptoms (e.g., depression,
             anxiety) contribute to a person’s physical ills, therapy
             to address these emotions should help reduce the ills
            These techniques have been used to treat a variety of
             illnesses including asthma, cancer, headache, and
             arthritis



Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5          64
              Psychological Treatments for
                  Physical Disorders
     Combination approaches
            Studies have found that the various psychological
             treatments for physical problems tend to
             __________________________________
                    Psychological treatments are often most effective when
                     used in combination and with medical treatment
                    With these combined approaches, today’s practitioners are
                     moving away from the mind-body dualism of centuries
                     past

Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e – Chapter 5                    65