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					Localized Iterative Design for
   Language Learning in
Underdeveloped Regions: The
     PACE Framework
                     Authors: Mathew Kam
 Divya Ramachandran, Varun Devanathan, Anuj Tewari, John Canny

                     Presented by: Ken Le
                Overview
• Background
• Main Topics
  – Design Challenges
  – Solution: The PACE Framework
  – Implementation and User Studies
• Conclusion
• Questions
Background

   What is the PACE Framework?
  • A framework that supports flexible,
    rapid, and scalable development of
    language learning software localized for
    a particular community of learners.
Background

               Project MILLEE
  • Mobile and Immersive Learning for
    Literacy in Emerging Economies




             http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~mattkam/millee/
Background

                               Why?
  • English considered as tool for success in
    emerging economies
  • Many schools in developing regions do
    poorly in second language education
      – 26% of children cannot read English alphabet
        after 1 year
      – 25% teacher absent rate
      – 43% children do not attend school regularly
  • Huge divide occurring
       http://www.citris-uc.org/files/MattKam%20TIER%20Workshop.pdf
Background

                             Video
          TV documentary on novel cell phone usage.
        “Cell Phone: The Ring Heard Around the World”
             http://www.cbc.ca/doczone/cellphones/video.html




        • Features parts of project MILLEE

        • Set stage for discussion on the PACE Framework
 The PACE Framework: Main Topics

1. Design Challenges
2. Solution: The PACE Framework
3. Implementation and User Studies
1) Design Challenges
1) Design Challenges

                 Cultural Challenges
  • Understanding of user’s educational
    baseline
  • User’s with limited computing experience
  • Uncommon cultural backgrounds
1) Design Challenges

                Software Challenges
  • Flexibility
  • Fast Iterations
  • Scalability
2) Solution: The PACE Framework
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

             The PACE Framework
  • Layered architecture that allows for flexible,
    iterative, and scalable design

  •   Pattern
  •   Activity             Exercise

  •   Curriculum
                                       Activity
  •   Exercise
                                       Pattern


                                      Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                          Curriculum
  •   Alphabet
  •   Vocabulary
  •   Images
  •   Pronunciations




                                  Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                Example Curriculums


        Vocabulary curriculum                        Alphabet curriculum

        <curriculum>                                 <curriculum>
             <wordlist>                                   <alphabet>
                   <word>apple</word>                           <letter>a</letter>
                   <word>banana</word>                          <letter>b</letter>
                   <word>orange</word>                            .
             </wordlist>                                          .
        </curriculum>                                           <letter>z</letter>
                                                          </alphabet>
                                                     </curriculum>




                                Pure content, no presentation
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                              Pattern
  • A template
  • Interested in patterns current language
    learning software use to implement
    learning tasks



                                   Pattern


                                  Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                    Pattern Example
  Receptive Phase
  • Banana



  • Apple



  • Orange
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                    Pattern Example
  Activation Phase
  • Banana ?


  • Apple ?




  • Orange ?
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                              Pattern
  • Many patterns available




  • Why patterns? Spend energy on other
    design tasks, not on reinventing the wheel
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                              Activity




                                   Activity


                                   Pattern


                                  Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

                           Exercises
  • Combination of patterns, activities, and
    curriculums

                Exercise


                                   Activity


                                   Pattern


                                  Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

         Example: Three Exercises




                                   Alphabet
                                  Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

           Example: Two Exercises
                                   apple   orange   banana




                       Alphabet                              Vocabulary
                      Curriculum                             Curriculum
2) Solution: The PACE Framework

              The PACE Framework
  • Layered architecture allows for
      – Flexibility
          • Adapt to a culture or age group based on choice of
            curriculum, pattern, and activity
      – Fast Iterations
          • Lots of reusable curriculums, patterns, and activities
          • Modifications only need to be done at certain layers
      – Scalability
          •   Content specialists can focus on curriculum
          •   Teaching specialists can focus on patterns
          •   Application developers can focus on user interface
          •   Many exercises that fit various cultures and age groups may
              be developed based: e.g. one curriculum to many activities
3) Implementation and Case
         Studies
3) Implementation and User Studies

                      Implementation
  • 35 software applications reviewed
  • 50 patterns identified
  • 11 patterns chosen for initial language
    learning
  • 6 activities implemented
  • 21 curricula:
       – alphabet, numbers, dates, time, shopping,
         travel, nature, social situations
3) Implementation and User Studies

                         User Study 1
  •   Age group: 4-6
  •   Curriculum: alphabet
  •   Exercises: 3
  •   Pre-test
       – 3 of 14 didn’t know alphabet
       – Others knew two-thirds

  • Study Duration: 2 days
3) Implementation and User Studies

                         User Study 1

  • Design Iterations
       –   Simplified feedback mechanism
       –   Removed time limit
                                                correct   incorrect
       –   Introduced more animations
       –   Added repeat sound

  • Results
       –   One student completes all 3 exercises
       –   Most students complete 2 out of 3 exercises
       –   3 exercises cover entire alphabet
       –   No post-test
                  User Study 2
•   Age group: 11-15
•   Curriculum: vocabulary
•   Exercises: 12
•   Pre-test: --
•   Study Duration: 5 days
3) Implementation and User Studies

                         User Study 2
  • Design Iterations
       – Added more difficult words
       – More images and audio


  • Results
       – Post-test gains 4.3/12 on t-test (p<0.001, std. dev
         =3.7)
       – Wrote short stories: two teams of three, two
         students
              Conclusion
• The PACE framework is a layered
  software architecture that provides the
  ability for iterative design essential for
  localizing existing language learning
  content to unique cultures and age groups,
  in addition the use of patterns eases the
  development process yielding better
  learning software with positive outcomes.
Questions?
                                      References
•   http://robotics.usc.edu/~sameera/CS546/readings/kam_chi2007.pdf
•   http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~mattkam/millee
•   http://www.citris-uc.org/files/MattKam%20TIER%20Workshop.pdf
•   http://www.cbc.ca/doczone/cellphones/video.html
•   http://webanalyticsindia.net/blog/2008/04/current-internet-status-and-web-analytics-oppurtunities-in-india/
•   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_India
•   http://countrystudies.us/india/67.htm
•   http://cordeliasjourneys.blogspot.com/2006/11/india-urban-vs-rural.html
•   http://blizzard.sulekha.com/blog/post/2008/01/technology-boom-in-india-an-overview.htm

				
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posted:12/4/2011
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