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EMOTIONAL and SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

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EMOTIONAL and SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Powered By Docstoc
					EMOTIONAL and
    SOCIAL
 DEVELOPMENT
   ERIKSON’S THEORY OF
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Erik Erikson
  One of the lasting contributions of Freud’s
   psychoanalytic theory is its ability to
   capture the essence of personality
   development during each stage of life.
  The leading neo-Freudian perspective is
   Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory.
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
 Emotions play a powerful role in
 organizing the developments that
 Erikson regarded as so important to
 relationships with caregivers,
 exploration of the environment, and
 discovery of self.
        Life Span Development
► Erikson  proposed that the life span could be
  subdivided into eight “ages” (infancy, toddlerhood,
  etc. through old age)
► At each age, a developmental task, or conflict,
  becomes dominant.
► Healthy development depends on the successful
  and positive resolution of each conflict.
► Unresolved conflicts, or negatively resolved ones,
  carry over to succeeding ages, and cause
  problems.
  The eight ages of development
Age                  Conflict
► Infancy          ► Trust  vs. Mistrust
► Toddlerhood      ► Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
► Pre-school years ► Initiative vs. Guilt
► School years     ► Industry vs. Inferiority
► Adolescence      ► Identify vs. Role Confusion
► Young adulthood ► Intimacy vs. Isolation
► Middle age       ► Generativity vs. Stagnation
► Old age          ► Ego Integrity vs. Despair
1. Basic Trust versus Mistrust
► Freud called the first year the oral stage, in
  which infants’ need for food and oral
  stimulation is vital.

► Erikson believed that a healthy outcome in
  infancy depended on the quality of the
  mother’s behavior during feeding, and not the
  amount of food or oral stimulation offered.

► Basic  trust versus mistrust is the conflict
  during infancy in Erikson’s psychosocial
  theory. The dilemma is resolved positively if
  the balance of care is sympathetic and loving.
2. Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
   ►   Freud’s second stage is the anal stage, during which
       instinctual energies shift to the anal region.

   ►   In Erikson’s theory, autonomy versus shame and
       doubt is the conflict of toddlerhood. It is resolved
       positively if parents provide suitable guidance and
       reasonable choices.

   ►   If children emerge from the first few years without
       sufficient trust in caregivers and without a healthy
       sense of individuality, the seeds are sown for
       adjustment problems.
3. INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT
    In Erikson’s theory, initiative versus guilt is
the psychological conflict of early childhood.

    It is resolved positively through play
experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative
and through development of a conscience that is
not overly strict.
    4. INDUSTRY VERSUS
         INFERIORITY
According to Erikson, the personality changes
of the school years build on Freud’s latency
stage.

In Erikson’s theory, industry versus
inferiority is the psychological conflict of
middle childhood, which is resolved positively
when experiences lead children to develop a
sense of competence at useful skills and
tasks.
The danger at this stage is inferiority,
reflected in the sad pessimism of
children who have little confidence in
their ability to do things well.
      5. IDENTITY VERSUS
     IDENTITY CONFUSION
Identity involves the definition of who you
are, what you value, and the directions you
choose to pursue in life.

Identity versus identity confusion is
the stage in Erikson’s theory which is
resolved positively when adolescents attain
an identity after a period of exploration and
inner soul-searching.
►Adolescents   with a weak sense of trust have
 trouble finding ideals in which to have faith.
►Adolescents with little autonomy or initiative
 do not engage in the active exploration required
 to choose among alternatives.
►Those who lack a sense of industry fail to select
 a vocation that matches their interests and skills.


   The negative outcome of Erikson’s
   identity stage is identity confusion,
   in which some adolescents appear
   shallow and directionless.
6. INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION
Erikson’s young adult stage centers on the
development of intimacy. It is difficult to
become involved in intimate relationships if
individuals do not have a firm sense of self.

Intimacy versus isolation is the stage in
Erikson’s theory where young adults seek to
establish psychological intimacy with another.
The negative outcome, isolation, in which
social relationships can be stereotyped, cold,
and empty.
   7. GENERATIVITY VERSUS
         STAGNATION
Generativity involves the mature adult
establishing and guiding the next generation
and in establishing a productive and
worthwhile life.

The alternative, stagnation, refers to a sense
of personal impoverishment, or the view that
one is not accomplishing much of worth.
    8. EGO INTEGRITY VERSUS
             DESPAIR
In this last stage of late adulthood, a
person looks back on what he/she has built
over a lifetime.
Ego Integration involves the acceptance of
the limitations of life, a sense of being part of
a chain of generations, and a synthesis of all
prior stages. The negative, despair, consists
of regret with what one has, or has not, done
with his/her life.
Erikson was one of the first theorists
   to extend developmental theory
 beyond childhood. Throughout his
       life, he sought a deeper
understanding of middle and old age,
 and he believed that people late in
 life can achieve wisdom, based on
   the positive resolution of earlier
            emotional crises.

				
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posted:12/5/2011
language:English
pages:16