Name_______________________ Weathering Weathering includes by dandanhuanghuang

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									                                                                 Name_______________________


                                   Weathering
Weathering includes mechanical weathering and chemical weathering. Mechanical
weathering is any process that breaks up rock without changing its chemical composition.
Chemical weathering is any process in which water, air, or other substances react with the
minerals in the rock and change the chemical composition of the rock.

Decide if the following descriptions are examples of mechanical weathering or chemical weathering.
Write the word “mechanical” or “chemical” in the blank at the left.

______________________ 1. Moss growing on the surfaces of rocks, producing pits in the rocks

______________________ 2. The wedging of tree roots along natural joints in granite outcrops

______________________ 3. Limestone dissolved by carbonic acid

______________________ 4. The oxidation of minerals that contain iron

______________________ 5. Animal burrows dug in rock that let in water and air

______________________ 6. Repeated freezing and thawing of water that cracks rock

______________________ 7. The action of water, salt, and air on car fenders and panels

______________________ 8. Acids from plant roots which break up rocks

______________________ 9. Formation of potholes in streets during severe winters

______________________ 10. Lifted sections of sidewalk along tree-lined streets

______________________ 11. A small rock falling from a cliff

______________________ 12. Feldspar mixing with acidic groundwater and producing clay minerals

______________________ 13. Halite in rocks dissolving in water

______________________ 14. Decaying plants dissolving some of the minerals in rocks

______________________ 15. Tree roots cracking the concrete foundation of a house
                                  Rates of Weathering
Choose the one best response. Write the letter of that choice in the space provided.

______1. The rate at which conglomerates weather is most dependent upon the rock’s:
            a. Cementing material     b. age              c. grain size      d. texture

______ 2. Which of the following best accounts for the damage to Cleopatra’s Needle after being
          moved to New York City?
            a. carbonations             b. dry climate     c. pollution        d. cold climate

______ 3. Weathering is generally slow in climates with extended periods of:
            a. acid rain                b. cold              c. high winds           d. humidity

______ 4. At which point in the diagram will weathering occur most rapidly?

                                   a.   A
                                   b.   B
                                   c.   D
                                   d.   D


Complete each statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the space provided.

5. The four main factors that determine the rate of weathering are climate, composition, exposure,
and __________________.

6. Fractures and joints allow weathering to occur more rapidly by increasing a rock’s
___________________________.

7. Water that penetrates rock and then freezes causes weathering by the process of
___________________________.

8. When a rock is split into eight smaller blocks, its surface area increases by a factor of
___________________________.

9. Rocks containing calcite are most easily weathered by the chemical process of
___________________________.

10. Carbonation is responsible for converting calcite to _______________________.
                                              Soil
Use the diagram of a soil profile to answer Questions 1-5 on the lines provided. Then answer
questions 6 & 7.




1. Which soil layer contains the most humus? _________________________________________.

2. How far into the soil do plan roots extend? __________________________________________.

3. Where in this soil profile are worms and insects breaking down organic matter in the soil?
______________________________________________________________________________.

4. Where in this soil profile is solid rock being weather into soil? ___________________________.

5. What is the name of the process by which water carries materials from the upper horizons down to
the lower levels? ____________________________

6. What factors in an area help determine the type of soil—the thickness of the layers and their
composition? ____________________________________________________________________.

								
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