Chapter 21 THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS by uWJ1xI

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									Chapter 21 THE LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS
21.1 The Lymphatic System
Objectives
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• list the functions of the lymphatic system;
• explain how lymph is formed and returned to the bloodstream;
• name the major types of cells in the lymphatic system and state their functions;
• name and describe the types of lymphatic tissue; and
• describe the form and function of red bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen.

21.2 Nonspecific Resistance
Objectives
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• identify the body’s three lines of defense against pathogens;
• contrast nonspecific resistance with immunity;
• describe the defensive functions of each kind of leukocyte;
• describe the role of the complement system in resistance and immunity;
• describe the process of inflammation and explain what accounts for its cardinal signs; and
• describe the body’s other nonspecific defenses.

21.3 General Aspects of Specific Immunity
Objectives
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• define specific immunity;
• contrast cellular and humoral immunity, active and passive immunity, and natural and artificial immunity;
• describe the chemical properties of antigens;
• describe and contrast the development of T and B lymphocytes; and
• describe the general roles played by lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, and interleukins in the
immune response.

21.4 Cellular Immunity
Objectives
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• list the types of lymphocytes involved in cellular immunity and describe the roles they play;
• describe the process of antigen presentation and T cell activation;
• describe how T cells destroy enemy cells; and
• explain the role of memory cells in cellular immunity.

21.5 Humoral Immunity
Objectives
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• explain how B cells recognize and respond to an antigen;
• describe the structure, types, and actions of antibodies;
• explain the mechanism of memory in humoral immunity; and
• compare and contrast cellular and humoral immunity.

21.6 Immune System Disorders
Objectives
When you have completed this section, you should be able to
• distinguish between the four classes of immune hypersensitivity and give an example of each;
• explain the cause of anaphylaxis and distinguish local anaphylaxis from anaphylactic shock;
• state some reasons immune self-tolerance may fail, and give examples of the resulting diseases; and
• describe the pathology of immunodeficiency diseases, especially AIDS.

								
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