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Phonetics & Phonology
General considerations
   Speech sounds and sounds that convey
   Their patterns
   Sound change
The study of how speech sounds are made,
transmitted and received
Vocal organs
   The lungs and windpipe/trachea
   Larynx and vocal cords
   Vocal tract/cavity: oral tract vs. nasal tract
   Upper lip/teeth, alveolar ridge, hard/soft palate,
    uvular and pharynx
   Lower lip/teeth and the tip/blade/front/center/
    back/root of the tongue
Airstream being obstructed in some way
   Voicing
   Places of articulation
   Manners of articulation

Compare: vie, phi, buy, my
Places of articulation
 bilabial: pie/buy/my
 labiodental: five/vie

 dental: thigh/thy

 alveolar: tie/die/nigh/sigh/zeal/lie

 retroflex: rye

 palato-alveolar: shy

 palatal: you

 velar: hack/hag/hang

Compare: fee, theme, see, she
            wing, win, whim
Manners of articulation
   plosive: my/nigh vs. pie/tie/guy        (nasal vs. oral)
   frictive: five/vie/sigh/zoo/thigh/thy/shy
   approximant: yacht/we/raw
   lateral: lay/ale
   affricate: church/judge

[s] in sing: voiceless, alveolar frictive
[N] in sing: voiced, velar, nasal stop
   The height of the body of the tongue
   The front-back position of the tongue
   The degree of lip rounding
   Regressive
    right place       [p]
    good morning      [b]
    one cup cf bank   [N]
    have to           [f]
   Progressive
    cats              [s]
    dogs              [z]
CV continuum & syllabics

         More/less vowel/consonant-like

Vowels                             Consonants

button     [bQtn]
Little     [litl]
Weak forms
black and white     [En]
but why not         [bEt]
as good as gold     [Ez]
better than not     [TEn]
Did he win          [i]
How do they know    [dE] (before consonants)
to stay or to go    [tE]
I need some paper   [sEm]
The men have gone   [Ev] (not after pronouns)
   Stress (and rhythm)
    It was an accident.
    cheaper fares – cheap affairs
    Give it to John.
    How did you manage to be there in time?
   Pitch/Intonation
    He was in an appalling bad temper.
   Length: bed – beat    cf big – wish
   which sounds occur
    e.g. *xoda - poda
   what their distribution is
    e.g. *ngatus – singer/sing
   how they can be combined
    e.g. *bnick - blick
   how they might be realized differently in different
    e.g blocks – boards - mattresses
Properties of phonology
   Abstract
   Universal
   Modular
   Hierarchical
e.g. 1a. electric – electricity
               [k]        [s]
      b. kick −/→ sick
     2a. cats – dogs – matches
      b. Abner
Phones, minimal pair, phonemes
and allophones
              (allo)phones    phonemes
meat – neat    [m,n]           /m,n/
buy – pie      [b,ph]          /b,p/
pie – spy      [ph,p]

Phonological rules: a   b / c_d
e.g. ph p / s_
Grouping sounds into phonemes
   Complementary distribution
   Free variation
   Phonetic similarity
    e.g. shoe - she
Phonological structure

      prosodic words

        metric feet



Syllable structure
                          

    O R                O       R

      N C                  N       C

     bC     t          k   l P m       p

O = onset (首音)   N = nucleus (音节核)
R = rime (韵)     C = coda (音节尾)
Rhyme and alliteration


       Onset nucleus coda
brand [br      A      nd]
bridge [b      i      dV]
ridge [r       i      dV]
Alternation: insertion or deletion
1a. palp         tread on
 b. palpa        treading on
 c. papt’a       to tread on

                        

    p a l p a      p a p t’ a
Sequencing: sonority hierarchy
vowel > liquid/glide/nasal > affricate/frictive/stop
  1a. *bnick
   b. *kibn
   c. lab-network
   d. drabness
   e. Abner
  2a. bloat – clam                   (C1C2V…)
   b. spring/split                   (C1C2C3V…)
  3a. lent/belt/lift/mist/apt        (…VC1C2)
   b. text                           (…VC1C2C3)
Stress and syllabification
1a. attack – attic   (C)V$CV
 b. below – bellow
 cf tapper – taper
2a. apply            (C)VCCV(C)
 b. Abner
Universals & constraints
CVC vs. CV
V vs. CV
   Syllable structure markedness constraints
   NUC            Syllables must have a nucleaus
   ONSET          Syllables must have an onset
   NOCODA         Codas are not allowed
   Input/output constraints
   *ADD     Don’t add material to the input
   *DELETE Don’t delete material from the input
Subsegmental structure
   Distinctive features
    e.g. /p/ - /b/   (voicing)
         /p/ - /g/   (voicing+place)
         /p/ - /z/   (voicing+place+manner)
   Features
   Binary           [±sonorant]
   Privative        [±nasal]
   Multivalued      [±high]
Feature matrices

      b                    i                l

  consonantal     consonantal     consonantal 
  continuant      high            continuant 
                                                 
  sonorant        back            sonorant 
                                                 
                       tense
   nasal                           nasal       
 bilabial                            coronal       
                                                   
                                                     
Timing: deletion or compensa-
        tory lengthening
1a. /kosmis/     [ko:mis]     courteous
 b. /kasnus/     [ka:nus]     gray
 c. /fideslia/   [fide:lia]   pot

2a. /smereo:/    [merio:]     deserve
 b. /snurus/     [nurus]      daughter-in-law

  Surface phonetic representations (output)


 Underlying phonemic representations (input)

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