; Crude_oil
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

Crude_oil

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 13

  • pg 1
									                             CRUDE OIL
• Fossil Fuel    (Today’s World Dependence)

• Nonrenewable Energy Source

• Extracted from deep wells, either on land or on the seafloor

• Chemical Composition:      Hundreds of chemicals including:
        Nitrogen compounds
        Oxygen compounds
        Sulfur compounds (e.g. toxic Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S))
        Heavy metal contaminants (Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr, V, etc.)
        Hydrocarbons (the vast majority):
                  Alkanes (CnH2n+2) [also called Aliphatic hydrocarbons]
                      Methane (CH4), Ethane (CH3CH3), Propane (CH3CH2CH3),
                      Butane (CH3CH2CH2CH3), etc.
                     Waxes (longer chain alkanes, C>18 )
                   Isoalkanes & Cycloalkanes
                  Aromatic hydrocarbons
                      examples: Benzene (C6H6), Ethylbenzene, Xylenes, etc.
                  Asphaltenes (high molecular weight hydrocarbons)
                              CRUDE OIL
Commonly Used Chemical Sub-classifications in the Petroleum Industry:

    • Olefinic: linear chain aliphatic hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds;
         ethylene (C2H2) is the smallest olefin.

    • Paraffinic: (paraffins, CnH2n+2) aliphatic hydrocarbons C6 – C18
        longer chain aliphatics, C>18, are paraffin waxes
             Naphtha is the lightest paraffin, then kerosene.

    • Isoparaffinic: branched aliphatic hydrocarbons, generally C10 – C15

    • Naphthalenic: naphthalene and related aromatics

    • Asphaltic: high molecular weight cycloaliphatics
             high viscosity lubricating oils
                             CRUDE OIL
More Terms, Commonly Used Chemical Sub-classifications:

   • TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) subdivided by chain length:
       GRO-TPH (gasoline range organics)         C6 – C10
       DRO-TPH (diesel range organics) C10 – C28
       ORO-TPH (oil range organics) C28 – C>35

   • VOCs (volatile organic compounds) include most GRO and some DRO

   • BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes)

   • PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
       Some are carcinogenic, including the prototype PAH carcinogen,
       Benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]
                     CRUDE OIL

More Terms:


   • Light crude oil: low paraffin wax content

   • Heavy crude oil: higher density, high paraffin wax content,
       flow rate is slow

   • Sweet crude oil: low sulfur content
        CRUDE OIL

• Extraction from deep wells
        Onshore, Offshore, or Imported

• Transportation
        Pipeline, Supertanker, Tanker, Barge, Truck, & Railcar

• Refineries
        Gasoline, jet fuel, lubricants, kerosene,
        asphalt, etc.
        and then back to:

• Transportation & Storage

• Consumers
PRODUCTS OF REFINING CRUDE OIL
      Per Barrel (44 gallons)

    •   Gasoline              19.5 gallons (44%)
    •   Distillate Fuel Oil    9.2 gallons (21%)
    •   Jet Fuel               4.1 gallons ( 9.3%)
    •   Residual Fuel Oil      2.3 gallons ( 5.2%)
    •   Liquefied Gases        1.9 gallons ( 4.3%)
    •   Still Gas              1.9 gallons ( 4.3%)
    •   Petroleum Coke         1.8 gallons ( 4.0%)
    •   Asphalt / Road Oil     1.3 gallons ( 3.0%)
    •   Lubricants             0.5 gallons ( 1.1%)
    •   Kerosene               0.2 gallons ( 0.5%)
    •   Other                  1.5 gallons ( 3.3%)
      OIL SPILLS

Environmental impacts are mostly due
      to oil spills and
      from combustion products
                                                   Exxon-Valdez 1989




                                Oil in the Marine Waters
                                          Natural Seepage
                                          Tanker & Supertanker Accidents
                                          Platform Blow-out




                                Deepwater Horizon 2010
            Deepwater Horizon Disaster
• Deepwater Horizon Platform
       (semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling rig)
       located in the Gulf of Mexico 50 miles south from the
                tip of Louisiana and the mouth of the
       Mississippi River

• Platform Explosion and Fire, April 20, 2010

• Well Blow-Out on sea bottom
        5,000 ft depth

• Plugged on July 15, 2010
        (after 86 days)

• Estimated 4.9 million barrels
       (206 gallons)
                OIL SPILL IMPACT
• Oiled birds and marine life

• Habitat disruption

• Fish, Shrimp, Crab, Oyster Beds

• Estuarine disruption

• Food chain issues
Oil Reached Marine Estuaries
            RECOVER & REMEDIATION
              Deepwater Horizon Spill
• Skimming

• Burning

• Dispersants (COREXIT 9500)




                               • Natural
                                        Evaporation
                                        Dissolution
                                        Bacterial action
                                        Sinks to bottom
 OIL CONTAINMENT & RECOVERY




SHORE PROTECTION
  SUMMARY

    CRUDE OIL
• Chemical Composition

• Environmental Impacts
    Combustion Products
    Oil Spills

• Marine Wildlife

• Fisheries

• Habitats

								
To top