ANALYSIS OF THE JUSTICE SYSTEM AND CRIMINAL LAW
Office: Craven 6227
Office phone: 760 750 8051
Office hours: Monday 11-1 and by appointment
Class hours: M~W, 900-1050
Classroom: ACD 319
Final Exam: Monday May 12th, 915AM – 1115AM
“…the ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas: i.e. the class which is the ruling
material force for society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. The class which has the means
of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production.”
(Marx, found in Reiman, 1998)
"Laws are like spiders’ webs: they catch the weak and the small,
but the strong and the powerful break through them."
(Scythian, one of the Seven Wise Men of Ancient Greece)
"There are basically three classes in today's society. We have the rich
who have all of the money, and pay none of the taxes, the middle class, who
pay all of the taxes and do all of the work, and the poor are there, just to
scare the shit out of the middle class. Keep em showing up at those jobs." (George Carlin)
I do not mind when people call me schizophrenic, I do mind when they think that is all I am. (The Four
Sociological examination of the juvenile and adult justice systems in the U.S. within the context of race,
gender and social inequality. Overview of the processes of the justice system from the commission of
crimes and offenses through sentencing and appeal procedures, with special consideration of the role and
applications of criminal law.
The goal of this course is to provide a critical analysis of the issues surrounding inequality in the criminal
By the end of the class you should be able to skillfully:
critically evaluate and discuss readings addressing inequities in the criminal justice system(s)
understand both the importance of micro level and macro level factors on creation and
maintenance of the juvenile and adult justice systems
develop the knowledge and critical thinking skills to evaluate the creation of criminal laws and the
application of those laws in both the juvenile and adult justice systems
develop the knowledge and critical thinking skills to evaluate the stages of the juvenile and adult
justice systems from policing to corrections
discuss the relationship between class, gender, race, and age, and the maintenance of social control
discuss labeling and conflict theory, using both to critique the adult and juvenile justice systems
and create public policy
evaluate the effect of current public policies such as the War on Drugs, Three Strikes, and the
death penalty on race, class and gender inequality in the criminal justice system
use your knowledge and critical thinking skills to examine and evaluate the current criminal
justice systems, and offer solutions for the future to address many of the inequalities that exist
gather and evaluate existing research pertaining to a variety of topics
summarize, synthesize, and analyze literature/research
write a literature review and propose policy changes
My overall goal in this course is for you as students to be able to synthesize the materials you have
mastered in prior criminology and justice studies courses and use this mastery to begin to understand the
importance of critiquing this institution of social control. While it is often difficult to critique an
institution that has become such a fundamental part of our lives, it is my hope that this course helps you
begin to understand that, while uncomfortable at times, this critique is necessary for the creation and
maintenance of a just society.
Because this is a senior level course in the area of criminology and justice studies it is assumed you have
taken earlier courses on crime and/or delinquency.
All readings for the topic should be done before the week starts
The books for this course can be purchased at the bookstore. Please read the assigned material prior to the
time in which it is going to be discussed. There is a heavy reading load for this class.
- The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America, by Walker, Spohn, and DeLone
- The Invisible Woman: Gender, Crime, and Justice, by Belknap [B]
- The Rich Get Richer And the Poor Get Prison, by Reiman [R]
- No Equal Justice, by Cole [C]
Grades will be based on the following criteria:
Exam One 20%
Exam Two 20%
Exam Three 20%
Critical Summaries of readings 20%
Final paper (annotated bibliography and rough draft) 20%
All grades will be assigned on an absolute scale (partially shown below), rather than a curve
Regular attendance is expected and necessary to do well in this class
Thoughtful participation in class is encouraged. Participation in class can come in several forms. 1)
asking and answering questions in class 2) engaging in class discussions 3) thoughtful participation
during small group discussions and group work 4) thoughtful discussions with me during office hours.
Not coming to class makes it pretty darn hard to do three out of four of these, and probably makes the
fourth one pretty painful.
There will be 3 exams given over the session, including a comprehensive final. The exams will include
multiple choice, true/false questions, short answer, and essay, and will cover readings, lectures, videos,
and class discussions. To do well on the exams, you must understand the material. Please note when the
final exam is scheduled for this class. NO ADJUSTMENTS WILL BE MADE FOR THE FINAL
EXAM SO PLEASE PLAN YOUR SCHEDULE ACCORDINGLY.
A Note on Options Testing: I will be utilizing a type of testing called "options testing." Options exams
takes into account individuals‘ various learning and testing styles, making it possible for students to tailor
exams to their own style. This means that you will be provided with seven (7) test options from which
you must choose one. Exam options will be constructed from 3 types of questions:
Objective (30 multiple choice and true/false questions)
Short Answer (6-7 short answer questions)
Essay (1 essay question)
At test time, you will choose your test from the following 7 options. Note that the questions are weighted
differently for different types of tests. For example, you could choose a test comprised of only one type of
question, such as all objective, all short answer, or all essay questions.
Option 1 = answer all objective questions only.
Each question is worth 3.33 points.
Option 2 = answer only short answer questions (choose 5 out of those provided)
Each question is worth 20 points.
Option 3 = answer essay question only (1 provided).
The question is worth 100 points.
Or, you could choose a test comprised of two types of questions such objective and short answer, or short
answer and essay.
Option 4 = answer 30 objective questions and 5 short answer.
Each objective question is worth 1.66 pts. and each short answer is worth 10 pts.
Option 5 = answer 30 objective questions and 1 essay question.
Each objective question is worth 1.66 pts. and each essay is worth 50 pts.
Option 6 = answer 5 short answer questions and 1 essay question.
Each short answer question is worth 10 pts. and each essay is worth 50 pts.
Or lastly, you could choose a test that combines all possible question types.
Option 7 = answer 30 objective questions, 2 short answer question, and 1 essay question.
Each objective question is worth 2 pts., each short answer question is worth 10 pts., and
the essay is worth 20 pts.
You will want to think about these options and your individual testing style PRIOR to exams. Testing
periods provide some margin for error, but not a lot, so be sure to give these options some thought in
advance of exams. We will discuss this as a class in more detail prior to test time.
Critical Reading Summaries
By Wednesday 5pm of certain weeks class participants must submit critical discussions of the readings
for the week (from our books). The discussions should be at least 800 words. The summaries should
describe the central question(s) addressed in the readings, the author's main points or findings, and then
compare/contrast/critically assess the readings with one another and our lecture material. You could
discuss areas of the reading that you found confusing, aspects of the theoretical or empirical parts of the
book or perhaps, aspects of the books implications for the study of inequality and the criminal justice
system. Individual summaries will be graded on a 10 point scale. Collectively the summaries will
constitute 20% of the course grade. There are 4 class days in which critical reading summaries will be
The summaries are due to the WebCT assignment tool by 5pm.
Critical Reading Summaries Grading Rubric:
A (9-10 points) Outstanding paper of at least 800 words. Papers that earn an A will be able to
synthesize and critically analyze materials from across more than one book and compare to lecture
material where appropriate.
B (8 points) Outstanding papers of between 750 and 799 words or very good papers of over 800
words that can summarize the material from more than one of the books.
C (7 points) Outstanding papers of between 700 and 749 words or average papers of over 800
words that successfully summarizes the material from more than one book but may inaccurately portray
aspects of the material.
D (6 points) Outstanding papers of between 650 and 699 words or less than average papers of
over 800 words that inaccurately portray material from more than one book or only summarizes the
material of one book.
F (0-5 points) Outstanding papers of less than 650 words or papers that completely inaccurately
portray the material.
Literature Review Grading Rubric
See grading rubric on final paper assignment sheet at end of syllabus
Work turned in late is an inconvenience to me, as it requires me to adjust my grading schedule. I
understand, however, that students often have very reasonable justifications for turning in late work. My
late policy is therefore as follows: If you need to turn something in late, you must inform me before the
class period in which it is due. While you may inform me in person, you must also send me an email
detailing your reasons for needing extra time [this email must also be to me before the class period
in which the assignment is due]. For students who follow these instructions, I am generally willing to
give up to two additional days, so that work that is due on Monday may be turned in by class time on
Wednesday [work due on Wednesday must be emailed to me no later than Friday class time]. I consider
this to be a very reasonable late policy, and therefore will not accept any late work from students who do
not follow these instructions. Note that I do not expect a student to use this late policy continually
throughout the semester; it is for those special circumstances that arise in individual‘s lives.
There will be no extra credit in this class.
Plagiarism (please see http://courses.csusm.edu/sthompsn/plagiarism/ )
PLEASE ALSO NOTE: Any evidence of cheating (including plagiarism—presenting the words or
ideas of others as your own) will result in a failing grade for that assignment and possibly a failing
grade for the course.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is considered plagiarism and how can I avoid committing it?
According to the CSUSM catalogue: Plagiarism occurs when students represent ―the words, ideas, or work of
another as one‘s own in any academic exercise.‖ (p. P-4) A good rule of thumb: if you think you may be
committing plagiarism, you probably are. It is best in these cases to err on the side of caution by quoting from the
source text and then explaining the quote in your own words (―In other words…‖) so that I know that you know
what you‘re talking about.
Can We Make-up an Exam We Missed?
Yes you can. If you miss one of the first two exams, you can take a make-up exam on Wednesday, November 29th,
during the regularly scheduled class. Make-up exams are harder than the exam you missed (usually only essay—not
an options test). This is the only time available to make-up exams. THE FINAL EXAM CANNOT BE
SCHEDULED FOR A DIFFERENT TIME OR MADE-UP, IF MISSED.
People get the flu. Grandparents die. What’s a good student to do?
I realize that life sometimes gets in the way of coming to class and completing assignments. If you want to
minimize the damage that sicknesses and family deaths have on your grade, there are two simple rules to follow:
1.) Keep me posted of developments.
2.) Provide documentation.
For example, let‘s say Students A and F both eat the same bad potato salad at the cafeteria and end up in bed for
three days. Student A lets me know through a quick phone call or e-mail why she is missing class and then brings
me a doctor‘s note when she gets back, while Student F tells me nothing. Obviously, student A will garner a
greater proportion of my limited quantity of benevolence. [courtesy of Professor Linneman, College of William and
A quick note on my limited quantity of benevolence
It may come as a surprise to you, but professors are human, too. This means that we are subject to the same bad
days and human frailties as the next guy. To guarantee that you get treated the way you want to get treated in this
class you should follow the rules of the syllabus because I consider these to be our contract with one another. The
more often you step outside these rules and ask for exceptions the more you are going to be playing on that limited
quantity of benevolence. I cannot guarantee that because I let you turn in an assignment late in week 4 that you will
get the same consideration in week 11, remember others have been using up that benevolence, too.
Thanks for letting us know about your limited quantity of benevolence—what might suck that benevolence
up really fast?
1. coming late to class
2. getting up in the middle of class and wandering outside
3. talking when others are talking
4. cell phones
What is the difference between active and passive learning? And why should I know the difference?
Passive learning is what we do when we listen to lectures, take notes, or read textbooks. Active learning is what we
do when we synthesize this information we have received passively and then try to apply it to a new problem. You
may engage in active learning in a group exercise (some of you won‘t because you will sit there passively while
others do the active work). You will most certainly engage in active learning while you take a test or write a paper
for the class. Just because you come to class every day and read the assigned readings does not mean that you will
do well on the exams or papers, if you are not also keeping up on the active learning as well.
Tentative Class Schedule-Analysis of the Justice System and Criminal Law
Week/Day Lecture Topic Readings DUE
January 23 Introductions
January 28 Definitions W, S, & D chap 1; Cole,
Introduction and chapter 6
January 30 Review of Conflict Theory and Labeling Reiman, Introduction and
Theory and Sociology of Superordinates Appendix (Marxian critique);
Belknap, chapters 1 and 2
February 4 What is Criminal Justice: 2 models of CJ Reiman, chapters 1 and 2
Introduction to Literature Reviews
February 6 Crime Trends: Race, Class, Gender Belknap, chapter 3; W, S, & D, Critical reading
chapters 2 and 3 summary 1 due
February 11 History: Unequal Protection, Unequal W, S, & D, chapter 4
Enforcement: The Race Question in
February 13 Gender and Law Belknap, chapter 4 143-149 Bibliography due
February 18 Class and Law
February 20 Review Critical reading
summary 2 due
February 25 EXAM ONE
February 27 The Adult and Juvenile Justice System: Belknap, chapter 4; Cole,
A Tour chapter 1
March 3 It‘s a Long Tour (short movie: Racial Reiman, chapter 3
Profiling and Law Enforcement)
March 5 C, G, and R: Arrest, (short movie: W, S, & D, chapter 10; Cole,
Search and Seizure) chapter 2
March 10 Intake, and Adjudication W, S, & D, chapters 5 and 6;
Cole, chapter 3
March 12 Movie: Plea Bargaining Critical reading
summary 3 due
March 17 Gender and Sentencing Belknap, chapter 5
March 19 Race and Class and Sentencing W, S, & D, chapter 7
March 24 Review Rough Draft due
March 26 EXAM TWO
March 31 SPRING BREAK
April 2 SPRING BREAK
April 7 Literature reviews
April 9 Juvenile Justice: The Case of
April 14 Changing the System: Conflict Theory Reiman, chapters 4 and
conclusion; Belknap, chap 12
April 16 Group Work: Solutions for Washington Cole, chapters 5, 6, and 7
State: The Answers: What has
Washington State done?
April 21 Changing the System: Three Strikes and W, S, & D, chapters 8 and 11
the War on Drugs
April 23 Cole, chapter 4 Critical reading
summary 4 due
April 28 Movie: Fourteen Days in May W, S, & D, chapter 9
April 30 MAKE-UP EXAM
May 5 Review PAPER DUE
MAY 12TH EXAM THREE
9:15 - 11:15
AM or MAY
12TH 1:45 –
You have been commissioned by the NIJ (National Institute of Justice) to evaluate the current state of our justice
system. Specifically the NIJ is interested in the current state of racial profiling in the United States or the current
state of drug sentencing and drug sentencing laws and their effects on racial/gender/or class discrimination in
sentencing. The NIJ requests that you choose one of the above topics, submit a policy analysis describing the
nature/state of the problem in the U.S., a review of the existing literature pertaining to your problem and your
proposed policy changes .
Your study will be used to help to define our goals for the justice system in the 21st century. As such, you should
make specific recommendations for public policy and specific suggestions as to where we should focus our funding
and research efforts.
You should draw on peer reviewed journal articles, as well as academic books, class readings, class lectures and
Paper length: at least 8 pages and 12 peer reviewed/academic sources
1. double spaced, typed, 10 to 12 point font, 1 inch margins
2. at least 8 pages
3. all research used will be cited according to APA or ASA standards [* see special note]
4. the paper should make a well organized argument
5. the paper should follow the best practices for organizing a literature review
6. grammar and spelling are correct [* see special note]
7. thoughtful introduction/statement of the problem, pertaining to your topic
8. thoughtful review of the literature, pertaining to your topic
9. a reasoned and analytical suggestion for future public policy, be specific in your discussion
1. February 13 – Annotated bibliography due
2. March 24 – Rough draft due
3. May 5 – Final paper due
Rubric for Grading Written Paper
A All 9 of the above items have been thoroughly, completely, and correctly addressed
B All 9 of the above items have been addressed, however, one or two of the
items, less thoughtfully, clearly, or correctly
C All 9 of the items have been addressed, however, several items are less
thoughtful or clear; or a single item has been left out entirely
D At least 6 of the 9 items have been addressed; although perhaps not clearly or
F The paper does not accurately, clearly, or correctly address at least 6 of the above expectations
NOTE: the Annotated bibliography and rough draft are not graded, HOWEVER, failing to turn them in on time will
mean the final paper will be graded down one full grade. For example, if you fail to turn the rough draft in
on March 24, the highest grade you can earn on the final paper will be a B. If you fail to turn both the
annotated bibliography and rough draft in on time, the highest grade you can earn on the final paper is a C.
When you turn the annotated bibliography and rough draft in on time you will earn 2 extra credit points to
be put toward your final exam score (4 points total).
[* how much poor grammar or bad spelling means you have not satisfied number 3 or 6 of the paper expectations?
I take off a point for each mark I make on your paper to correct spelling, grammar, the APA style format, etc.]
Exam 1 Study Guide
W, S, D
1. According to our text, the Color of Justice, what are the various ways that race can be defined. Use blacks
and whites as illustrations.
2. What is the difference between race and ethnicity?
3. What is the quality of race and ethnicity measures in criminal justice data?
4. What is the difference between disparity and discrimination?
5. What is the relationship between race, gender, and location on likelihood of personal victimization?
6. Do you agree with the Kerner Commission‘s conclusion that we are moving toward two societies, one
black and one white? Explain your answer.
7. Explain how residential discrimination contributes to crime.
8. What impact did the Civil Rights Movement have on the criminal justice system?
9. Explain the relationship between race, age, and public attitudes toward the police.
10. What has been the impact of hiring diversity on police departments?
11. How is policing in Native American communities different from policing in the rest of the U.S.?
1. What is the difference between Randall Kennedy and David Cole‘s argument about race and the criminal
2. What does Cole say might be the outcome of constitutional rights were the system to institute equality?
Why would this happen? (Thinking part of question: would this have to happen? what other scenarios
might we institute instead?)
3. According to Cole, what is the role of inequality in the current criminal justice system?
4. Why is the dichotomy of constitutional rights vs. law enforcement (safety from harm) so important during a
discussion of inequality in the criminal justice system? Do you agree that this is a useful or accurate
5. What is the cost of inequality?
1. According to Reiman, what is the state of crime in this country?
2. What are the four excuses that are given for why crime cannot be controlled? Why does Reiman suggest
these excuses are wrong?
3. What is meant by saying that the criminal justice system is ―designed to fail‖?
4. What is the Pyrrhic defeat theory?
5. What does it mean to say that ―crime is functional for society‖? How does the Pyrrhic defeat theory differ
from the Durkheim-Erikson theory?
6. What should be our definition of the term crime? Why does it matter what we call things? Should there be
an overlap between the acts we label crimes and the acts we think are morally wrong?
7. Give examples of social practices that are more dangerous to your well-being than common crime. How
should these practices be dealt with?
8. Summarize and explain the Defenders four objections and Reiman‘s responses.
1. What is the difference between sex and gender? Which do you think is most important?
2. Explain Feminist thought. What are the 5 elements that distinguish feminist thought from other social and
3. What are feminist methods?
4. Explain the 6 images of women that influence how they are perceived in the crime processing system?
5. Trace and discuss criminological theory and the place of women in these theories.
6. Explain the women‘s liberation/emancipation hypothesis. What are some of the problems with this
7. Discuss the lifecourse/pathways research. What are some of the common pathways to crime for women?
8. Explain the concepts of gender-stability, gender-convergence, and gender-divergence in relation to female
crime. Which of these concepts is supported by less serious crimes and drug use?
9. Know the relationship between gender and offending paying special attention to gang affiliation and drug
use and selling.
10. How have laws been ―used‖ to discriminate against women?
Exam 2 Study Guide
W, S, D
1. What do the following three cases have to do with a suspect‘s right to counsel? Powell v Alabama, Johnson v
Zerbst, Gideon v Wainwright.]
2. What is the relationship between race and type of attorney?
3. What is the argument against the traditional bail system? What was the purpose of the Bail Reform Act
? How was this Act later amended?
4. What is the relationship between bail decisions and case outcomes?
5. How does race affect charging and plea-bargaining decisions?
6. What has been the case history of racial discrimination in jury selection? How did states get around the need to
randomly select people for juries?
7. What is the difference between racial discrimination in the jury pool and the use of peremptory challenges in
selecting the jury?
8. Discuss Swain v Alabama and Batson v Kentucky. How do these decisions impact jury selection?
9. Should we eliminate the peremptory challenge?
10. What are the arguments for and against race-conscious jury nullification? Would you ever expect it would be
used in this country?
11. What is the effect of race and ethnicity on juvenile court outcomes?
12. What effect do court workers perceptions have on the disparate treatment of juvenile offenders?
13. What does contextual discrimination mean? What are the three explanations for racial disparity in sentencing?
14. What is the relationship between race and sentencing drug offenders? Why might this relationship exist?
15. There have been contradictory findings on race and sentencing. Explain them.
16. What is the liberation hypothesis? What would the liberation hypothesis say about the relationship between
race and less serious sentencing outcomes?
17. What is determinate sentencing? How should it affect sentencing outcomes? Give an example.
1. What is the different standard applied to waiving one‘s constitutional rights during a ‗consent search‘ than
waiving one‘s constitutional rights during another stage? What court decisions address this difference?
Why did the Supreme Court make this decision?
2. What is quality of life policing? What is the Terry decision and what is its relationship to quality of life
policing? How does quality of life policing affect the neighborhoods it is used in?
3. Explain Gideon v. Wainwright and Griffin v. Illinois. How are they constitutionally different than other
4. How have rights concerning counsel been limited after Gideon v. Wainwright?
5. What is the ―violent presumption‖? Did this decision end jury discrimination?
6. Discuss the tension between race-consciousness and color-blindness when it comes to jury selection, jury
discrimination, and the relevant Supreme Court decisions.
1. What arguments does Reiman use in order to use criminal justice statistics on African Americans instead of the
2. What factors make it likelier that a poor person who commits a crime such as shoplifting or nonaggravated
assault will get arrested than a middle class person who commits the same crime?
3. What is the relationship between class and the charging stage?
4. What is the relationship between class and adjudication? What factors contribute to this relationship?
5. How are people who engage in white-collar crime sentenced when found guilty? Specifically discuss two cases.
Does their sentence fit their crime?
6. What is the significance of the court case McCleskey v Kemp?
1. What are the three hypotheses concerning sex discrimination in crime processing? Which are most
supported in the criminal justice process and what leads to their support?
2. What are the experiences of girls in the juvenile justice system? How do these experiences differ from
3. What was the Juvenile Justice Prevention Act of 1974 designed to do? Did it accomplish its task?
4. What is the role of gender discrimination in police decision making?
5. What is the role of gender discrimination in pretrial court decision making?
6. What is the role of gender discrimination in trial and posttrial decision making?
7. What is the role of the type of offense in gender differences in crime processing?
8. What are some of the variables that may affect sentencing [also called sanctioning or crime processing in
the book] of females vs. males?
9. What has been the role of sex [having it not being it] on the institutionalization of females in the U.S.?
10. What are the similarities and differences in female experiences in prisons, compared to men? How have
these experiences changed over the past 150 years?
11. What is the experience of men and women in prison concerning parenthood? What is the argument for
allowing women to raise children in prison? What is the argument against allowing women to raise
children in prison?
12. What is a cocorrectional facility? What are the arguments for and against a cocorrectional facility?
Exam 3 Study Guide
W, S, D
1. What did the majority opinions say about the unconstitutionality of the Death Penalty in Furman v. Georgia?
2. What was the impact of Furman? How do the proposed changes stop discretion?
3. Give examples of racial disparity in the application of the death penalty prior to Furman.
4. Explain the relationship between race of the victim and offender and death penalty sentences pre-Furman.
5. While the Supreme Court said ―the concerns that prompted our decision in Furman are not present to any
significant degree in the Georgia procedure applied here‖, what do others argue may be the real outcome of
guided discretion as seen in the Georgia procedure. Is there evidence of this?
6. Explain the relationship between race and death penalty sentences post-Furman.
7. What are the two interrelated explanations for the higher death penalty rates for homicides involving African-
Americans? Which is better supported given the statistics provided?
8. What did McCleskey v. Kemp find? What did this decision mean for the system? What was it expected to
mean? How did the U.S. House of Representatives respond to McCleskey v. Kemp? What was the outcome?
9. What are the implications of racial disparities in state and federal facilities? In other words, who is where and
why and what does this mean for their sentences/experiences?
10. What have been the historical trends of racial disparity in state and federal facilities?
11. Explain the role of employment in perhaps increasing racial disparity in parole and probation decisions.
1. Why might McCleskey v. Kemp be the single most important decision the Court has ever issued on race
2. Explain the cases of Lyons, O‘Shea, and Rizzo and why they are important.
3. What are the costs of inequality?
4. According to Cole, what are the obstacles to reforming the CJ system?
5. According to Cole, what are the solutions to help reform the CJ system?
1. According to Reiman, what are the three failings of the criminal justice system?
2. According to Reiman, what is the Pyrrhic defeat theory?
3. According to Reiman, what is historical inertia?
4. According to Reiman, what is the implicit ideology of criminal justice?
5. Where did the word villain come from?
6. What are the bonuses of bias in the criminal justice system?
7. Why is the American criminal justice system sometimes no better than crime itself?
8. According to Reiman, what are the 5 things that could be focused on to protect society?
9. How do our drug policies and prisons help to produce crime?
10. How does Reiman suggest we promote more justice in this country?
11. Would you be willing to have your taxes go to pay for equal-quality legal counsel for the poor?
12. Are the recommendations made in the Reiman book likely to be instituted? What does your answer imply about
your view of the American legal system?
1. According to Belknap, what must be done to make the criminal justice system more fair for women?