Durability Growth through HALT HASS Testing by hcj

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 62

									Durability Growth through
HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing


       Elite Electronic Engineering




             HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Topics Covered


   Review Your Requirements
   Overview of Accelerated Stress Testing
   HALT
      HALT Equipment, Test Methods, Expectations
   HASS
   Other Accelerated Tests
   Summary
   Q&A




                      HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Test Requirements & Goals


   Is Testing Desired by Manufacturer to
    Reduce Cost of Development,
    Manufacturing, and Warranty Obligations?
   Mandated by Manufacturer’s Client?
   What are your expectations and goals for
    this testing?



                 HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
          New Product Development Testing Screens

             HALT, HAST, ESD,
 New         Power Cycle, EMI                               RTCA DO-160
Product                                                       MIL-810,
                                                             SAE J1455
                                                           Temp, Vibration, Shock,
                                                              Waterproofness,
                                                             Altitude, Humidity

  Analysis                                                                              HASS
   Phase


     Development
       Phase            Qualification
                          Testing                Qual Retest

  Qualitative Testing                                                   Manufacturing
                             Quantitative Testing
                                                                          Screen
                                    HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
   Quantitative Testing

   Success Run Testing
   Test to Failure- Weibull




Reliability Block Diagrams                    .98


                .95           .80                                 .98   =0.73


                                              .65

                                    HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Which Tests To Run


   Input from all departments
   Determine failure modes (FMEA)
   Consider complete life cycle of product
   Suggest stresses that will precipitate failures
       Maximum Stress vs Time Dependent
   Develop test plan
   Execute test


                   HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
   Time Dependent Failure Mechanisms


 Failure Mode         Failure Mechanism                     Accelerating Factors
Loss of signal        Silicon Diffusion                 Temperature
Power Failure         Dielectric Breakdown              Electric Field
Loss of signal        Electromigration                  Temperature & Power Cycling

Intermittent Output   Corrosion & Oxidation of          Humidity, Voltage, Temperature
                      Fractures

Loss of signal        Dendrite Growth                   Humidity, Temperature

Water Intrusion       Seal Leaks                        Pressure
Cracked Solder        Fatigue                           Thermal cycling & vibration
Joint



                                   HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing                   (Qualitative)

   Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT)
   Temperature and Thermal Shock (60C/min)
   Vibration 6 axis simultaneous (6 DOF)
   Very high stress levels to achieve time compression
    & quickly find the weakest links.
   Additional stresses likely to precipitate flaws can be
    used as a part of the HALT/HASS program.
     power cycling, voltage /electrical stress




                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing
Design Optimization
       Provide data to designers for risk assessment
       Weak links- opportunity to improve the product before the design is “locked in”.
       Build in lifetimes of use in its field environment, “very large margins”.
       Proactive technique focusing on the mode and mechanism of failure, not on the
        specifications or the level of stress.
       No pass/fail criteria HALT specification. Some HALT specifications describe a
        “common method”

Product Comparisons
       Side-by-side evaluation of various products and product revisions under similar
        extreme stress

HASS Endpoints
       Large margins enables the use of high levels of stress in the HASS screen. Leave
        several if not many lifetimes of use remaining in the product.
       Enables the use of HASS to quickly detect any slippage that might occur in the
        manufacturing process.



                               HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing

   Halt Chamber
       Workspace
           42”x42”x40”




       Heating & Cooling
           -100C to +200C
           >60C/min depending
            on product loading and
            temperature range



                             HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
    HALT Testing
   Heating
    Elements
       Nichrome
        Coils
       FLA 135A
       Min Service
        175A
       460VAC 3ph
       Airflow
        4,000CFM




                      HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing
   LN2 Cooling
       4.5GPM
       30 PSIG




                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
    HALT Testing
   RS Vibration Table
       Multi-axis repetitive shock
       3 linear, 3 rotational Axes
       2Hz-10,000Hz
       Up to 60GRMS
        (depending on loading)
       Table Size 30” x 30”
       Payload up to 400lbs
        (reduced vibration amplitude)
       Compressed Air
            90PSIG, 48CFM




                                        HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
    HALT Testing

   RS Impactors




                   HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing

1.E+01

                        HALT PSD
1.E+00


 1.E-01


 1.E-02


 1.E-03


 1.E-04
               G^2/Hz




 1.E-05                                          Frequency (Hz)

 1.E-06
     1.0E+00            1.0E+01        1.0E+02             1.0E+03    1.0E+04   1.0E+05




                                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




                                    Components on PWB


 Ckt board resonant frequencies


                                    Chip capacitors and die bond wires




                                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
   RS vs. ED
                                                                       Acceleration Profile
                            1x 10 -1
     Acceleration (G²/Hz)




                            1x 10 -2




Control                     1x 10 -3
                                    20                           100                                              1000           2000
Demand                                                                         Frequency (Hz)


Feb 11, 2005 10:23:11                    Level 1) 100%                     Output: 0 V RMS         Ice Corporation (33141)

Demand: 6.061 G                          Level Time: 0:05:00                                       De-Icing Control Unit (9510 Rev T)

Control: 6.06 G                          Total Time: 0:05:22               End of Test             Y Axis   sn: C350-00057-SAC




                                                               HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
RS vs. ED
   ED (Electrodynamic Vibration)
       Controllable Vibration Spectra
       5Hz-2000Hz
       Single Axis
       2” Displacement
   RS
       Random Only
       6 Axis
       30Hz-10,000Hz
       10x -15x higher peak accel vs. ED

                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Steps Involved with HALT

 STEP 1: Pre-HALT Planning
    Discuss product with multi-functional team
    Develop test plan
    Bench test to confirm operation before starting HALT




                    HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
     HALT Process
STEP 2: Preparing for the HALT

 Setup
    Design appropriate vibration fixture
    Tune chamber proportional & integral parameters
    Configure air flow for maximum product temperature
     change rate
    Apply thermocouples and accelerometers to device
     under test
    Setup functional test equipment


                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
 HALT Process
STEP 3: Thermal Step Stressing Cold
    Begin at ambient
    Step down in 5°C or 10°C increments
    Use caution as fundamental limit is approached
    Approximate dwell time of 10 minutes at each temperature
    Allow sufficient time to run functional tests
    Find and fix failures
    Verify operation of thermal safeties
    Disable safeties to determine actual operating & destruct limits
    Continue until fundamental limit of technology is reached
    Practice continuous failure monitoring


                           HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
     HALT Process

STEP 4: Thermal Step Stressing Hot
    Begin at ambient
    Step up in 5°C or 10°C increments
    Use caution as fundamental limit is approached
    Approximate dwell time of 10 minutes at each temperature
    Allow sufficient time to run functional tests
    Find and fix failures
    Verify operation of thermal safeties
    Disable safeties to determine actual operating & destruct limits
    Continue until fundamental limit of technology is reached
    Practice continuous failure monitoring


                           HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Limits Encountered in HALT
              Data from Gregg Hobbs of Hobbs Engineering




 Lower      Lower                                               Upper     Upper
Destruct   Operating               Product                     Operating Destruct
 Limit       Limit                  Specs                        Limit    Limit
                  Operating                        Operating
                     Margin                           Margin

      Destruct Margin                                Destruct Margin




                                 Stress
                           HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
     HALT Process

STEP 5: Rapid Thermal Cycling
    Transition temperature at maximum product temperature change
     rates
    Select temperatures 5°C inside upper and lower operational limits
    Reduce change rate by 10°C/min if product cannot withstand
     maximum rate
    Continue thermal cycling until operating limit (°C/min) is found
    Continue cycling for a minimum of 10 minutes
    Apply functional testing and continuous failure monitoring
    Depending on the product or application, this step is sometimes
     omitted

                             HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Process

STEP 6: Vibration Step Stress

    Understand how product responds to vibration input
    Vibration is stepped-up in increments, normally 3-5
     Grms on the product
    Dwell time of 10 minutes at each level is typically
     sufficient
    Start dwell once product reaches vibration set point
    Continue until operational or destruct limit is found
    Apply additional product stresses during process
                    HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
     HALT Process
STEP 7: Combined Environments
    Develop thermal profile
    Use established thermal operating limits, dwell times and change
     rates
    Incorporate functional tests and continuous failure monitoring
    Begin with constant vibration level of approximately 3-5 Grms
    Step up in 3-5 Grms increments upon completion of each thermal
     cycle
    Use tickle vibration when higher Grms levels are reached
    Add 3-5 Grms tickle to determine if failures were precipitated at
     high G level but only detectable at lower G level


                          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Suggested HALT Process Per GMW 8287




              HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Other Stresses
     The Product Determines the Stress
     Power Cycling
     Output Loading
     Voltage/Electrical Stresses
     Humidity (HAST)
     Pressure
     Altitude
     Corrosion


                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Process

STEP 8: Lessons Learned
    Determine root cause of all failures that occurred
    Meet with design engineers to discuss HALT results
    Management cost justification & risk assessment
    Determine and implement corrective action
    Perform Verification HALT
    Insure problems are fixed and new problems were not
     introduced
    Periodically evaluate product as it is subjected to engineering
     changes



                       HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing

Other considerations                                         Lower
                                                            Operating
   Quantity of Samples                                       Limit
       Product Improvement                                      Operating
       Preparation for HASS/HASA                                  Margin
       Comparison Testing
   Fixturing
       Stimulation vs. Simulation
   Product and Fixture Weight
   Test Uniformity

                        HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
                           HALT Testing
                                   Cross Table Uniformity
                           160.0                                                            25.0

                           140.0       136.3                                        136.1
                                                   130.0               128.4                20.0
25 & 55 Grms Input Scale




                           120.0       17.9




                                                                                                   5 Grms Input Scale
                                                                                    16.3
                           100.0                                       14.7                 15.0
                                                           93.3

                                                   12.9
                            80.0
                                       69.3                10.8

                            60.0
                                                   64.0
                                                                       60.0
                                                                                    65.5
                                                                                            10.0
                                                           45.2
                            40.0
                                                                                            5.0
                            20.0

                             0.0                                                            0.0
25 Grms Input                      1           2           3       4            5
55 Grms Input
5 Grms Input                                        Table Location



                                                                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing
                                                          Response Level


Test Location   Control Level     Grms- X            Grms-Y          Grms-Z   Mean
     1               5              21.2               19.2           13.4    17.9
     1               25             79.8               73.0           55.0    69.3
     1            MAX (55)          158.1             138.3           112.6   136.3
     2               5              14.2               14.6            9.8    12.9
     2               25             73.3               68.4           50.3    64.0
     2            MAX (55)          150.1             134.2           105.6   130.0
     3               5              10.5               13.8            8.1    10.8
     3               25             42.6               55.6           37.3    45.2
     3            MAX (55)          85.5              113.6           80.7    93.3
     4               5              16.6               17.4           10.1    14.7
     4               25             68.1               67.5           44.5    60.0
     4            MAX (55)          145.3             140.3           99.7    128.4
     5               5              19.1               18.4           11.3    16.3
     5               25             77.1               69.5           50.0    65.5
     5            MAX (55)          157.4             140.5           110.5   136.1
     1               5              20.5               17.9           12.1    16.8
                                HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
     1               25             75.1               72.3           51.9    66.4
     1            MAX (55)          158.1             140.7           112.8   137.2
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
  HALT Testing
Failure Analysis Services




                            HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing
Failure Analysis Services




“SEM photographs showing and overall view (top, ~40x) and a typical
closer view (bottom, ~800x) showing some surface debris but no
damage to the integrated circuit from sample D4.”
                            HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HALT Testing




          HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Other Uses of HALT
     Component Selection
         Did vendor perform HALT AND HASS?
         Use to verify products operating limits.
         Use to select most robust product.
     Vendor Selection
         If subcontracting, vendor needs to meet your
          standards (Halt and Hass equipment, should
          be the same.)




                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HASS- Highly Accelerated Stress Screening

       HASS is used as a production quality screen
       quickly identify any weaknesses that might enter the
        product due to changes or malfunctions in the
        manufacturing process.
       Each weakness detected, represents an opportunity
        to take corrective action prior to shipping large
        quantities of flawed product.
       The screen is “tuned” so that it detects weak product
        while still leaving several, if not many lifetimes of
        field use in the shipped product.



                      HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HASS Testing

   HASS- 100% Production Screening
   HASA- 1-10% Production Auditing
   Safety of of HASS
       Repeat screen a minimum of 20 times
       Assuming remove less than 5% life
       Failures after less than 10 times, too harsh


   Re-HALT- Confirm margins
                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Other Accelerated Stress Testing

   Acceleration Factors
   Temperature
        Arrhenius Model
   Humidity
        Arrhenius-Peck Model
   Vibration
        Miner Criteria
   Voltage
        Inverse Power Law
   Product Life Cycling
        CALT Testing
        Test to Failure & Apply Weibull Analysis
                      HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Product Life Cycling
    Calibrated Accelerated Life Testing (CALT)
        Suggest primary fatigue mechanism
        Simulate loads at three stress levels
            90% of foolish load (first test)
            80% of first test load
            Third stress level
                Depends on first two and ultimate life
        Test all units to failure
        Plot S-N curve, Determine AF’s
        Generate Weibull Plot


                       HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
  Product Life Cycling
Accelerated Life Testing
•“Accelerated Testing: Statistical
Models, Test Plans, and Data Analysis”
     •By Wayne Nelson



•CALT GMW 8758




•Example
Automatic Lubricating System


                                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
   CALT Test Example

•Simulate loads
at three stress
levels


•Monitor test
counting cycles
to failure




                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
 CALT Test Example
                                                                               Stress    Cycles To Failure
                                                                                 36            3121
                                                                                 36            1075
                                                                                 36             629
                                                                                 36            9452
                                                                                 31           11386
•Collect Failure Data                                                            31
                                                                                 31
                                                                                               1104
                                                                                               6624
                                                                                 31            1577
                                                                                 25           11044
                                                                                 25           15405
                                                                                 25           19257

•Plot and determine Inverse                                                      25           28723


                                                                                               Pump S-N Curve
Power Relationship                                              100000




                                                  Cycles to Failure
                                                                      10000




•AF = (Saccel/Snormal)b                                               1000


                                                                                                                                 -5.93
                                                                                                             y = 3050953219559.39x
                                                                       100

                                                                          10                     Applied Stress (PSI)                    100

                                                 Determine AF's
                                                 Condition                              Stress Value (PSI)              Accel Factor
                                                 High Stress                                    36                          180
                                                 Mid Stress                                     31                          74
                                                 Confirm Stress                                 25                          21
                                                 Normal Stress                                  15                          N/A


                              HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
    CALT Test Example
                                                                                                  Cycles at Normal
                                            Stress Level           Test Stress     Accel Factor        Stress        Rank

   Sort and apply median ranks                High (IG)
                                               High (IG)
                                                                      3121
                                                                      1075
                                                                                       180
                                                                                       180
                                                                                                       560979
                                                                                                       193224
                                                                                                                       9
                                                                                                                       4
                                               High (IG)               629             180             113059          2
   Generate Weibull Plot                      High (PP)
                                             Medium (PP)
                                                                      9452
                                                                     11386
                                                                                       180
                                                                                        74
                                                                                                      1698933
                                                                                                       843189
                                                                                                                      12
                                                                                                                      11
                                              Medium (IG)             1104              74              81757          1
                                             Medium (PP)              6624              74             490540          8
                                              Medium (IG)             1577              74             116785          3
                                             Confirm (PP)            11044              21             228397          5
                                             Confirm (PP)            15405              21             318585          6
                                             Confirm (PP)            19257              21             398246          7
                                             Confirm (PP)            28723              21             594009         10



                                              Sorted Least to Most
                                           (Resort these numbers for each
                                              change to spreadsheet)        Median Rank
                                                      81757                     5.61
                                                     113059                    13.60
                                                     116785                    21.67
                                                     193224                    29.76
                                                     228397                    37.85
                                                     318585                    45.95
                                                     398246                    54.05
                                                     490540                    62.12
                                                     560979                    70.24
                                                     594009                    78.33
                                                     843189                    86.40
                                                    1698933                    94.39




                           HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
    CALT Test Example
                                  Re lia S o f t W e ib u ll+ + 7 - w w w . Re lia S o f t . co m

Weibull Plot                                             99.000
                                                                                               Pr oba bi l i ty - We i bul l
                                                                                                                                          P r o b a b ilit y- W e ib u ll

                                                                                                                                          Da t a 1


•Obtain distribution parameters
                                                                                                                                          W e ib u ll- 2 P
                                                         90.000                                                                           RRX S RM M E D F M
                                                                                                                                          F = 1 2 /S = 0
                                                                                                                                               Da t a P o in t s
                                                                                                                                               P r o b a b ilit y Lin e




•Reliability metrics                                     50.000




    •B1, B10
                                   Unreliability, F(t)
    •Reliability vs life
                                                         10.000




                                                         5.000




•Reliability Block Diagrams
                                                                                                                                        S t e ve La ya
                                                                                                                                        E lit e E le ct r o n ic E n g in e e r in g
                                                                                                                                        6 /1 2 /2 0 0 8
                                                         1.000                                                                          4 :5 8 :4 9 P M
                                                          10000.000                      100000.000                 1000000.000   1. 000E+ 7
                                                                                                      Time, (t)
                                                       




                              HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HAST Testing
Accelerated Humidity Testing
•HAST (Highly Accelerated
Stress Testing)
•JESD22-A110 B
•Compress 1000 Hour 85/85
Humidity to 96 Hours
•High Temperatures may
stimulate uncorrelated failures
•Arrhenius-Peck Accelerated
Model for Temperature
Humidity



                         HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
HAST Testing




 “…Photographs showing environmental damage to the solder
 joints of A8.”

                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Instrumentation & Data Acquisition


     Yokagawa DL708 Scope
         Ten Systems In-House
         4, 8, and 16 Channel

     LeCroy Digital Storage Scopes
         1.5GHz Bandwidth, 8GS/s, 16M data
          points
         Seven Systems In-House
             400MHz, 500Mhz scopes

     Agilent 34970A Data Acquisition
      System
         120 Single Ended or 60 Differential Input
         AC/DC, Volts, Amps, Frequency, Ohms



                             HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Advanced Material Center


Materials Testing and Failure Analysis
   Physical Testing
   Thermal Testing
   Chemical Testing
   Light & Appearance
   Exposure Testing
   Product Comparisons


Location: Ottawa, Illinois
www.amc-testlabs.com

                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Advanced Material Center

Physical Testing
  Tensile
  Tear
  Dart
  Flextural
  Friction
  Surface Tension
  Specific Gravity
  Density
  COF




                      HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
    Advanced Material Center


   Thermal Analysis
       Differential Scanning Calorimeter
        (DSC)
           Melt range
           Purity


       Thermal Mechanical Analyzer (TMA)
           Expansion/Contraction


       Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA)
           Thermal degradation
           Ash


                                  HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Materials Engineering Incorporated


Complete Metallurgical Laboratory
   Failure Analysis
   Analysis of Processing Problems
   Contamination Identification
   Engineering Support/Consulting
   Laboratory Testing
   Specialized Testing
   Litigation Support and Expert Testimony


Location: Virgil, Illinois
www.materials-engr.com
                         HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Materials Engineering Incorporated

Complete Metallurgical Laboratory
 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with EDS
 OES Chemical Composition
 Metallography and Microscopy
 Microhardness and Hardness
 Electrical Conductivity
 Density/Specific Gravity
 Surface Roughness (Ra)
 Pressure and Torque Testing
 Specialized Product and Component Testing
 ISO 17025 Accredited by A2LA



                     HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Other Tests to Failure




            HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Other Tests to Failure




            HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing
Durability Growth to HALT HASS


Any Questions?




Thank You!

             HALT/HASS and Accelerated Testing

								
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