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					                                                                                                            REPORT NUMBER 16 • AUGUST 1999




Residential Renovation
            AIA Small Project Forum
The Frustrations
(Sour Grapes) of
                                                             sell the homeowner on this approach
                                                             by saying they will save the home-
                                                             owner money. To add to the problems
                                                                                                                               PIA
Residential Additions                                        in residential remodeling, many home-

and Renovation Projects
Charles G. Poor, AIA
                                                             owners don’t think architects are really
                                                             working when they come to process
                                                             applications for payments or make site
                                                                                                            AIA  IN THIS ISSUE
AIA Potomac Valley                                           inspections. That is until something            1   The Frustrations (Sour Grapes)
                                                             goes wrong.                                         of Residential Additions and
Recently, as an SPF Local Advisor,
                                                                                                                 Renovation Projects
I received a letter that began “Dear
                                                             Architects should explain to the home-
Charles…I have had several inquiries                                                                         2   It’s Common Sense: An Editorial
                                                             owner the reasons for the services
from local architects and designers                                                                          3   Director’s Note
                                                             they perform. They should make it
who were finding it difficult to work
                                                             clear that they ensure a project is             4   Some Thoughts on Historic House
with the contractors that had been
                                                             being built according to its plans and              Museum Restoration Projects
hired to build their designs. Some are
                                                             specifications and that the contractor
tired of contractors who don’t read                                                                          7   Residential Renovation: A Structural
                                                             is not being paid for work not done.                Designer’s Perspective
the drawings and waste their time
with obvious questions, while others                                                                         9   Residential Design Consultations:
                                                             On one project, a contractor who had
have to constantly observe the same                                                                              From Free Interview to Paid Work
                                                             done some previous work for a client
work over and over again. Some are                                                                          10   Tip: Using Software for Energy
                                                             won the bid. With the owner’s trust
annoyed that the work is not being                                                                               Analysis
                                                             and desire to save some money, he
completed on time, there isn’t a super-
                                                             used his own contract saying, “This            11   Using the Internet to Communicate
intendent on the job site, and that
                                                             agreement incorporates the applicable               with Clients
clients are frustrated with seemingly
                                                             terms and conditions of AIA document           12   The Residential Paradox
endless hidden costs.”
                                                             A201, 1997 version.” This gave him
   My curiosity was sparked so I inves-                                                                     13   Specifications for Residential
                                                             the ability to choose which sections
tigated. The problems were even                                                                                  Remodeling
                                                             of A201 to apply and which to ignore.
greater than I had imagined. One con-                                                                       14   Firm Profile: Becker Architects
                                                             Basically, he included the architect
tractor wanted to have complete con-
                                                             by incorporating the AIA contract by           15   Concealed Conditions: Open that
trol of the project including design,
                                                             name in his contract, but took away                 Can of Worms
contract documents, specifications, and
                                                             any ability for the architect to be the        16   On the Other Hand…
construction management, the contrac-
                                                             owner’s agent. He could build the
tor also wanted a sole line of commu-                                                                       18   Renovation Field Measurement Tips
                                                             addition to suit his fancy and give the
nication with the owner. Contractors
                                                             architect a call whenever he got in            19   Hey Buddy, Can You Spare a Plan?



C o p y r i g h t   1 9 9 9   •   T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
trouble, needed someone to blame,                        noons” by Emily Dickinson. He gave          a design is put down on paper. There
or couldn’t figure something out for                      credit to the poet but not the architect,   are contractors who would like to
himself.                                                 making it look like he designed and         do their work answering only to the
                                                         built these projects.                       homeowner. But, the finished work
When confronted with this kind of                           Architects should inform the con-        represented in buildable drawings is
problem, the architect should write an                   tractor that there are copyright laws to    like a fragile ecosystem of dimensions
agreement with the owner indemnify-                      protect architects. If they don’t want      and critical relationships that an owner
ing and holding the architect harmless                   their projects used without receiving       cannot fully understand.
against any claims associated with                       credit, they should work out an agree-         I did a schematic design for a client
the project. The owner thus retains                      ment with the contractor or legally         with the understanding that construc-
the architect as a design consultant.                    stop him. State licensing boards are        tion documents were needed. I did not
                                                         also an avenue for possible solutions.      hear from them for quite some time.
I had a similar situation. As the con-                      Many times a contractor gets the         When I did start calling they did not
struction work progressed, the contrac-                  owner to agree to changes for the con-      return my calls. A year later, while
tor, without understanding the whole                     tractor’s convenience, even if these        driving by the house, I saw that the
picture, made many bad construction                      changes harm the design. He presents        addition had been built! They had
decisions that changed the whole con-                    these changes to the owner with a           approached a contractor who had done
cept and integrity of the finished prod-                  promise to provide a cost cut or an         some handyman work for them in the
uct. How did this process and my                         assurance that they’re better materials.    past, gotten a permit, and done the
relationship go astray? I soon found                                                                 work. I’ve been afraid to see the results.
out that the contractor bad mouthed                      My firm’s specifications state, “any             I recently read a “design tip” in a
me and questioned my design and                          and all discussions between Owner           local newspaper. A couple needed an
detailing to the owner. The contractor                   and Contractor regarding construction       addition to their house. They had
tried to convince the homeowner that                     methods and or design changes shall         approached several builders, none
architects are excess baggage and that                   not be binding until authorized by          could figure out how to make the addi-
architects create an adversarial rela-                   the Architect. All non-authorized deci-     tion work. They were advised to find
tionship in the construction process                     sions between Owner and Contractor          an architect. The architect understood
resulting in unnecessary work. They                      shall be considered the responsibility      their needs and designed an addition
also tried to convince the homeowner                     of the contractor.”                         with the outdoor feel they really
that they knew more about construc-                                                                  wanted and couldn’t explain.
tion and design detailing than I did.                    Wanna-be-architect contractors want            For remodeling projects, you could
   John Rusk in his book, On Time and                    to redesign the whole project even          advise a client to omit the architect if
On Budget, states “If there is no line                   after the concepts have gone through        they know what they want and don’t
of communication between the con-                        schematic design, contract documents,       reconfiguring space—projects like
tractor and the architect, the job might                 and bidding. Often, in order to gain        replacing kitchen cabinetry, adding
stay on schedule but you’ll get the                      control, the contractor takes the owner     bookcases, or replacing windows.
contractor’s quickest and cheapest                       aside and creates an adversarial atmos-     However, for more complex jobs like
alternative. Of course there is nothing                  phere as he criticizes the architect’s      creating a master bedroom suite or
wrong with cheap simple alternatives,                    details and design. One of the bidders      closing in a garage to create a family
but it’s the architect’s job to see that                 for a custom home we recently               room, it’s wise to employ someone
there is a cost savings, and that the                    designed actually had a line item in        trained in design. It’s also our moral
change does not interfere with the                       their bid for “redesign of the project.”    responsibility to advise when our
rest of the picture.”                                      Any change is interwoven with             services are not really needed.
   One local wanna-be-architect                          numerous decisions made during the             Ideally, I see the homeowner, archi-
design/build contractor routinely used                   design and contract drawing stages.         tect, and contractor as a team, using
photos of different architects’ work                     Consider how many times have we             each others’ strengths and guiding the
in his ads with quotes like “there’s a                   had to redo our work as we try to           job with the intent of creating a beauti-
certain slant of light on autumn after-                  recall the path of decisions made as        ful project. A project of which every-



2    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
one can be proud. A project that looks       It’s Common Sense:                                   neighborhood, a safe school for our
great, meets budget, and is functional.                                                           children, a walled in development,
In On Time and On Budget, John Rusk
                                             An Editorial                                         burglar bars on windows and doors, a
illustrates two scenarios: the Nightmare     Four walls do not make a home                        security system in the home, and worst
Renovation, and the Dream Project.           In the past, Texas has been referred to              of all, a gun in the house. To many this
The examples above illustrate the for-       as the wide-open spaces with lots of                 is called progress. This SPF report is
mer. If the architect could produce good     elbowroom and an independent grit.                   devoted to the physical renovation of
documentation, develop good commu-           Here we have always prided ourselves                 residences. Our authors have again pro-
nication, foster trust in all parties, and   on our advocacy of home ownership                    vided excellent insight into the process
educate the client on the team concept,      for all income levels. In difficult politi-           and complications of providing respon-
we would have more dream projects.           cal days, the fact that most everyone                sible service, as well as tips to make
When the contractor is allowed to con-       owned their own kept us from explod-                 you a successful architect and planner.
trol the writing of the specifications and    ing in hate riots and spared us the                     What are our higher responsibilities
the contract, I get fed up, as do the        degeneration of our city government                  to our clients, to our neighborhoods,
architects who write me.                     infrastructure. Yes, we were part of the             to our community in establishing civil-
                                             urban sprawl that is so severely criti-              ity by design? What is the cause of all
A proper contract is a start in develop-     cized today. Today, the powers to be                 the crime we fear and what can we do
ing a dream team. The contract should        of Houston recognize the future impli-               about it? I need answers.
support a team effort by being fair to       cations to both the tax base and the
                                                                                                  Hy Applebaum, AIA
all parties, carefully listing the respon-   cost of city services. Today, our com-
                                                                                                  1999 SPF Chair
sibilities of each party, and providing      munity is promoting the concept of
a method to resolve construction             revitalizing and rebuilding the down-
problems. This method of conflict             town and near downtown neighbor-                     Director’s Note
resolution should be one that has            hoods. Yes, I know that this has been
                                                                                                  As part of an ongoing effort to assist
been tested extensively in the courts.       going on throughout the United States.
                                                                                                  small project practitioners, the PIA
The AIA Owner/Contractor contract            For Texas, this is a totally different
                                                                                                  will be digitizing and making web-
agreements have been endorsed by             mindset. Either older buildings are
                                                                                                  accessible all previous SPF reports and
the Council of General Contractors.          being torn down and new ones erected,
                                                                                                  convention reports. This new online
These should be the documents of             or older buildings are being reused,
                                                                                                  resource will be tied to the Architect’s
choice and should be enforced.               revamped, and revised. There is so
                                                                                                  Handbook of Professional Practice
                                             much construction that the legislature
                                                                                                  (HPP) via subject headings. The tie to
It helps to work with contractors we         wants to change the state bird from the
                                                                                                  the handbook headings will allow for
have worked with before and trust. But       mockingbird to the crane. Never, in
                                                                                                  quick searches by issue. It is hoped
when expanding our bid list, we need         my wildest dreams would I have imag-
                                                                                                  that this project will be completed by
to communicate what is expected of           ined the popular acceptance of New
                                                                                                  the end of the calendar year.
contractors, and what to expect from         York City type lofts. Our downtown
                                                                                                     There was a 2% return rate for the
architects and the owner in order to         was never a popular evening celebra-
                                                                                                  survey in Report 15. Although no hard
create a dream team.                         tion or jubilee until now. We lived by
                                                                                                  conclusions can be drawn from this
                                             the availability of air conditioning, a
                                                                                                  level of return, I thought you might
                                             reliable car, and a comfortable space
                                                                                                  be interested in the distribution of
                                             between our neighbors. Well that was
                                                                                                  responses. No one indicated a desire
                                             yesterday. Today we are almost like
                                                                                                  to receive the Report via fax, 4 % via
                                             any other city in the U.S., giving up
                                                                                                  the Internet, 17% via email, and 79%
                                             personal liberties for security and
                                                                                                  via the existing printed format. The
                                             expedience.
                                                                                                  Advisory Group will use this informa-
                                                Somewhere I read that today’s cul-
                                                                                                  tion in upcoming discussions regard-
                                             ture is controlled by a penitentiary men-
                                                                                                  ing the SPF Report series.
                                             tality and I agree. We try to find a safe



                                                                        T h e   A m e r i c a n    I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   3
                                                                                                                          Restoration projects
                                                                                                                       involving historic
                                                                                                                       house museums have
                                                                                                                       a very different set of
                                                                                                                       objectives. First, there
                                                                                                                       is the interpretative
                                                                                                                       period of the house.
                                                                                                                       Buildings that are
                                                                                                                       being interpreted to a
1                                                                     3
                                                                                                                       specific date or period
                                                                                                                       necessitate an under-
                                                                                                                       standing of that par-
                                                                                                                       ticular building, its
                                                                                                                       history of previous
                                                                                                                       repairs and alter-
                                                                                                                       ations, and the
                                                                                                                       interpretation plan
                                                                                                                       developed by the
                                                                                                                       historic site manage-
                                                                                                                       ment. Unfortunately,
2                                                                     4
                                                                                                                       many times this infor-
                                                                                                                       mation is incomplete
                                                                                                                       or vague.
Some Thoughts on                                         types—my practice has never been               Often the client does not have a
                                                         dull in thirteen years.                     well-defined interpretation for the
Historic House Museum                                       Projects involving the restoration or    house nor any particular program for
Restoration Projects                                     maintenance of historic house muse-         the restoration of the house other than
                                                         ums bring with them a unique set of         to deal with years of deferred (read
Michael Emrick, AIA
                                                         issues and restrictions not typically       no) maintenance. Rarely has a Historic
AIA Middle Tennessee
                                                         encountered in new building projects.       Structures Report (HSR) been com-
Small and even one-person practices                      Unlike when one is designing a new          pleted. An HSR studies the house’s
may have a specialization, especially                    structure and the page is blank at the      design, its evolution, and its current
if they are not tied to a small locale for               start, the historic house already exists.   physical condition. In addition, the
their work base. As a sole practitioner,                 This is not a building type that lends      HSR would normally set forth the
I specialize in historic preservation                    itself to the strong-minded designer        programmatic issues to be addressed
projects and frequently work with                        since one’s architectural design ego        and the design parameters to be fol-
small historic house museums. While                      must make way for that of the original      lowed in the restoration process.
 I travel widely around the Southeast,                   builder/designer.                              Working with historic structures
and sometimes beyond, providing                             House museum restorations go             requires familiarity and experience
preservation consulting services such                    beyond the guidelines for rehabilita-       with historic design concepts, building
as condition assessments, feasibility                    tion established in the Secretary of        materials, and methods of construc-
studies, master plans, historic struc-                   Interior’s Standards. Neither are they      tion—topics rarely addressed at
tures reports, and the like, my full-                    investment tax credit projects. They        architectural schools. Having an
service architectural practice remains                   are, however, more precise and              understanding of historic detailing, as
preservation-based and within the one                    demanding projects in terms of what         well as the properties and deterioration
state in which I am licensed. Overall,                   can and cannot be done to the building      characteristics of historic building
this provides me with a very satisfying                  to achieve the restoration program’s        materials, will help to prevent inappro-
and interesting range of project                         objectives.                                 priate or unnecessary repairs to, or the



4    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
PHOTOGRAPH CAPTIONS:                         loss of, historic materials. While this is           point that the architect needs to begin
                                             particularly important in a restoration              dealing with the issue of repair versus
1. James K. Polk Historic Site, Sisters      process, it is certainly significant in               replacement of materials noted during
House Restoration (Columbia, TN)—            achieving a successful adaptive reuse                the condition assessment.
major alterations to the house had           project if the historic building is to                  This phase also usually includes
occurred over the years and the porch        retain its historic integrity.                       doing measured drawings of the floor
connecting the main house with the              The typical architectural design                  plans, and sometimes elevations or
kitchen wing incorporated several periods    process needs to be modified some-                    sections. Good perspective-corrected
of changes. Even though the Sisters House    what to suit the particular needs and                elevation photographs can be used as
functioned as the offices and interpretive    requirements of an historic house                    a substitute for drawn elevations, using
center for the site, the project had to be   museum restoration project. This                     them to show locations of detail pho-
planned around its eventual conversion       begins with the Programming Phase,                   tographs and other information. The
into a house museum.                         where the architect and the client work              elevation photographs can also be used
                                             together to set the design parameters                to define specific areas showing the
2. James K. Polk Historic Site, Sisters      for the project. In addition to the typi-            location and extent of repair or
House Restoration— The final project          cal and significant issue of the budget               replacement required.
included extensive cleaning, pointing,       (never sufficient), the discussion usu-                  A major component of the Design
repair, and repainting of the exterior       ally focuses on the physical condition               Development Phase involves the eval-
masonry. In addition, a new standing         problems of the house, possibly the                  uation of the type and nature of repairs
seam copper roof was installed matching      need to remove or deal with in some                  and replacements. Evaluating existing
the historic staggered pan system stand-     way later alterations and additions,                 conditions to determine when and if
ing and flat seam system typically found      and the specifics of upgrading the                     to repair or the extent of replacement
in the area. The public restrooms, located   house’s mechanical systems. This is                  of severely deteriorated materials is
on the first floor of the kitchen wing, were   also the point at which the architect                one of the most challenging issues.
completely redone and reoriented from        needs to determine what type of docu-                With historic structures the preserva-
the interior to provide exterior access.     mentation exists for the structure. If               tion and retention of original materials
Handicap access was provided by a sim-       you are lucky, there may be existing                 and detailing is essential. A major
ple grade modification raising one of the     floor plans and possibly historic photo-              concern will be how to match historic
brick garden paths up to meet the side       graphs. However, elevation drawings                  construction techniques and where to
porch level.                                 rarely exist and the architect should                find materials to match the original
                                             never expect to find detailing of any                 materials when replacement is
3.Cordell Hull Birthplace Historic Site —    type showing how the structure has                   required. Fortunately, preservation
Reassembly of the two pen log structure      been constructed. Generally, existing                has come into its own and is no longer
necessitated the complete rebuilding of      physical documentation is usually                    a foreign idea. There are numerous
only the rear stone chimney as part of the   scarce or non-existent.                              technical publications such as the
two log pens inappropriately butted             The Schematic Design Phase typi-                  Preservation Brief series published
together in 1957.                            cally involves an on-site physical con-              by the National Park Service, www2.
                                             dition assessment of the house, noting               cr.nps.gov.tps.briefs/presbhom.htm, as
4. Cordell Hull Birthplace Historic Site —   the various deterioration problems and               well as books, articles, and magazines.
The two pen reconstruction nearing           their extent. It is also during this phase           One, Traditional Building Magazine,
completion.                                  that a determination needs to be made                www.traditional-building.com, regu-
                                             of the type and extent of later addi-                larly publishes various lists of suppli-
                                             tions and alterations, some or all of                ers and manufacturers of various
                                             which may need to be either corrected                building products for restoration and
                                             or removed. This is also the point dur-              renovation projects. (I regularly reduce
                                             ing which the architect becomes more                 these to an 81⁄2 x 11 format and save
                                             conversant with the overall design and               them in a three-ring binder that is
                                             detailing of the structure. It is at this            organized by specification division



                                                                        T h e   A m e r i c a n    I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   5
for ready reference and updating as                      in the project manual. The specifica-       easily, carry around one small book
new lists are published).                                tions for restoration and adaptive-reuse   with everything, rather than only the
   Careful documentation of existing-                    projects are generally more closely        drawings.
condition problems is essential to                       related to the mechanics of construct-        Bidding and negotiations require,
being able to define the extent of                        ing the project since special materials,   as you would expect, every contractor
repair or replacement of historic mate-                  procedures, and precautions are far        (or subcontractor) to be familiar with
rials. Photographs are very useful in                    more typical on this type of project.      or suited to restoration work—but
defining both the extents of existing                     In order to encourage the reading of       some will bid the project anyway. The
condition problems as well as other                      the specifications and, hopefully, the      best of all worlds is to have a client
unique problems. A combination of                        developing of a closer tie between         who can interview and select a con-
well-written captions and the use of                     the specifications, the drawings, and       tractor to work with early on in the
annotations on the photos themselves                     other graphic materials, all graphic       project, in a negotiated, or a cost-plus
help to clarify both the intent and                      materials—drawings, details, pho-          type agreement. This is a much more
extent of the contractor’s work.                         tographs—are included in my project        workable and appropriate format for
   Other issues that will be addressed                   manual. The standard 81⁄2 x 11 format      restoration projects because you can
include relevant life safety and fire                     is used, with larger graphic materials     depend on unforeseen conditions and
code requirements and handicap acces-                    being laid out on 11 x 17 size sheets      change orders (take care to educate
sibility issues. These will be very                      folded back into the manual. The gen-      your client on these issues).
specific to the individual building and                   erally small scale of historic houses         However, if you must use a bid
their impact can vary greatly. With                      means that floor plans will normally        process, there is often some flexibility
respect to accessibility, it is frequently               fit this format at _" scale. Drawings       in pre-qualifying contractors. The AIA
impossible to make an historic house                     for larger structures can be reduced to    Contractor’s Qualification Statement
readily or completely accessible with-                   1/8" because the floor plans are more       (A305) can be used, but it goes
out significantly adversely impacting                     typically used for referencing specific     significantly beyond what I am typi-
the historic design, and the site will                   areas of work.                             cally interested in for restoration pro-
often need to develop alternative                           Photographs typically take the place    jects, i.e. a contractor’s ability and
methods of interpreting the house to                     of elevation drawings and these are        experience with historic buildings and
these visitors. This usually takes the                   used both to reference detail pho-         building materials. This form is easily
form of special exhibits or videos                       tographs of areas requiring specific        edited to provide as much or as little
showing illustrations and interpreting                   repair or replacement work as well as      as you feel is needed for your project.
those parts of the structure that remain                 larger general areas of work (such as      Those sections which would be of
inaccessible to handicapped visitors.                    repointing or replacement of siding).      specific use in establishing qualifi-
   Another issue that should be taken                    Whenever possible, I place any details     cations would be 3.4 (for a list of
into consideration is the need for an                    that need to be included into the sec-     major restoration projects), 3.5 (a list
archaeological assessment, or provid-                    tion of the specifications to which they    of similar projects in the past 5 years),
ing for archaeological monitoring if                     relate (i.e. roofing, flashing, masonry).    and 3.6 (experience of essential indi-
any sub-surface work is to be under-                     The incorporation of drawings, details,    viduals). These sections would address
taken. The importance of information                     and photos into the project manual         both the general as well as subcontrac-
or artifacts that might be recovered                     does require a good cross-reference        tors in key areas such as historic
from builder’s trenches and potential                    system for the contractor to be able       masonry, log construction, or historic
sub-surface deposits cannot be overes-                   to find and use them.                       roofing materials. More than anything,
timated. This material could be of vital                    How do contractors react to not hav-    this form might discourage inexperi-
importance to the development of site                    ing a separate set of drawings? The        enced bidders from chasing the pro-
interpretation and understanding.                        first time around, neither they nor the     ject. More typically, I use a series of
   The Construction Document Phase                       code officials quite knew what to do.       forms I have developed for contractors
is perhaps the place where I’ve made                     Overall, the contractor response has       and subs together with an evaluation
the most significant changes in how I                     been highly favorable and the contrac-     matrix to establish a minimum level of
organize my construction documents                       tors and subcontractors quickly, and       experience and competence. This goes



6    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
in Division 0 of the specifications and      of other questions to address and gaps             ment of upgrading or refurbishing
is completed and submitted with the         that could have been filled or better               their home, they are daunted with the
bid form.                                   explained. In any event, I look forward            task of making several important deci-
   The Construction Observation Phase       to comments from other architects                  sions. Once the decisions are made
demands more time and site visits than      based on their insight and experience.             and pen has been put to paper, they
would typically be required for a new                                                          have to put up with weeks of noise,
building. So, when submitting a pro-                                                           construction, and the angst of potential
posal for this type of project, budget
                                            Residential Renovation:                            cost overruns and final project quality.
more time than normal for site visits,      A Structural Designer’s                            Ever seen the film The Money Pit
telephone calls, and meetings. This is                                                         (Universal Studios, 1986)? This
actually the most enjoyable part of the
                                            Perspective                                        tongue-in-cheek portrayal of a couple
project if you develop a good working       Jeff Gunnells                                      performing their own renovations
relationship with the contractor and                                                           might be enlightening.
                                            Residential structural design provides
subcontractors. Hopefully, once the                                                               While we can’t necessarily help
                                            the engineer an interesting diversion
contract has been awarded and the suc-                                                         the owners with the construction, we
                                            into wood and light-frame foundation
cessful contractor is someone with the                                                         have identified a few points that might
                                            design. Typically, it provides an oppor-
requisite experience and familiarity                                                           make their experience easier. Under-
                                            tunity for engineers and architects to
with historic projects, teamwork for                                                           standing these points might also help
                                            move outside the box of traditional
the benefit of the project should kick in.                                                      the architect during an initial meeting
                                            commercial design. Asymmetrical lay-
   Also, at most historic house                                                                with the owners.
                                            outs, unique roofs, and special ceiling
museum sites, the site director, site
                                            conditions are typical in residential
staff, and even board members will                                                             Identify someone to perform the
                                            construction, especially in large, cus-
often take a more active interest dur-                                                         structural design
                                            tom homes. Since this is the case, the
ing this phase. Keep in mind, they will                                                        Depending on the area, an engineer’s
                                            residential engineer expects (or should
probably be there every day—looking,                                                           involvement in the structural design
                                            expect) to implement new and innova-
wondering, meddling, talking to the                                                            may be required. Most municipalities
                                            tive solutions on each project.
workmen, questioning something                                                                 or other governing entities in hurricane
                                               For a structural designer, renovating
based on an article they have read, or                                                         prone areas are now adopting regula-
                                            an existing residence is even more
who knows what. The contractor needs                                                           tions that require an engineer’s seal
                                            demanding than creating a new one.
to know exactly who to go to with his                                                          on residential drawings. In any case,
                                            As in commercial projects, what
questions and whom to listen to from                                                           the individual performing the framing
                                            appears to be a minor modification
the owner’s side. You should have                                                              design should be experienced with
                                            may actually require major construc-
 worked with your client to establish                                                          wood and the construction techniques
                                            tion alterations to the existing struc-
a clear path for communication and                                                             associated with wood. He should also
                                            ture. Consequently, renovation design
decision-making. This is essential dur-                                                        be familiar with applicable code
                                            requires an understanding of both con-
ing this critical phase of the project.                                                        requirements and regulations in the
                                            temporary and historical construction
The owner’s representative should be                                                           region. If the foundation is being
                                            techniques and materials. Budgets are
a single, key person to whom you can                                                           designed separately from the framing,
                                            generally smaller and more limited
bring problems and issues that come                                                            the foundation designer should be
                                            than those of commercial projects.
up during construction, and who will                                                           experienced with residential founda-
                                            So any modifications, let alone major
then go back to his committee, board,                                                          tions and familiar with the type of
                                            modifications, may be cost prohibitive.
or whatever, for a decision.                                                                   foundations predominant in the locale
                                            It becomes imperative that the design
   In summary, what was intended as a                                                          of the project.
                                            engineer be capable of identifying
brief series of thoughts on how I work
                                            potential problems up front.
with historic house restoration projects                                                       Locate and obtain copies of any
                                               While engineers might lick their
has grown beyond the short article I                                                           existing drawings of the residence
                                            chops at the opportunity to flex their
was charged to write. Once I put this                                                          It is important for the architect/
                                            design muscles, owners might not feel
down, I know that I will find plenty                                                            designer to be familiar with the existing
                                            so enthused. Looking past the excite-


                                                                     T h e   A m e r i c a n    I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   7
structure. Existing drawings, either                     This is also common in second floor          While wood is currently the material
structural or architectural, provide the                 renovations, when loads are redistrib-      of choice in residential framing, more
designer with invaluable information.                    uted through the existing structure. In     and more homes are being framed
If the owners do not have a copy of                      some cases, the builder may have to         with steel and concrete. Concrete is
the structural drawings, they may be                     break through the existing foundation       especially beneficial for its insulation
able to obtain a copy through the city’s                 to install footings to accommodate the      properties, while concrete and steel
building department. Depending on the                    new loads.                                  are used in hurricane areas for their
municipality and the age of the house,                                                               strength characteristics. These materi-
there is a possibility that the city                     The engineer may request a soil test        als are potentially as cost effective as
required a submittal of the structural                   If existing drawings are not available,     wood, especially when assessed over
drawings and maintained them over                        or if the existing foundation was           a period of years. However, locating
the years. Obtaining a copy of the                       determined to be inadequate, a soil test    a residential builder with concrete and
drawings in this manner might require                    may be performed. Depending on the          steel experience may be difficult. Who
a little legwork, but in the end, would                  area, soil sampling and reporting           knows, a house made of advanced
be worth the effort.                                     may cost as much as the design fees.        plastic composites may be in our
                                                         However, the cost of a soil test is         future; a 25-foot-long, 26-foot-wide,
Expect the structural engineer to                        minimal in comparison to the cost           plastic bridge, supported by steel
perform a field review of the                             of repairing a failed foundation.           columns, already exists in Fort
proposed renovation                                                                                  Leonard Wood, Missouri. For now,
Performing a field review is recom-                       The structural designer should              locating a builder and designer with
mended in any case and is imperative                     issue final drawings once his design         experience in wood will help with
when drawings of the existing struc-                     is complete                                 today’s residential renovation.
ture are not available. Without draw-                    Structural drawings should clearly pre-
ings, the structural designer should                     sent typical structural considerations,     If the architect will remember the
attempt to identify the existing founda-                 along with details, outlining any spe-      following points, he should have a
tion system, either through minor                        cial structural conditions associated       successful project.
excavation or probing. He should be                      with the renovation. It is recommended
                                                                                                     • Experience is essential; paying a
as thorough as necessary to make an                      that these drawings be used in concert
                                                                                                       little more for someone who has
assessment on the foundation’s perfor-                   with the architectural drawings. In
                                                                                                       been around for awhile will cost
mance. If the engineer observes crack-                   addition, if possible, the drawings
                                                                                                       less in the long run.
ing, he probably won’t recommend                         should be sealed by the engineer.
using the same foundation system                                                                     • Preparation is necessary; use all
for the renovation. At the very least,                   Request the engineer to perform a             available resources, including the
he would modify the construction                         final review of the structure once             city.
requirements to improve foundation                       construction is complete
                                                                                                     • Expect the unexpected; what
performance in the area of the pro-                      A final review of the structure should
                                                                                                       appears to be simple may very well
posed renovation. Repair of the exist-                   be performed once the structure is
                                                                                                       be complicated.
ing foundation would be another story                    erected and the mechanical, electrical,
altogether. The engineer may also wish                   and plumbing components have been           • Use comprehensive, quality draw-
to review the attic area to make deter-                  installed. The engineer should present        ings; the completeness and quality
minations on existing framing.                           the architect with a list of observations     of the drawings usually sets the tone
                                                         in a timely manner. A follow-up               for the project.
Upon review of the structure, the                        review should be performed if any
                                                                                                     • Try to keep the structural designer
engineer may recommend alterations                       major deficiencies were noted during
                                                                                                       as involved as possible; the struc-
to the existing structure                                the first review. The engineer should
                                                                                                       tural designer can help ensure final
This is typical with older homes, built                  be expected to submit a completion
                                                                                                       quality of the project.
when code requirements and local                         letter once his review is complete.
regulations weren’t as stringent.



8    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
Understanding and implementing             ideas, they didn’t necessarily follow              tion, the price of the service, and what
these points should make for a cleaner     up with a contract. I had made a great             other information would be valuable
renovation.                                impression, but I would find that I had             in helping the client decide whether to
                                           not made a sale. Many times, I’d drive             hire us.
The author, Jeff Gunnells, has ten
                                           by the site only to see the concepts or               The design consultation brochure
years of experience designing and
                                           ideas I delivered under construction.              is the frontline of our client outreach.
managing, small scale and large scale
                                           What this proved to me was that with               These tri-fold pamphlets are always
engineering projects. Please do not
                                           small or uncomplicated renovations,                available in our reception area. We
hesitate to email any comments
                                           a couple of hours were all the home-               mail or fax them to each residential
regarding this article to article996199
                                           owner needed from an architect.                    remodeling inquirer. The content of
@aol.com.
                                           Given sound concepts for a solution,               the brochure is the script for potential
                                           they came forth with confidence and                 client calls to the office. This allows
Residential Design                         engaged a skilled contractor to com-               anyone in the office to answer initial
                                           plete the project.                                 telephone calls, and frees up my
Consultations: From Free                      Meeting my firm’s mission to make                time. Friends, realtors, current clients
Interview to Paid Work                     good architectural design available to             readily hand these out to anyone
                                           the enormous residential market meant              considering a renovation or addition.
Kevin L. Harris, AIA
                                           keeping this service available. How-               Contractors also share this information
AIA Baton Rouge
                                           ever, my family’s need to eat meant                when contacted directly by remodeling
                                           charging a fee to cover my time.                   clients who need guidance or exper-
There had to be a better way
                                              I soon began experimenting with                 tise. Contractors refer many of our
For years, I gave away design services
                                           clients and assessing an hourly fee that           new clients.
under the guise of an “interview.” The
                                           could be applied to a percentage con-                 Our design consultation brochure is
scenario is familiar to many, especially
                                           tract on future services. I discovered             a low-tech creation printed on second
to those who deal with clients unfamil-
                                           that charging a fee had many positive              sheets of our stationery using our word
iar with what an architect does:
                                           effects. Learning of the fee filtered               processing program. Our brochure
   “I want to renovate my home and
                                           out curiosity calls in favor of serious            contains the following elements:
am thinking of hiring an architect. I
                                           remodeling clients. In addition, clients
have never worked with an architect                                                           1. Definition of a design consultation
                                           who paid a fee valued the information
before. Can you come to my home and                                                              and an explanation of what clients
                                           and service more.
talk with me?”                                                                                   may expect from the service.
                                              Then in 1997, I attended an
   “Absolutely,” I’d say ego-stroked
                                           “Architects and Income” workshop by                2. Advanced homework assignments
that they would consider me as their
                                           Fred Stitt of Guidelines. At this work-               for the client. We list the items that
architect. During the interview, which
                                           shop, I found that my experience was                  the homeowner can acquire to max-
sometimes lasted two or more hours,
                                           part of a national trend applicable to                imize the quality and value of the
the potential client and I would enthu-
                                           numerous segments of the architec-                    consultation. This list includes cre-
siastically explore the possibilities of
                                           tural services market. Among other                    ating or acquiring such items as a
the existing house. When things
                                           valuable suggestions, Stitt encouraged                site plan or survey, copy machine
seemed to be going particularly well,
                                           those of us interested in doing design                enlarged photographs of the exte-
I would pencil a quick sketch or two.
                                           consultations to create a tri-fold                    rior, subdivision restrictions, floor
These visual aids would help the client
                                           brochure.                                             plans, and a magazine clipping file
understand generally how an addition
                                              Developing a design consultation                   with sticky notes identifying and
might look. Later, I would discuss the
                                           brochure launched a standardization of                articulating just what it is in the
process and the charges for my ser-
                                           my consulting process. I had to define                 photo that appeals to them.
vices. By this time in the interview,
                                           my market and their needs, what they
I assumed that their decision to hire                                                         3. Clear statement of cost. We list
                                           should expect, what I could provide
me would soon follow.                                                                            a flat fee for a specified amount
                                           as deliverables, how the client could
   Again and again, I found that while                                                           of consulting time, including the
                                           maximize the benefit of the consulta-
the interviewers were happy with my                                                              report. This fee is currently a


                                                                    T h e   A m e r i c a n    I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   9
     multiple of our standard hourly                        complexity and the available docu-        Tip: Using Software
     rates and is not applied to future                     mentation, some consultations may
     services. Additional time is offered                   take longer than the average two
                                                                                                      for Energy Analysis
     at our standard hourly rates.                          hours. After the consultation, a brief    Eugene M. Hollander, AIA
                                                            report is prepared of the results and     AIA Connecticut
4. Assurance of satisfaction. If the
                                                            ideas generated during the visit.
   client is not satisfied with the con-                                                               There is a terrific new tool out there
                                                               We make it clear that the consulta-
   sultation for whatever reason during                                                               for architects doing it all by them-
                                                            tion is a stand-alone service and does
   the first hour, they may stop the                                                                   selves and short on hours in the
                                                            not retain our firm for the duration of
   service at that timewithout charge.                                                                day. It is software designed to help
                                                            the client’s particular project.
                                                                                                      with building energy analysis from
5. Firm description and short bio on                           The demand for design consultations
                                                                                                      schematic design through contract
   the consultant. Over 90 percent of                       continues to increase. We have had a
                                                                                                      documents. As building codes require
   our consultations are referrals based                    request for design consultation gift
                                                                                                      energy consumption analysis on even
   only on our reputation. This section                     certificates. Last year, our office con-
                                                                                                      the smallest structure, small project
   gives the client facts that support                      ducted over 66 consultations. This
                                                                                                      practitioners are under fire to provide
   our hard-earned reputation. We also                      year, we control or limit the number of
                                                                                                      this kind of engineering without the
   include a statement inviting poten-                      consultations to manage the workflow
                                                                                                      accompanying consultant’s fee. Enter
   tial clients to visit our office during                   in our office. Consultations are sched-
                                                                                                      the Building Design Advisor (BDA).
   office hours to view notebooks fea-                       uled for certain days of the week, in
                                                                                                      Developed by the Lawrence Berkeley
   turing selected before and after pho-                    the late afternoon. This period allows
                                                                                                      National Lab, BDA is a sophisticated
   tographs, as well as magazine and                        the regular daily work of architecture
                                                                                                      database built around an object ori-
   newspaper articles on the firm’s                          to continue uninterrupted and mini-
                                                                                                      ented representation of a building. The
   work and staff.                                          mizes the chance of emergency pages
                                                                                                      graphic user interface (GUI) makes it
                                                            from the office or contractors. It also
6. Firm logo, address, phone numbers,                                                                 quite easy to model various scenarios.
                                                            allows for completion of the consulta-
   email address, and members.                                                                        The simulations provide all the needed
                                                            tion in time for a late supper just
                                                                                                      HL/HG calculations, all without the
                                                            before my children’s story time.
A design consultation is now the first                                                                 labor of running the numbers.
step for all residential renovation                                                                      There are two components of the
                                                            Conducting design consultations is
clients. The standard design consulta-                                                                interface, “The Building Browser” and
                                                            obviously not for every architect. This
tion is aimed primarily at clients con-                                                               “Decision Desktop.” The initial ver-
                                                            service is not for architects who have
sidering an addition or renovation to                                                                 sion of BDA (1.0) is linked to Delight,
                                                            yet to develop a specific expertise or
their home. The consultation is quite                                                                 a simplified day lighting analysis
                                                            who are contemplative and prefer to
literally a “house call.” I visit the                                                                 model as well as to RESEGY, a sim-
                                                            take in information and go back to the
client’s home, discuss and sketch pos-                                                                plified energy analysis model. Future
                                                            client at a later time. This process is
sibilities, and answer basic questions                                                                components will address Radiance
                                                            for architects who enjoy maximum
about costs and construction alterna-                                                                 (daylighting and rendering) and
                                                            client interaction and are comfortable
tives for various home improvements.                                                                  COMIS (indoor air flow and indoor
                                                            thinking on their feet. It is also for
Together with the client, we explore                                                                  air quality), cost estimating, environ-
                                                            architects who have developed an
the placement of a needed expansion,                                                                  mental impact models, building rating
                                                            expertise in local construction codes,
re-sculpt awkward facades, correct                                                                    systems, and CAD.
                                                            costs, and issues relating to a major-
balance and composition, or add visual                                                                   I saved the best for last! This
                                                            ity of their consultation clients.
interest. During a design consultation,                                                               sophisticated design tool is absolutely
we can even recommend how to avoid                                                                    free! What took years of research and
                                                            For our firm, residential design con-
the common mistakes made with                                                                         development and tons of taxpayer dol-
                                                            sulting services is a better way.
additions and renovations.                                                                            lars to create is now sitting, waiting to
   Most conceptual possibilities are                                                                  be used. And used it is. On my last
explored during the design consulta-                                                                  visit, some 5000 plus visitors had
tion. Depending on the project’s                                                                      looked at the site where the software


10      T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
can be quickly downloaded.                  face-to-face meetings, of course, but                page and viewed it using Netscape
   I can not imagine another situation      the use of this method as an additional              and Internet Explorer (and made
in the construction industry where our      tool has given my clients a greater                  the inevitable adjustments such
national tax dollars have gone to fund      sense of involvement and control in                  as image size and letter size) it is
research resulting in productivity tools    the projects, and significantly raised                saved in a special folder for easy
to assist us in our work. It happens all    their level of understanding and satis-              retrieval, along with all the associ-
the time in other industries, so perhaps    faction. They will often give the Web                ated images.
it’s about time for us. Anyway, go          page addresses to their friends to show
                                                                                              3. Publishing on the Internet
immediately to http://kmp.lbl.gov/          them the project design, which helps
                                                                                                 Most Internet service providers
BDA/bdainfo.htm and profit!                  with the firm’s publicity efforts.
                                                                                                 allow their customers to store Web
                                              Here is a brief summary of how it
                                                                                                 pages on their computers and have
                                            works in my small firm—it isn’t nec-
Using the Internet to                       essarily the best process, and I’m
                                                                                                 detailed instructions that describe
                                                                                                 the process. I use America Online
Communicate with                            always looking for better ways of
                                                                                                 (AOL), whose method is extremely
                                            doing things.
Clients                                                                                          easy and straightforward. With
                                            1. Creating the Drawings                             AOL, once connected, you type
Daniel J. Jansenson, AIA
                                               VectorWorks, like some other CAD                  command (or control K). This is the
AIA Los Angeles
                                               programs, allows me to create ren-                shortcut for MyPlace, the AOL Web
Most of my residential clients have            dered images and save them in an                  server location, and you then follow
access to the Internet. They seem to be        image format that can be viewed in                the instructions to create a place on
knowledgeable enough to access the             any Web browser. After creating a                 their computer for your files. You
Web, and, indeed, often require their          design and rendering it, I export the             then proceed to send your Web page
remodeling projects to include home            image (or as Hy Applebaum calls it,               files and images electronically into
offices incorporating computers.                the picture) and sometimes touch it               that folder, following their step-by-
  I use a CAD program (VectorWorks)            up using graphics software (such as               step instructions. The process takes
that allows me to create photo-realistic       Photoshop). After adding some                     a bit of time, but once it has been
renderings and it is easy to save these        plants, or changing the contrast a                completed, the Web page is avail-
images in a form that can be placed on         bit, I end up with one or more elec-              able for viewing by anybody with
the Web. Since my clients and projects         tronic images that will be incorpo-               access to a computer with an
are often located at a great distance          rated into a simple Web page.                     Internet connection. A Web page
from my office, the use of the Internet,                                                          containing six or seven large images
                                            2. Creating a Web Page
and specifically the World Wide Web,                                                              takes about 15 minutes to send to
                                               There are several programs that
has become an essential tool for com-                                                            the Internet service provider; it’s
                                               help you create and publish a Web
municating design concepts and trans-                                                            really quite straightforward once
                                               page with a minimum of difficulty;
mitting information to clients. They                                                             you’ve done it once or twice. Once
                                               I use Claris Home Page. On the
seem to enjoy finding their project                                                               the Web page with your images has
                                               screen, it looks similar to a word
published on the Internet, and they like                                                         been created, it will have an
                                               processing program; you can type
copying the images and printing them                                                             Internet address (the infamous
                                               text, insert images, and generally
on their own printers. It is quite simple                                                        http://…) that you give to anybody
                                               create an attractive presentation
and very inexpensive to place the                                                                who wants to see the images on
                                               for viewing with a Web browser. I
images on the Internet, and since they                                                           their computer.
                                               strive for simplicity–no fancy flash-
are available to clients quickly (and
                                               ing words, animated features, jump-
available for viewing around-the-                                                             Over time, I have discovered that this
                                               ing buttons, elaborate databases or
clock) they can respond sooner to                                                             method can be used to transmit not
                                               the like, since the purpose is to
design-related issues and questions,                                                          only images of the design work, but
                                               make the information available to
especially when photo-realistic per-                                                          also other types of project information
                                               clients quickly and with a minimum
spective drawings are combined with                                                           that can be useful to members of the
                                               of fuss. Once I have created the
plans. There is no substitution for                                                           project team (if your fellow team


                                                                    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   11
members have Internet access, of                            of information will do, no matter         Conclusion
course). This information can include:                      how small. The date when the plans        Using the the Internet to communicate
address, maps and driving directions, a                     were submitted to the planning            with your clients can be extremely
project consultant list, or anything else                   department, a phone call placed to        beneficial in keeping the clients
you find helpful at the beginning of a                       a consultant—no matter the infor-         involved and making information
project.                                                    mation, placing it on the Internet        available to all members of a project
                                                            adds great interest and effectively       team. It helps give clients a sense of
These are the kinds of pages that have                      conveys a sense of progress and           empowerment, and spreads the word
worked for my firm:                                          accomplishment. In addition, by           about your firm’s work. The process is
                                                            regularly publishing such a newslet-      quite simple and straightforward, and
1. Design Progress Drawings
                                                            ter, the firm compiles an archive of       you do not have to be a computer geek
   Use color perspective drawings of
                                                            project milestones and events that        to use this technique. Although it may
   the interior and exterior of the pro-
                                                            can be reviewed by clients (and           take a bit of effort the first time, a pro-
   ject. This, obviously, helps clients
                                                            other team members) at any time           ject Web page can quickly become an
   who have difficulties visualizing
                                                            throughout the project. One great         inexpensive and indispensable tool in
   spaces when looking at plans. The
                                                            advantage of placing it on the Web        the small project architect’s arsenal.
   great advantage of the Web, in this
                                                            is the ability to create links to other     This article has been placed on the
   case, is the ease of preparing and
                                                            information: for example, a direc-        Internet, complete with quick links to
   distributing images: no need for
                                                            tory of project consultants, or the       the Web pages mentioned. You can
   expensive color reproductions, as
                                                            Web pages of product suppliers            view it at http://members.aol.com/
   they are viewed on a computer
                                                            and vendors. In other words, the          djansenson/spf.htm.
   screen. An example of this kind
                                                            newsletter can become a central
   of Web page can be seen at
                                                            location for the distribution of pro-
   http://members.aol.com/danielj101/
                                                            ject information to clients, which is
                                                                                                      The Residential Paradox
   BeanHollow/bh.html. An interior
                                                            often very highly appreciated. An         Lisa K. Stacholy, AIA
   view, along with floor plans, can be
                                                            example of such a newsletter can          AIA Atlanta
   seen at http://members.aol.com/dan-
                                                            be seen at: http://members.aol.com/
   jan4044/raymondcloset/rayclos.htm.                                                                 Residential project are most intriguing
                                                            modglin101/bhnews/bhnews51.htm
                                                                                                      things. They are very alluring when
2. Floor Plans
                                                          4. Contact Gateway                          the right client asks wonderfully open-
   My firm usually prepares design
                                                             We’re just beginning to experiment       ended questions that lead to discovery.
   floor plans in color to help clients
                                                             with this one. A simple gateway          They are very difficult when the wish
   understand the arrangement of
                                                             Web page is a first point of contact      list far outpaces the allotted budget.
   spaces. Although it often does not
                                                             for service vendors and suppliers        They are also puzzling, when con-
   look very architectural to an archi-
                                                             seeking to participate in the project.   fronted with the almost 3-dimensional
   tect, clients often appreciate the
                                                             It also serves as a location where       constraints of ordinances (zoning,
   ability to quickly understand a sim-
                                                             participants in the project can          restrictive covenants), functionality
   plified floor plan, especially when it
                                                             retrieve files and information.           (existing conditions versus new pro-
   looks visually similar (in color and
                                                             Although service providers and           gram), and client comprehension,
   layout) to plans that appear in the
                                                             contractors often do not have access     over time.
   popular magazines they read so
                                                             to the Internet, an increasing num-         We tend to view residential projects
   avidly. An example of this kind of
                                                             ber do, and the expectation is that      as fantastic opportunities to experi-
   image can be seen at http://members.
                                                             such a Web page will help distribute     ment with (on smaller scale than our
   aol.com/djansenson/garage/gar.htm.
                                                             information during the bidding           commercial projects) new materials,
3. Project Newsletter                                        process and later. Such a page           combinations, and usage while stretch-
   A simple newsletter that conveys                          (experimental at this stage) can         ing available resources to gain the
   developments in the project really                        be seen at http://members.aol.com/       maximum output and reminding our-
   helps involve the clients. Any piece                      danjanarch/bhproject/bhinfo4.htm.        selves how precious it is to help our
                                                                                                      clients create their definition of the



12    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
future. These projects are a fun chal-        daughter. It is easy to explain the dark           owners and contractors expect a cer-
lenge and offer both great diversions         to her, quite another when she is con-             tain amount of inconvenience with this
from the tedium of commercial archi-          fronted by all of the unknowns in “the             type of project, Division 1 specifica-
tecture and reminders of how to take          dark” at 4 a.m. However, the demysti-              tion sections can help clarify these sit-
good care of our commercial clients.          fication begins when she thinks of the              uations and hopefully head off some
The most important factor for us, how-        four-watt nightlight as similar to twin-           of the potential disputes.
ever, is the communication required for       kle stars in the sky. Experiment and                  Section 01100, “Summary” should
successful projects. For us, it appears       don’t be afraid to try a new idea,                 spell out limitations on the contractor’s
that there are five main tenets of how         means or method.                                   use of the premises, such as designa-
to approach the residential client.              We’ve found that using these five                tion of work and storage areas, work
                                              points (and variations thereof) sets up            hours, daily clean-up requirements,
Recognize that people have their own          the scene for the best possible out-               limits on utility outages, and a require-
definitions of “home.” Learn the               come. At initial contact, we try to start          ment for reasonable notice for such
client’s version.                             “filling in the blanks” of how we can               outages. Requirements for providing
                                              best serve this particular client. At the          temporary toilets, if needed, waste col-
Realize that residential clients often        consultation meeting, we present an                lection and disposal, and temporary
have specific budgets with little con-         overview of the process and how the                heat should be included in Section
tingency and definite expectations of          architect’s work is woven into it. In              01500, “Temporary Facilities and
the goals (after all, it’s a castle and our   the proposal, we describe (as clearly              Controls.” Requirements for protection
clients are embarking on a journey).          and concisely as possible) the general             of existing facilities should also be
                                              process of their project. We provide               spelled out in detail, either in the indi-
Remember that “Listening 101”                 periodic status reports to the client,             vidual sections where the work requir-
and “Deciphering 102” were college            providing necessary details and if/then            ing protection is specified, or in
courses that you wish you could               analysis. These reports aren’t tied to             Division 1. It could also be advanta-
have taken, where 101 covered how to          the calendar, but rather the progress              geous to put the contractor on notice
hear what is said and 102 covered how         of design and construction and the                 in Section 01200, “Price and Payment
to read between the lines.                    client’s perception thereof. We try                Procedures” that money will be with-
                                              to be as available as time permits to              held from payments to cover the cost
Experience it. Next time work is slow         help our clients feel as comfortable as            of clean-up and repairs of consequen-
in the office, take on a renovation pro-       possible. We don’t take ourselves too              tial damage if not done at the time of
ject in your own home that can’t be           seriously and we help our clients to               requests for payment.
finished in a weekend—live without             remember to have fun in the process.                  Refinishing of surfaces that must be
water in your kitchen to appreciate           It is really a journey that is well worth          cut and patched is another area that
what the clients is facing. Acknow-           taking!                                            must be spelled out clearly. Is the con-
ledge that the benefit of education                                                               tractor required to paint the patched
helps in understanding the process                                                               area? the whole wall? or the entire
behind the machine of renovation,
                                              Specifications for                                  room? For surfaces that cannot be cut
other times just “hang on.”                   Residential Remodeling                             and patched successfully, the extent of
                                                                                                 removal and replacement should be
                                              Buz Groshong
Figure out how to convey this to the                                                             similarly specified. If the requirements
                                              Arcom MASTERSPEC
client. Pieces of the puzzle and ele-                                                            are put in writing, both the contractor
ments of the image are collected and          Whenever construction or repair work               and the owner will know what is
assembled to create an understanding          is required for an existing residence,             expected. Section 09910, “Painting”
of the object. For example, the mecha-        the contractor and the owner often                 needs to be modified to indicate the
nism by which our clients comprehend          inconvenience each other. This can                 extent of painting required. The usual
the process of design and construction        lead to innumerable opportunities for              statement “Paint all exposed surfaces,
is similar to explaining the concept of       disagreement, and the architect is usu-            unless otherwise indicated,” should be
“the dark” to Serina, our 4-year-old          ally caught in the middle. While most              modified by adding the word “new”



                                                                       T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   13
and additional statements will have                       fessional reputa-
to be added to indicate which existing                    tion, one job at a
surfaces, if any, require painting.                       time.
   Since communication is vital to                           Quality design
minimizing problems, don’t just                           requires quality
include these items in the specifica-                      documentation in
tions. Discuss them with the owner                        order to control
and, if necessary, with the contractor                    the final outcome
as well.                                                  of construction.
                                                          Highly detailed
                                                          sets of contract
Firm Profile:                                              documents are cre-
Becker Architects                                         ated in a collabo-
                                                          rative atmosphere
Diana K. Melichar, AIA
                                                          in their office. All
AIA Chicago
                                                          team members
Becker Architects began with one                          are experienced
small project and some confirmed con-                      designers and
victions about design. The firm has                        architects that
grown consistently through recession                      work in an open
as well as construction boom. They                        studio arrange-
have won numerous awards, have been                       ment. Each mem-
featured in many architectural periodi-                   ber shares his or
cals, and are highly sought by clien-                     her specialties, and
tele. Their firm presently consists of                     they are critiqued     Top: Rosen Honda; Bottom: Perfection Machinery
seven members, with a dozen projects                      in each design
on the boards or in construction, with                    project. Richard believes that this          This requires a lot of support and
a dollar value exceeding $5 million.                      enriching exchange of ideas creates          extra service on our part.”
How did they become a success story?                      consistency from project to project.            Richard admits that when they
Richard claims three ingredients for                         Exceptional service is the second         moved back to the Midwest, that
their success: quality design, excep-                     ingredient of Becker Architects’ suc-        clients were more conservative,
tional service, and creative marketing.                   cess. Richard’s motto: “kill the client      cautious, and restrained than their
   A husband and wife team, Richard                       with service.” Although his firm has          Manhattan counterparts. “We went on
and Nancy Becker met in architecture                      been successful over the years, it           a lot of interviews in the early days.
school at Syracuse University. Each                       hasn’t always been easy. In order to         Clients didn’t see the value of high
of them worked in separate Manhattan                      weather the economic storms, and             quality design or construction docu-
architectural firms before deciding that                   relocations (Richard and Nancy moved         ments. We tried cutting our fees to
with several projects in hand, they                       their practice from New York City to         get work, but in the end everything
were ready to establish their own firm.                    her hometown in 1989 to raise their          suffered, including us. We could
They made a conscious choice to cre-                      five children), Richard and Nancy had         barely break even.”
ate “whole environments”—planning,                        to pay their dues several times over.           Today Richard and Nancy have
architecture and interiors—for their                         How did they get repeat clients and       learned to select their clients carefully.
clients. Although Richard and Nancy                       high quality work? “We convinced             “Long term client relationships are
knew that they would have fewer jobs,                     our clients of our worth,” says Nancy.       our goal,” Nancy states. “The only
each job would be more comprehen-                         “Part of the design and construction         way to achieve this end is to provide
sive. By being selective with their                       process is educating the client about        better service than other firms, and
commissions, Richard and Nancy were                       how the process works, and how we            be rewarded for our efforts.”
able to incrementally build their pro-                    help clients to achieve their goals.            Long term client relationships



14    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
                                                           convince the contrac-                Another vehicle for raising firm
                                                           tor, and the dealers              awareness is their construction com-
                                                           as well, that it was              pany, Becker Builders, which acquires
                                                           to everyone’s advan-              infill lots and constructs new houses.
                                                           tage to spend more                In 1993, Richard created his first
                                                           time on design and                project in an established residential
                                                           documentation.”                   neighborhood. “So much of the spec
                                                              In recent years                housing we see is mediocre. We
                                                           this type of work has             wanted to create a high-quality
                                                           become a specialty                product in our own neighborhood,”
                                                           niche and Becker                  Richard says. “We felt that we could
                                                           Architects now con-               create a well-constructed house and
                                                           tracts directly with a            control costs at the same time, though
                                                           number of Chicago                 for a small builder, this can be chal-
                                                           area auto dealers.                lenging. The profit potential is attrac-
                                                           Becker continues to               tive as well since development fees
                                                           work with that first               can far exceed those you would earn
                                                           design/builder and                as an architect.” This first project gave
                                                           other contractors as              Becker Architects excellent visibility
                                                           well.                             in the community where they live and
                                                              Richard and Nancy              practice. “We got a lot of referrals
                                                           Becker have worked                and interest from this project,” Nancy
                                                           hard to educate poten-            remarked. They are about to break
                                                           tial clients of their             ground on their fourth and fifth
                                                           worth through some                houses.
                                                           very creative market-                Becker Architects has also recently
                                                           ing efforts. In order             completed an eight-minute video that
                                                           to keep their portfolio           highlights a dozen recent residential
                                                           looking fresh, they               projects. Nancy says that the video,
                                                           try to professionally             which features on-camera testimonials,
                                                           shoot at least two or             has been a great marketing tool. “We
                                                           three projects per year.          don’t have to knock on past clients’
                                                           Other activities to               doors anymore to show potential
                                                           keep the firm visible              clients our completed work.” They can
                                                           include a Web-page,               get a feel for our firm’s work from the
Residences in Highland Park, Ill.                          getting placed in local           comfort of their own living rooms.
                                                           and national publica-             “We’re enthusiastic about our work,”
include contractors as well. Richard      tions, volunteering residential projects           Nancy says. “And we like to share
described how some of their early         for house walks, speaking locally at               that enthusiasm with our clients too.”
Chicago commercial projects were          schools and seminars, and organizing
automobile dealership designs for a       educational programs at the local high
design/builder whose office was            school. The firm has also performed
located next door within the same         gratis services for local organizations
building. “They had recently lost their   such as their synagogue and the town’s
in-house architect and were initially     historical society. Richard sits on a
looking for a firm to simply produce       local historic preservation commission
builder’s documents, with little docu-    while Nancy is on the board of a local
mentation. Over time, we were able to     arts group.



                                                                   T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   15
Concealed Conditions:                                     and no footing in some spots.              On the Other Hand…
                                                          Understandably, some clients are
Open that Can of Worms                                    hesitant to begin this destruction. We
                                                                                                     Donald R. Wardlaw, AIA
                                                                                                     AIA East Bay
Laura Montllor, AIA                                       explain it is the best way to expose
AIA Long Island                                           concealed structural members and           A new client recently hired me to con-
                                                          gain needed information.                   tinue a residential remodeling project
Concealed conditions are the night-
                                                             Budget for maintenance items.           begun by another architect. I take spe-
mare of any homeowner, the bane
                                                          Clients start projects with wonderful      cial care when a situation like that
of the architect, and can make the
                                                          visions of their new room and often        arises. After talking with the clients,
contractor see dancing dollar signs.
                                                          forget all about repairing other           I learned that the other architect, one
Renovation work on older houses is
                                                          neglected parts of the house. It is easy   I know of and who has a good reputa-
full of unexpected difficulties. In over
                                                          for them to see the need for a new         tion, was not the right architect for
12 years of doing residential renova-
                                                          kitchen, but they can overlook             them. It looked like we could work
tions, we have yet to build one job that
                                                          replacing the tired 20-year-old roof.      together effectively, so I took the
did not hit a snag. On a few projects
                                                          Maintenance is mundane, yet essential      work.
we’ve run into horrendous concealed
                                                          for a completely finished house. We            The previous architect had taken the
conditions. Starting demolition of
                                                          recommend adding to the budget for         work only as far as an existing floor
walls and ceilings is just like opening
                                                          repairs such as all new windows,           plan and a proposed floor plan. On
a can of worms. The following are a
                                                          replacement of rotting window sills,       my first working visit, I wanted to
few ways to prepare for the unpre-
                                                          and repainting the entire interior.        sit down with them and try to under-
dictable.
                                                          Preparing the owners in advance for        stand how they arrived at their plan.
   Investigate thoroughly. On Long
                                                          these maintenance extras can avoid         I wanted to know whether this scheme
Island, where 40% of houses were
                                                          costly overruns.                           was meeting their objectives or
built before 1950, original construction
                                                             Some concealed conditions are very      whether some variation was needed.
plans are often unavailable. We are
                                                          hard to predict, such as deterioration     Therefore, I asked them, “What did
forced to guess about hidden elements
                                                          from termite infestation or long term      some of the other alternatives look
and take hints about structure. We do
                                                          water damage. We propose a contin-         like?” Kind gazes and smiles. Then,
an intensive investigation of the exist-
                                                          gency allowance of 15 to 20 percent        “What other alternatives?”
ing conditions and record them with
                                                          to cope with these truly unforeseen
several rolls of film. This includes get-
                                                          problems.                                  An architect friend who does a lot
ting into basement crawl spaces and
                                                             We also endorse only using              of residential renovation called today
cramped attics.
                                                          contractors who are experienced with       and we talked a bit about the way we
   In addition, we advocate doing
                                                          renovation work. The experienced           work. He had about had it with his
exploratory surgery. Poking holes in
                                                          contractor will anticipate running into    CAD program (you know the one),
soffits can reveal plumbing lines, vents
                                                          some concealed conditions and will         and wanted to talk about different
and the condition of wiring. By cutting
                                                          not need to charge extreme extras. The     ways of working. He is working in a
openings in closet ceilings, we can
                                                          right contractor has the skill to make     mixed environment where work starts
detect joist sizes and direction. When
                                                          repairs and can often offer practical      out on computer and ends up partly
we exposed one kitchen soffit from
                                                          solutions.                                 hand drawn. (The worst-of-all-worlds,
the 1930s, we found three-foot-long
                                                             The renovation market on the East       in my opinion.) We had different expe-
fence posts, painted, nailed, patched
                                                          coast is booming. We love the chal-        riences with respect to the question of
together, and used structurally as floor
                                                          lenge of designing additions that          whether one can do more or less draw-
joists. Do not trust construction docu-
                                                          respect the original house style and       ing on computer, than in pencil, in a
ments, since actual conditions may
                                                          retain historical character. The archi-    given amount of time. He said it’s hard
be very different. Details of a 1960’s
                                                          tectural challenge far outweighs the       to do many alternatives for clients in
ranch showed a sound slab foundation
                                                          risk of any unknown conditions.            pencil because it takes too long to
design, but we saw some suspicious
                                                          Assume nothing, and open that can          draw. He also said that years ago, he
cracks. Our investigation revealed a
                                                          of worms while you can still make          used to show clients many alternatives,
three-inch slab with no reinforcing
                                                          changes on paper.


16    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
but found on occasion a client would        clients about their problems and goals.           A presentation of alternatives
choose an alternative of which he was       That builds trust and makes for better            should be clear and pleasing to the
not fond.                                   projects.                                         eye. It is important to me that every-
   When I was in architecture school                                                          thing the clients see me do must look
in the early 70s, the progressive, ideal-   I do not need to show my client                   sharp, and if possible, have some
istic wing of the profession was, as        every alternative, but I need to show             beauty. In a team environment, people
I saw it, captivated by community           them the significant ones. And by all              recognize the different strengths of
design centers and participatory            means I must show them the alterna-               each other. The visual composition of
design. Design centers were ad hoc,         tive that most closely represents the             the work I do is important to me so I
grant funded, volunteer-staffed cham-       project as they originally envision it,           must not show indifference to visual
pions of neighborhood design that pro-      if I can see what that is. This shows             design.
vided design services for inner city        that I am listening, which they need
neighborhoods. Some of the good             to know. It helps them, I think, to con-          I feel challenged, not threatened by
intentions of design centers have           sider other ideas if they can see that            client involvement. Certainly, one
been co-opted and subsumed by city          their idea is understood and seriously            must use very good listening and
bureaucracies — planning departments,       taken. I find my clients want and                  interpretive skills. Don’t try this if you
design review boards, zoning adjust-        expect their architect to see opportuni-          talk over people, miss innuendo, or
ment boards. Instead of championing         ties that escape them. I think they feel          have no idea how your clients are
the cause of neighborhoods expressing       like they are getting their money’s               relating to each other when they talk
themselves, we champion the cause of        worth when I show them new vistas.                to you. Do not try this if you cannot
neighbors expressing themselves.                                                              make your client’s agenda your own.
Back in the 1970s, I remember read-         One of the main purposes of                       Most design disasters occur when the
ing an article about a San Francisco        presenting alternatives is to have                architect designs for a client rather
architecture firm. Describing the way        a discussion that leads to a clear,               than with a client. In those situations,
the firm worked with its worked with         common understanding about what                   the clients have less attachment to the
clients, the article included a remark      works and what does not work for                  architect’s design and will discard all
by the principal who said, “The days        my client. Together we build a                    or part of it on a whim. I feel success
of the architect walking in with a three    detailed understanding. It is helpful             is easier when the client has a more
piece suit and declaring, ‘here is your     not only to look at things that work              natural respect for the design.
design’ are over.” Twenty years later,      and discuss why, but also to look at
when I related that line to a commu-        things that do not work and discuss               Fear not. Imagine.
nity activist who felt ignored in the       why not. If the client has a precon-
design process of the same architect,       ceived idea for their project, it can             The real secret to success with this
I was met with dumbfounded                  stand or fall on its merits. They will            method, in my opinion, is imagination.
disbelief.                                  tell me what we all know. Often I                 There is no need to be hung up on one
                                            return to the drawing board with new              way of doing things if we have the
I suppose letting clients in on the         insight into what must happen.                    imagination to see many others. There
design process has risks. Here are                                                            is no need to fret about letting go of
some observations on the practice,          Client enthusiasm seems to grow in                something that almost works when we
thoughts on why I do it, and some           proportion to the extent they feel                know we can think of others that work
ways I manage it.                           essential to the design process. If the           better. There is no need to fear a loss
                                            discourse is properly managed, clients            of influence, when the value of insight
I need to do alternatives in any            look on the project as their work in              and fresh ideas is taken into account.
event to see, in greater depth, what        collaboration with me. When they                  To me, the most gratifying projects are
works, and what does not. The more          invest their pride in the outcome, they           those that my client and I, (and our
I draw the more I understand. The           tend to push for higher quality stan-             builder and neighbors) judge a suc-
more I understand the better I’m able       dards. This is my aim.                            cess. Can there be success at the
to knowledgeably converse with my                                                             expense of one of the parties?



                                                                    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   17
Renovation Field                                          • In the attic, determine the size, spac-     on, always measuring from the same
                                                            ing, and slope of the rafters. The          point. If you have an assistant to jot
Measurement Tips                                            pitch/angle locator makes this very         down the numbers as you call them
Edward Z. Wronsky, Jr., AIA                                 easy. Before I got it, I’d go nuts try-     out, and also monitor the level of the
AIA Long Island East End                                    ing to measure 12" horizontally             tape, you are very lucky. I tried a
                                                            with one tape measure and vertically        voice-activated tape recorder on a
I do not trust the sonic measuring
                                                            with the other, or alternatively            string around my neck—it was a
device that I received for Christmas
                                                            scaling from the photographs.               total disaster! Noting all measure-
several years ago, nor do I carry a lap-
                                                                                                        ments in inches makes later tran-
top computer and digital camera to the                    • Measure the spacing of clapboards
                                                                                                        scribing much easier since you don’t
project site to record existing condi-                      or shingles. If the exposure is an
                                                                                                        have to remember if “4 0” is 4'-0"
tions. The following is a summary of                        oddball number like 7-7/32", note
                                                                                                        or 40". Don’t worry too much about
my current procedure for field measure-                      the total measurement of six or eight
                                                                                                        fractional accuracy, since your last
ments, which may be helpful to others:                      courses.
                                                                                                        entry will be the overall measure-
                                                          • Measure the typical windows to              ment of each wall.
Basic equipment:
                                                            identify types, noting size, opera-
                                                                                                      • Measure the width of the stairs,
1. 33' long steel tape measure—stiff                        tion, and muntin patterns, as well
                                                                                                        including tread and riser height and
   enough to support itself for 6 to 8                      as casing details.
                                                                                                        number. Include the railing height
   feet
                                                          • Note compass points and determine           and type.
2. 100' or 150' tape measure                                which walls you will call north,
                                                                                                      • I have found that even if the scope
                                                            south, east and west.
3. Several bulletin board pushpins                                                                      of the project is initially limited to a
                                                          • Using a pushpin to anchor one end           garage conversion, master bedroom
4. Flashlight with fresh batteries
                                                            of the tape, measure the overall            remodeling, or family room addi-
5. Pitch/angle locator                                      exterior building size.                     tion, it is usually valuable to record
                                                                                                        the whole house. The owner needs
6. Camera and extra rolls of film                          • To document the interior, start at
                                                                                                        the entire plan to understand the
                                                            the front door and sketch each wall,
7. Lined yellow pads                                                                                    proposal and always wants to know
                                                            with rough rectangles for all open-
                                                                                                        what the house is going to look like
8. Several 7mm mechanical lead                              ings. Include ceiling height as well as
                                                                                                        from the outside. Also, if I see the
   pencils                                                  height of sills and heads of windows
                                                                                                        whole floor, I’m much more likely
                                                            and doors. Note flooring material
                                                                                                        to think of possible alternate solu-
• Start by photographing the exterior                       and direction. Note swing of doors.
                                                                                                        tions to the situation I’ve been
  of the whole house and the interiors                      Sketch both typical and atypical trim
                                                                                                        called upon to address.
  of the floor or floors to be addressed.                     details. The lined pads help you to
  Pay particular attention to trim                          sketch freehand, without worrying         • As a closing tip, if you keep your
  details. Don’t rely on your memory.                       about scale. You can draw accurately        preliminary drawings at 1/8" or
  If you take the pictures first, you                        when you get back to the office.             1/10" = 1' 0" and can show the
  won’t worry about darkness or                                                                         owners the whole floor plan, they
                                                          • When you have drawn all four walls
  inclement weather occurring before                                                                    are much more likely to understand
                                                            of a room and labeled them north,
  you complete the field work. Keep                                                                      what you propose to do. After you
                                                            south, east and west, place the end
  the camera with you when you mea-                                                                     obtain their approval, you can con-
                                                            of your 33' steel tape at eye level in
  sure the interior; you will always                                                                    centrate on the affected areas at
                                                            the left corner (I’m right-handed)
  find additional things to document.                                                                    1/4" scale for working drawings.
                                                            of the first wall. The pushpins may
                                                                                                        Of course, using CAD makes this
• In the cellar or crawl space, measure                     come in handy here too if you can
                                                                                                        change of plotting scale really easy.
  the size, spacing, and direction of                       use them without damaging surfaces
                                                                                                        You can even create a small locator
  the floor beams and girders, includ-                       likely to remain “as-is.” Measure to
                                                                                                        plan on the working drawings for
  ing supporting columns.                                   the first edge of a door or window
                                                                                                        the contractor’s orientation.
                                                            opening, then to the second and so


18    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
Hey Buddy, Can You
Spare a Plan?
At some point in every career comes
a request for pro bono publico (for the
public good) work. The purpose of
this article is to give some suggestions
on responding to the request and
approaching the commitment. These
are just guidelines designed to ensure
that the requestor’s expectation and
the professional’s offer of services are
both realistic. Rehabilitation projects
taken on by volunteer groups might
be especially tricky due to novices
involved in the construction processes
or the managus opus project view.
   The concept of pro bono work is
different from that of a client who is
late paying or from a loss leader for      Ricker House, front elevation, June 1999, David Garner
a future project (see SPF Convention
Report #5—Negotiating Strategies:          The Ricker House                                   certain subjects were not available.
12 Steps to Improving Profitibilty).        Who was Ricker? Nathan Clifford                    He also authored several publications
Pro bono requests are for free services    Ricker is a legend in architecture.                during his tenure as a faculty member.
because a not-for-profit organization       In 1873, at the age of 29, Ricker was              Ricker served thirty-seven years as a
either has no funds or is attempting to    the first person to receive a degree                professor and head of the Department
leverage a scarce resource. First, if      in architecture in the United States.              of Architecture from 1873 until his
you are not familiar with the group,       Following his graduation from the                  retirement in 1910.
you need to verify that the organiza-      University of Illinois, Ricker remained               From 1892 until his death in 1924,
tion is a not-for-profit or fits other       at the school and devoted his entire               Nathan Clifford Ricker lived in the
criteria making it eligible to receive     career to developing the educational               house he designed. During construc-
services for no fee. Ask for a copy        philosophy of the Department (now                  tion, it was used as a laboratory for
of tax documents or annual report          School) of Architecture, advancing                 his students to practice construction
documentation. Second, you need to         the profession of architecture, and                techniques.
determine the extent of the request        practicing his educational philosophies               A person within the local community,
and whether or not you can fulfill it.      by designing buildings.                            who wishes to remain anonymous,
Defining your terminology is essential         Ricker was an outstanding innovator             saved the house from demolition by
for a successful volunteer effort.         in education. He developed guiding                 granting a loan of $115,000 to the
References such as the National Park       principles that direct an architect to be          Preservation and Conservation Asso-
Service’s Web site, http://www2.           first, a safe and economical builder;               ciation (PACA). The future use of the
cr.nps.gov/tps/secstan1.htm, can be        second, a person of business capacity;             house is uncon-firmed, though it is the
used to establish a common vocabu-         and third, an artistic designer. Func-             desire of the Ricker Foundation to use
lary. To illustrate approaches to offer-   tional applications and sound construc-            the facility to promote Ricker’s legacy
ing pro bono services, let’s look at an    tion technology were given priority. In            as an architectural educator. Although
example involving the Nathan Clifford      addition to embedding this philosophy              a single use is preferred, the opportu-
Ricker House.                              into the minds of aspiring architects,             nity also exists for mixed use. For
                                           Ricker translated over forty volumes               example, combining an alumni center
                                           on architecture when English texts on              on the first floor with student or visitor



                                                                    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   19
rooms on the second floor. Other pos-                      your current list of projects.             • Are tax write-offs available?
sible uses are administrative, residen-                      Keep in mind whether or not the
                                                                                                     • How long are you willing to stay
tial, and light commercial. A Web site,                   items you will address are health,
                                                                                                       involved with the project?
http://www.prairienet.org/ricker/,                        safety, welfare, or egress issues. These
containing information on the many                        issues could expose you to liability in    Richard Hayes, PhD, AIA
facets of the restoration project was                     the case of an accident. You may want      Director, Small Project Forum,
developed with the aid of a local                         to go over a standard disclaimer form      DesignBuild and Construction
architect in a pro bono capacity.                         with the pro bono client prior to begin-   Management PIAs
                                                          ning work. There need to be checks
Approaches to the project                                 and balances in place to ensure proper
The Construction Specifications                            execution of volunteer efforts. An            If you would like to report on issues
Institute (CSI) format is a good guide                    idea on paper can only carry a project        relevant to the Small Project Forum
                                                                                                        from your area on a regular basis,
for determining whether the needs for                     so far. There has to be a committed
                                                                                                        we invite you to join our network of
services is a systems issue, or a design                  volunteer labor force or grant funds          Local Advisors. Please call Laura
issue. The 16-division format is an aid                   available to complete the project.            Lee Russell, AIA.
to volunteer organizations prioritizing                      Offering pro bono services can be a
                                                                                                        The opinions expressed in this report
their needs, and can also serve as a                      sign of goodwill to the community and         do not necessarily reflect those of
guide to solicit particular material                      generate possible leads to future com-        the Advisory Group, the AIA staff
suppliers or possible other donated                       missions. But your time and skills are        members who prepared the report, or
services. The City of Alexandria, Va.,                    valuable. You may want to consider            The American Institute of Architects.
offers to do mortar analysis for reno-                    establishing a specific contact time
vation projects pertaining to historic                    (for example, 11:30 Friday mornings),
and older homes. Allied products, such                    and setting a limit on how long you
as MASTERSPEC Small Project, can                          will speak. At the least, you should
be used to generate specifications for                     record the time you spend on the pro-
volunteers to follow or to help define                     ject. You should also track the supplies
parameters of giving. Another option                      you use on the project and check with
would be to prepare simple floor plans.                    an appropriate tax professional regard-
With plans, fundraising activities (such                  ing possible tax deductions.
as room rehabilitation sponsorship)                          This brief overview provides some
can be initiated. While rooms on the                      guidance for efforts in the realm of pro
Ricker Web site floor plans are not                        bono work. The following checklist
designated specifically for sponsor-                       serves as a summary.
ship, it would be an easy next step
                                                          • Is the requesting organization a
to designate a donor sponsorship.
                                                            viable not-for-profit operation?

Your role                                                 • What is the time frame for the
You may want to target specific pro                          project? Is this reasonable given the
bono rehabilitation projects. One rea-                      “free” nature of the work?
son would be to enhance your skills by
                                                          • Is the need materials and method,
practicing with particular materials or
                                                            systems or design orientated?
details. You may also want to seek a
project because the building represents                   • Is the need for design, promotion
a specific type that you may be inter-                       purposes, or constructibilty?
ested in working with or exposing an
                                                          • Are life safety issues involved?
intern to. An intern may find great
value in being exposed to a building                      • Will the project be properly
type that may not happen to be on                           stewarded?



20    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
1999 Advisory Group                Local Advisors                                   Eugene M. Hollander, AIA
Small Project Forum PIA            Lavae H. Aldrich, AIA                            AIA Connecticut
                                   AIA Seattle                                      P.O. Box 602
Chair                              300 NE Gilman Boulevard                          Fairfield, CT 06430
Hy Applebaum, AIA                  Issaquah, WA 98027                               Phone: (203) 255-0140
AIA Houston                        Phone: (425) 391-5308                            Fax: (203) 255-9141
R&A Architects AIA                 Fax: (425) 391-5372                              Email: emhaia@aol.com
10101 Fondren, Suite 554           Email: flatcat@seanet.com
Houston, TX 77096                                                                   David C. Hughes, AIA
Phone: (713) 981-7315              Anthony Cohn, AIA                                AIA Columbus
Fax: (713) 981-7364                AIA New York                                     David C. Hughes Architects
Email: ra.arch@Internetmci.com     345 East 77th, #3G                               929 Harrison Avenue, Suite 303
                                   New York, NY 10021                               Columbus, OH 43215
Vice Chair                         Phone: (212) 219-6757                            Phone: (614) 298-7410
Edward (Pete) Wronsky Jr., AIA     Fax: (212) 219-0059                              Fax: (614) 298-7420
AIA Long Island East End Section   Email: cohn345@aol.com                           Email: dcharch@aol.com
Wronsky Architect
61 Main Street                     James L. Donham, AIA                             Daniel J. Jansenson, AIA
Southampton, NY 11968              AIA Wyoming                                      AIA Los Angeles
Phone: (516) 287-9240              JFC Engineers Architects                         630 Idaho Avenue, Apt. 307
Email: ezwjraia@aol.com            1515 9th Street                                  Santa Monica, CA 90403-2759
                                   Rock Springs, WY 82901-6057                      Phone: (310) 828-3501
Member                             Phone: (307) 362-7519                            Fax: (310) 828-4199
Jerald Morgan, AIA                 Fax: (307) 362-7569                              Email: danielj101@aol.com
AIA Vancouver                      Email: jfc@sweetwater.net
Jerald Morgan Architect                                                             Russ LaFrombois, AIA
6201 NW Garfield Avenue             Kevin L. Harris, AIA                             AIA Milwaukee
Vancouver, WA 98663                AIA Baton Rouge                                  5806 N. Bay Ridge Avenue
Phone: (360) 695-6330              Kevin L. Harris, AIA, Architect                  Milwaukee, WI 53211-2029
Fax: (360) 695 3300                555 S. Foster Drive                              Phone: (414) 207-7000
Email: jerry@worldaccessnet.com    Baton Rouge, LA 70806-5902                       Fax: (414) 207-7100
                                   Phone: (205) 924-7450
Local Advisor Coordinator          Fax: (205) 924-7441                              Lauren S. Mallas, AIA
Laura Lee Russell, AIA             Email: KLHArch@aol.com                           AIA San Francisco
AIA Oklahoma City                                                                   Mallas & Foote Architects
P.O. Box 26631                     Randolph E. Henning, AIA                         1780 Pacific Avenue
Oklahoma City, OK 73126            AIA Winston Salem                                San Francisco, CA 94109-2430
Phone: (405) 943-2724              Randolph C. Henning Architect                    Phone: (415) 673-9933
Fax: (405) 943-2721                405 North Cherry Street, Suite 201               Fax: (415) 673-7445
Email: LLR@flash.net                Winston Salem, NC 27101-2810
                                   Phone: (336) 724-6010                            Charles Matta, AIA
                                   Fax: (336) 724-4414                              AIA Northern Virginia
                                                                                    Matta Architect
                                                                                    4313 32nd Road South
                                                                                    Arlington, VA 22206-2000
                                                                                    Phone: (703) 824-0951
                                                                                    Fax: (703) 824-0955
                                                                                    Email: c.matta@ix.netcom.com



                                                          T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   21
Heather H. McKinney, AIA                                  Ty Morrison, AIA                         Gerard F. Santucci, AIA
AIA Austin                                                AIA Idaho                                AIA League of Northern NJ
Heather H. McKinney Architect                             Olson & Associates Architects            Santucci Design
101 W. 6th Street #707                                    1789 Broadway Avenue                     238 Main Street, Suite 111
Austin, TX 78701                                          Boise, ID 83706-3800                     Hackensack, NJ 07601-7318
Phone: (512) 476-0201                                     Phone: (208) 338-9080                    Phone: (201) 489-3366
Fax: (512) 476-0216                                       Fax: (208) 338-9067                      Fax: (201) 489-9343
                                                          Email: ty@olsonarchitects.com            Email: santucci@mail.idt.net
Rosemary McMonigal, AIA
AIA Minneapolis                                           Manuel Camilo Parra, Assoc. AIA          James E. Snyder, AIA
McMonigal Architects                                      AIA San Antonio                          AIA Montana
125 S. Main Street, Suite 345                             622 Brightwood Pl.                       529 N. 5th Street
Minneapolis, MN 55414-2143                                San Antonio, TX 78209                    Livingston, MT 59047
Phone: (612) 331-1244                                     Phone: (210) 377-3306                    Phone: (406) 222-3362
Fax: (612) 331-1079                                       Fax: (210) 377-3376                      Fax: (406) 222-3362

Diana K. Melichar, AIA                                    Charles G. Poor, AIA                     Lisa K. Stacholy, AIA
AIA Chicago                                               AIA Potomac Valley                       AIA Atlanta
Geudtner Melichar Architects                              Studio Partnership Architects            LKS Architects, Inc.
711 N. McKinley Road                                      25 Pine Avenue                           4200 Perimeter Park South, Suite 225
Lake Forest, IL 60045-1848                                Takoma Park, MD 20912-4677               Atlanta, GA 30341
Phone: (847) 295-2440                                     Phone: (301) 270-0990                    Phone: (770) 452-0275
Fax: (847) 295-2451                                       Fax: (301) 270-0092                      Fax: (770) 458-8388
                                                                                                   Email: lksarchitects@gtalumi.org
Ted Mondzelewski, AIA                                     Cindy Pozolo, AIA
AIA Philadelphia                                          AIA Detroit                              Donald R. Wardlaw, AIA
Architectural Concepts                                    Albert Kahn Building                     AIA East Bay
967 East Swedesford Road, #200                            7430 2nd Avenue                          Donald Wardlaw, AIA Architect
Exton, PA 19341                                           Detroit, MI 48202                        460 Santa Clara Avenue, Suite A
Phone: (610) 647-4325                                     Phone: (313) 202-7851                    Oakland, CA 94610-1924
Fax: (610) 647-1251                                       Fax: (313) 871-8539                      Phone: (510) 268-9524
Email: arconcepts@arconcepts.com                          Email: cynthiapozolo@akahn.com           Fax: (510) 268-0964

Laura Montllor, AIA                                       Edward Pressman, AIA
AIA Long Island                                           AIA Ohio
66 Hillview Avenue                                        Pressman & Associates Architects, Inc.
Port Washington, NY 11050-2827                            547 East Washington Street
Phone: (516) 883-0403                                     Chagrin Falls, OH 44022
Fax: (516) 883-6686                                       Phone: (440) 247-6760
Email: montllorl@aol.com
                                                          Mark Lewis Robin, AIA
                                                          AIA Middle Tennessee
                                                          127 2nd Avenue N
                                                          Nashville, TN 37201-1901
                                                          Phone: (615) 254-0211
                                                          Fax: (615) 242-3220




22    T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s
AIA Staff
Director, Small Project Forum,
DesignBuild, and Construction
Management PIAs
Richard L. Hayes, PhD, AIA
The American Institute of Architects
1735 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20006-5292
Phone: (202) 626-7539
Fax: (202) 626-7518
Email: hayesr@aiamail.aia.org

Editor
Robert Boyajian
The American Institute of Architects
1735 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20006-5292
Phone: (202) 626-7331
Fax: (202) 626-7518
Email: boyajianr@aiamail.aia.org

Meeting Planner
Georgina Salguero
The American Institute of Architects
1735 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20006-5292
Phone: (202) 626-7566
Fax: (202) 626-7518
Email: salgueros@aiamail.aia.org

Project Coordinator
Susan Fradenburg
The American Institute of Architects
1735 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20006-5292
Phone: (202) 626-7355
Fax: (202) 626-7518
Email: fradenburgs@aiamail.aia.org

Administrative Staff
Pat Woodard
The American Institute of Architects
1735 New York Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20006-5292
Phone: (202) 626-7539
Fax: (202) 626-7425
Email: woodardp@aiamail.aia.org




                                       T h e   A m e r i c a n   I n s t i t u t e   o f   A r c h i t e c t s   23

				
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