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2007 Solar Decathlon - Power and Energy Systems

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					              Solar House: 2007 DOE Solar
             Decathlon National Competition

Thanks to:

Pavlina Akritas                     Patrick Chapman,
Scott Donahue
Leonor Linares                      Asst. Prof.
Joseph Puzey
Jonathan Sander
John Schaefer
Nicholas Stout                      Sponsors: DOE, Ill. Clean
                                    Energy Community
                                    Foundation, UIUC Design
                                    Council
                      12 May 2006
1
    What is the Solar Decathlon (SD)?
       International student design competition
        –   Held in October 2007
       Led by US Dept. of Energy
        –   Prior contests in 2002, 2005
        –   Supported with $100k contracts
       19 universities
        –   UIUC, MIT, Cornell, GA Tech, U-Missouri-Rolla,…
       Students (with faculty guidance) will
        –   Build a house powered only from sun
        –   Display house in Washington DC, National Mall
2
    House Basic Guidelines
       Footprint: 800 sq. ft.
       North or south facing (lot is random selection)
       Allowed some vegetation
       Restrictions on height (envelope)
       Must meet certain livability conditions
        –   Meant to be a habitable house
       Must aim for a marketable house
       Some restrictions on components


3
    Ten “Events”




4
    Architecture
       Firmness
        –   Structures, portability, etc.
       Commodity
        –   Ease of getting in and out, accommodating solar
            array, usefulness of space
       Delight
        –   Curb appeal, memorable (good or bad reasons!), all
            sides of hous




5
    Engineering
       Energy analysis
        –   Simulation submitted at final competition
        –   Public information
        –   Closeness of model to final product
       Design and implementation
        –   Use of creative methods
        –   Awareness of materials, architecture
        –   Robustness
        –   Economic value


6
    Marketability
       Economic analysis
        –   What is the payback period?
        –   How much is upfront cost?
        –   How good is your analysis?
       Market appeal
       Deliverables (house “works”)
       Code and regulations
        –   Would pass inspection, meets contest rules



7
    Communications
       Publicity a big factor in contest
       DOE wants exposure
        –   National mall attracts > 300,000 visitors during
            contest
        –   25M+ people exposed to print, radio, TV, etc.
            (Home and Garden Network “I Want That”)
       Web site
        –   Deliverable, early version going up now
        –   Many expectations here
       Site activity – presentation of house, conduct
8
    Comfort Zone
       Must maintain 400 sq. ft. of space conditioning
        –   Temperature
        –   Humidity




9
     Appliances
        Refrigerator
        Freezer
        Washer
         –   5 pts, two days, each day for 12 bath towels
        Dryer
         –   Based on weight




10
     Appliances, cont’d
        Dishwashing
         –   2.5 points, each day, four days
        Cooking
         –   Must serve edible meals
         –   Limits on type of food (no sushi, e.g.)
         –   Look for energy efficient ways to cook!
         –   Includes dinner party
        TV, Computer
         –   5 pts each


11
     Hot Water
        All shower tests
         –   15 minute showers, each morning and afternoon




12
     Lighting
        Quality
         –   Measure light in different locations (kitchen, desk,
             etc), attractiveness, etc.
        Day quality
        Evening quality – must have night light




13
     Energy Balance
        Goal is to have balance greater than 0 kW-h
        Teams can bring generators
         –   Backup for faulty electrical systems
         –   Judges will track the energy from any nonsolar
             source
         –   Will check batteries before and after
        Measurement at beginning and end of week




14
     Getting Around
        Drive Chrysler GEM car every day
         –   2 passengers
         –   No modifications to car or charger allowed
         –   Go as many miles as you can – top team sets the
             mileage credit goal
        No pushing
        8.64-10.8 kWh per 30 mile drive




15
     Funding
        $100k DOE
        $150k Illinois Clean Energy Community
         Foundation
         –   Also donated funds for wind turbines on South Farm
        $50k UIUC Design Council
        Requests in for
         –   UIUC student energy fee
         –   Provost matching ($75k?)
         –   Fundraising (opposed to grant-writing)
         –   In-kind
        Anticipate ~$500k to $600k total support
16
     Early Calculations
        ECE 398 RES student project
        Overviewed the contest and made some
         reasonable estimates
                                                       Insolation vs. time of day
                                  1000

                                             1-Sep
                                  800        1-Oct
             Insolation [W/m^2]




                                  600


                                  400


                                  200


                                    0
                                     6.00   8.00     10.00   12.00   14.00    16.00   18.00   20.00

17                                                              Hour of day
     Data for Washington Area
                              Solar Position Method   Bird Clear Sky Model
                                  [kWh/day/m2]         Data [kWh/day/m2]


      September 1 (day 244)           10.02                   8.77

       October 1 (day 274)            9.07                    8.01




18
     Shopped for PV Modules
        Chose Sharp ND-200U1
         –   1.63 m2 area
         –   Max power: 200 W @ 28.5V
         –   122W/m2
         –   12.3% efficiency
        Reasonable compromise on
         cost, efficiency
         –   Contest limits packaged cost to
             retail $10/W(peak)


19
     Batteries
        Trojan T-145
         – 5 Hr Rate: 195 Ah


        Need to size correctly
         –   Parallel, series
         –   May look at Li-ion for higher
             Coulomb efficiency




20
     Load Estimate
                                            Hourly Power Usage
                                                                                              Working
                     2500
                                                                  Refrigerator
                                                                                              toward
                                                                  Freezer                     detailed
                     2000                                         Food Heating
                                                                  Dishwasher                  building
                                                                  Clothes washer
                                                                  Dryer
                                                                                              simulation
     Power [watts]




                     1500
                                                                  Interior Lighting
                                                                  Exterior Lighting           Peak v.
                                                                  Water heater
                     1000
                                                                  Ventilation & Air Quality   Average
                                                                  Air Conditioning
                                                                  Humidity Control            Interesting
                      500                                         Television
                                                                  Computer
                                                                  Automotive
                        0
                            1   12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 100 111
                                          Time [hour]


21
     Total
                                        Total Power Usage


                        5000

                        4500

                        4000

                        3500

                        3000
        Power [Watts]




                        2500                                                  Total

                        2000

                        1500

                        1000

                         500

                           0
                               0   20   40     60     80    100   120   140
                        -500
                                              Time [Hour]
22
     Breakdown
           Percent of Average Daily Energy Consumption
                     2%   3%
                                2%
                3%                    0%
                                             1%                           34.2 kW-h/day
                                                 1%   Refrigerator
          25%                                         Freezer
                                                 3%   Food Heating
                                                      Dishwasher
                                           12%        Clothes Washer
                                                      Dryer
                                                      Interior Lighting
     0%
                                                      Exterior Lighting
     2%                                               Water Heater
     1%                                               HVAC
                                                      Humidity Control
                                                      Television
                                                      Computer
                                                      Automotive

                          45%



23
     Rough Capabilities
        800 sq. ft = 72 m2
        Declination in Sept-Oct ~ 9/21 equinox = 0 deg
        Aim panels at 40 deg (latitude of DC)
         –   We get 1/cos(40 deg) gain in area  90 m2
        3.6 to 4.4 kW-h/day/m2 in Sept-Oct, minimum
         –   360 kW-h/day incident
        12% efficient panels, system (say) 90%
         –   39 kW-hr/day
        Adds up to: NOT MUCH

24
     Biggest Impact
        Air conditioning is the largest power consumer,
         closely followed by automotive
        Water heater is the source of largest power
         surge
        Looking for way to cogenerate
         –   Heat pumps, exchange
         –   Electric vs. direct solar heat for water




25
            Looking at Alternative Layout
                    300-W PV Module


                                                                  .............

                     DC-DC                DC-DC       DC-DC                             DC-DC
                    Max Power            Max Power   Max Power                         Max Power
                     Tracker              Tracker     Tracker                           Tracker

   to DC loads                                                                                     Battery
(e.g. LED lights)                                                                                   Bank

                                Low-voltage DC                        DC-AC
                                 (24 V to 48 V)                       Inverter
                                 “Battery Bus”


                                                                 to 110 V AC loads
                                                                  (e.g. car charger)



           No mismatches, DC bus – some loads are DC, low voltage
           (NEC), modular, plug-play, better power tracking
26
     Examples from 2005 Competition
             U. Colorado (winner)




27
     More examples
        Crowder College




28
     More
            Florida Tech




29
     More…
             NYIT




30
     Even More…
          Michigan




31
     Couple others…
                      Madrid




                      Maryland




32
     UIUC 2007           ?
        Plans coming together this summer
         –   “Hal” (2001 Space Odyssey) was invented HERE
        Watch the website
        Teams from engineering, architecture,
         education, communication, industrial design,
         computer science…
        Ty Newell (MIE), Dave Schjebel (Assoc VC),
         Mike McCulley (Arch), Bill Sullivan
         (Environmental Council)
                 http://www.solardecathlon.uiuc.edu/
33

				
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