Docstoc

Soil Erosion in the Alps _ClimChAlp_

Document Sample
Soil Erosion in the Alps _ClimChAlp_ Powered By Docstoc
					                            Soil Erosion in the Alps

                             Luca Montanarella

                        European Commission
                       DG JRC, IES, LMNH Unit


                                                       1
European Soil Data Centre
  Specific questions on soil erosion in the Alps
• What kinds of measures concerning the whole integrated risk
  management cycle are applicable to counteract soil erosion?
• How can we minimize the residual risk of soil erosion?
• What should be the focus for the future work on soil erosion?
• How can we optimize the interaction of organizational
  measures, emergency management, technical measures and
  non-technical (ecological) measures in order to limit soil
  erosion?
• Which design events or scenarios should be used in future for
  dimensioning of new construction measures or risk reduction
  measures for soil erosion?

                                                             2
 European Soil Data Centre
What kinds of measures concerning the whole integrated risk
management cycle are applicable to counteract soil erosion?

• Maintaining an adequate forest cover
• Good farming practices applied to farmland,
  particularly reducing phenomena of
  overgrazing and unnecessary deep ploughing
  on sloping land
• Proper management of surface water runoff,
  specially in build-up areas.
   – TUSEC-IP INERREG IIIB

                                                              3
European Soil Data Centre
  How can we minimize the residual risk of soil
                      erosion?
• Erosion is a natural process that is fully
  acceptable if kept at natural levels. Therefore a
  residual risk of erosion is not a problem, on the
  contrary, can be considered as an indicator of a
  well balanced and properly functioning
  system.




                                                  4
 European Soil Data Centre
 What should be the focus for the future work on
                  soil erosion?
• Develop a comprehensive assessment of soil erosion in the
  Alps
• Compile a high resolution digital elevation model of the Alps
• Collect detailed soil information in a harmonized way over the
  Alps
• Collect real time vegetation cover information over the Alps
• Collect rainfall intensity and frequency data in a regular
  manner.
• develop a specific soil erosion model adapted to alpine
  conditions
• Collect proper validation data, e.g. sediment deposition data
  from alpine small water reservoirs at catchments level.
                                                               5
  European Soil Data Centre
                                           Soil erosion by water




The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment - PESERA - is
a process-based and spatially distributed model to quantify soil
erosion by water and assess its risk across Europe


 http://eusoils.jrc.it
                                                                   6
  European Soil Data Centre
                       PESERA Soil Erosion Risk Assessment




                                                        7
European Soil Data Centre
                    Validation of research - building confidence

                                                 Predicted soil erosion
     Basin
                                             Amount of sediment
                                      SDR =
                                            Total volume of erosion

                                              Predicted sediment export
                                                           t/ha/year


                                               Observed sediment export
                                                            t/ha/year




                                  Reservoir            Sediment volume


             Erosion        Sediment delivery
                                                                          8
European Soil Data Centre
                      Validation of research - building confidence
                                           6

                                           5

                                           4

                                           3

                                           2

                                           1

                                           0
                                               0   1           2          3          4          5          6




                                                                                                                                    Czech Republic
             Central Belgium                                                                                                  (Dostal et al., CVUT Prague)
  (Verstraeten and Poesen, K.U.Leuven)




                                                   3.5

                                                       3

                                                   2.5

                                                       2
                                                                                                    y = 0.4883x + 0.7188
                                                   1.5                                                   R 2 = 0.5445
                                                       1

                                                   0.5

                                                       0
                                                        0.00       1.00       2.00       3.00       4.00       5.00    6.00


  Spain (Avendano Salas et al., Devente, Poesen and
                   Verstraeten)                                                                                       Italy (Bazzoffi et al., ISSDS, Firenze)

                                                                                                                                                                9
European Soil Data Centre
                            10
European Soil Data Centre
      How can we optimize the interaction of organizational measures,
       emergency management, technical measures and non-technical
            (ecological) measures in order to limit soil erosion?

• Combating soil erosion requires a close interaction of
  many actors and stakeholders at different levels.
  Starting from the local rural population up to the
  policymakers at the level of the Alpine Convention
  there must be a clear understanding of the importance
  and extent of the problem. Implementing mitigation
  measures on the ground will then be possible at
  catchments level, which is the only meaningful unit
  for intervention against soil erosion.


                                                                        11
  European Soil Data Centre
      Which design events or scenarios should be used in future for
 dimensioning of new construction measures or risk reduction measures for
                              soil erosion?
• Most climate change scenarios agree on the increased
  frequency of extreme rainfall events in the Alpine area as well
  as a substantial reduction of the ice and snow cover during the
  winter period. It is to be expected that these factors, combined
  with an increased human impact on the alpine environment,
  will lead on the short term towards a massive increase of soil
  erosion phenomena in the Alps. Early identification of the
  major risk areas may help in preventing further disasters. In
  this sense the newly adopted Soil Thematic Strategy of the
  European Commission may provide a valid legislative
  instrument in order to reverse the negative trend of soil erosion
  in the Alps, at least for the EU member states.


                                                                        12
  European Soil Data Centre
                              ALPINE CONVENTION
Soil protection is one of the main issues that has been put forward by the Alpine
Convention (signed also a Soil Protection Protocol in 1998)
The Soil Protection Protocol of the Alpine Convention promotes cooperation
among member states, particularly in setting up soil databases
                                          France
                                          Switzerland
                                          Germany
                                          Italy
                                          Liechtenstein
                                          Austria
                                          Slovenia
                                          European Communities




                                                                            13
  European Soil Data Centre
    The soil protocol of the Alpine Convention
• Art.11 requires the delineation of areas at risk
  of soil erosion as well as addressing the need
  for implementing adequate measures to reduce
  soil erosion in the Alps




                                                 14
 European Soil Data Centre
                            Soil Framework Directive
 Erosion, organic matter decline, salinisation,
            compaction and landslides
        COMMON CRITERIA set in Directive
                                                Member States
          Model or                                establish
          empirical                                RISK
        MONITORING                             ACCEPTABILITY

                            Risk Area IDENTIFICATION

            Member States establish a TARGET for Risk Area


        Member States adopt MEASURES to achieve target


                             REPORT to Commission
                                                                15
European Soil Data Centre
                            16
European Soil Data Centre
                            17
European Soil Data Centre

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:12/4/2011
language:English
pages:17