1. Animals and humans usually consume exactly enough food to meet their energy requirements for growth
and maintenance unless bulkiness of the diet prohibits food intake first. Intake of a woman when pregnant
or lactating would probably be (lower than) (higher than) (equal to) food intake before pregnancy. (Go to
question 2 next).
14. 4, 4, 9 kcal/g carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
Deduction of fecal energy from “gross energy” yielded “digestible energy” values; deduction of urinary
energy yielded “metabolizable energy” values. Because urinary energy deduction is made in the PFV,
physiological fuel values are therefore estimating (gross) (digestible) (metabolizable) energy.
27. heat increment; net energy for maintenance.
This heat is useful to keep humans or animals warm if the environmental temperature is (below) (above) the
comfortable or “critical” temperature.
40. (625)3 = (25)3 = (5)3 = 5 x 5 x 5 = 125
At the energy expenditure for resting maintenance of 77 kcal per day for each kilogram of metabolic body
size, this equals ________ Mcal daily for Annabelle and Zelda.
Digestible---- Heat increment losses
Gross ---- Urine and gases
This is why sheep are sheared in the (fall) (spring) of the year.
2. higher than – She has greater energy needs and therefore greater food intake.
Energy density of nutrients differ, with carbohydrate and protein contributing 4 kcal metabolizable energy/g
dry matter and fat with ____ kcal/g dry matter. (Go to question 3 next).
The deduction from “gross energy” to yield “digestible energy” is the energy lost in _______.
The environmental temperature below which the body must expend extra energy to keep warm is called the
41. 9.625 Mcal per day net energy for maintenance.
This, together with heat increment of 13 and 26 Mcal daily, means that _____ and _____ Mcal must be
54. net energy
Metabolizable--- Net energy for maintenance
Digestible-- Heat increment
Gross- Urine and gasses
Air movement and “wind chill” will shift these points (downward) (upward) in temperature and explains
why protection from wind in cold climates is necessary.
3. 9 kcal/g
If food intake of an adult hamster to meet energy needs was 10 g of starch (a carbohydrate) daily, intake of
casein (a pure protein) would probably be _____ g per day and a fat, _____ g per day. (Go to question 4.)
The deduction from “digestible energy” to yield “metabolizable energy” is energy lost in ________.
Above the critical temperature, heat from the heat increment or net energy for maintenance is (useless)
42. 22.6 and 35.6 Mcal heat/day.
If 40% of this is to be dissipated by evaporating water from the lungs, with .575 kcal per g water
vaporized, how much water must be expired? _____ and _____ liters
55. net energy for gain
To keep burning, a candle oxidizes wax, the fire consumes oxygen and forms carbon dioxide and water.
Similarly animals to stay alive oxidize carbohydrate and fat to produce _____, ________ and ______.
Since extra energy must be expended to keep warm or cool outside the comfort zone, the amount of food
energy that can be used for work or production of milk, meat, eggs or wool would be greatest (below)
(within) (above) the comfort zone temperatures.
4. 10 g; 4.44 g (Not true if amino acid excesses depress intake.)
The combustible energy of a feed is subdivided in a specific fashion by animals or humans. First we will
divide energy, then determine how much energy is used by an animal for various functions. Energy is
measured in calories, kilocalories or megacalories. A kilocalorie, the amount of available heat in ¼ gram of
most foods, is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of _____ g water _____oC.
(Remember your high school physics?) Go to question 5.
In addition, losses as methane are added to urinary energy and deducted at this point as gaseous energy
loss. Urinary energy loss is only observed with (carbohydrates) (fats) (proteins). The exception to this
occurs in a ketogenic diet such as an all meat diet when ketones derived from (carbohydrate) (fat) (proteins)
are excreted in urine.
Food intake has a marked influence on efficiency of use of energy from a food. For example, consider two
dairy cows. Annabelle eats 10 kg and Zelda eats 20 kg of feed daily having 4.20 kcal gross energy per
gram. Gross energy intakes are _____ and ____ megacalories (careful! A megacalorie is 1,000 kcal).
43. 15.72 and 24.8 liters of water
The amount of net energy left for production, from the initial 18.2 and 36.4 Mcal daily net energy with 9.6
Mcal daily deducted for maintenance is ____ and ____ Mcal daily.
56. heat, carbon dioxide and water.
Protein oxidation by mammals will yield ______ as well.
Heat production by an animal can be measured by placing it in a chamber and measuring heat output
directly. This is called “direct calorimetry.” Heat production can also be determined indirectly by
calculations from CO2 output and O2 uptake, a procedure called “_______________________.”
5. 1,000 g, 1oC
“Gross energy” is the amount of heat released when a substance is completely oxidized. It represents
(enthalpy) (entropy) (enthalpy and entropy) of the material. (Go to 6)
18. proteins; fats are the source of ketones
This means for carbohydrate and fat, in general “metabolizable energy” equals “_____________ energy”
31. 42; 84 megacalories of gross energy.
Digestibility is 80% which means digestible energy intakes are ____ and ____ megacalories per day.
44. 8.6 and 26.8 Mcal per day net energy for production.
In each kg of 3.5% butterfat milk, how many Mcal gross energy are present? Milk contains 3% protein (at
gross energy of 5.14 kcal/g), 3.5% fat (at 9.4 kcal/g) and 5% lactose (at 4.15 kcal/g).
57. urea (product of nitrogen metabolism)
Poikilotherms (cold-blooded animals) have body temperatures that fluctuate with the environment.
Because most chemical reactions of life processes double with every 10oC temperature rise, food intake,
metabolism and growth rate of a fish will be (higher) (lower) in Mississippi than in Minnesota.
70. indirect calorimetry
As more CO2 is produced or O2 is consumed, heat production has (increased) (decreased).
The “gross energy” of average proteins, fats and carbohydrates are 5.65, 9.40 and 4.15 kcal/g. A man
consuming 1 kg of a 20% protein, 5% fat, 60% starch diet is consuming _______ kcal gross energy.
(Go to 7).
Birds excrete uric acid as an end product of protein digestion, and bird urine contains about 8.7 kcal/g
nitrogen as compared to 7.45 for mammals. This means that that the urinary energy loss from protein is
(higher) (lower) (the same) for birds than for mammals.
32. 33.6; 67.2 Mcal of digestible energy.
Assume these feeds contain 12.5% protein or ____% nitrogen.
45. 0.69 Mcal/kg milk.
This amount of net energy must have been used in production of milk. If the cows are not raiding body
energy stores, Annabelle can produce _____ kg milk and Zelda _____ kg milk from the 8.6 and 26.8 Mcal
58.higher (This is why outdoor fish farming is not economical in colder states).
Hibernating animals have body temperatures that drop seasonally. The polar bear, a hibernator, would
require (higher) (lower) energy reserves for survival during winter than a non-hibernating, non-eating fox
of equal weight.
Below the critical temperature then, CO2 output would be (lower) (higher) than for the animal in the
7. 4,090 kcal (4.09 kcal gross energy per g feed x 1,000 g).
The „digestible energy” of food or feed deducts the fecal (indigestible) energy from the gross energy. For
example, if 10% of the gross energy of the above feed appears in feces, the digestible energy content of the
feed is _________ kcal/g feed. (Go to 8).
In turn, “ metabolizable energy” per gram protein for birds is (higher) (lower) than for mammals.
33. 2% nitrogen (Proteins are 16% N)
This means that the total nitrogen intake by Annabelle (fed 10 kg) is ________ g and by Zelda (fed 20 kg)
46. 12.5 kg milk and 38.8 kg milk.
Note that Zelda‟s food intake was twice that of Annabelle‟s (100% higher) whereas milk production was
Homeotherms maintain a constant body temperature. To maintain body temperature, homeotherms must
oxidize (less) (more) energy reserves if environmental temperatures fall below temperatures within a
“comfort zone” or “zone of thermoneutrality.”
CO2 output alone is often used to measure metabolic rate. But carbohydrate and fat produce different
amounts of energy per unit of carbon present, the more energy dense material, (carbohydrate) (fat),
producing more heat.
8. 3,681 kcal digestible energy per gram.
For humans, the digestion coefficient for most proteins is 91%. Therefore, of the 5.64 kcal gross energy/g
protein, only ______ kcal is digestible. (Go to 9)
Not all the “metabolizable energy” of food can be used for productive functions. As glycolysis and the
Krebs cycle cannot convert all food energy into ATP, but loses 40 to 50% as heat, this heat loss or “heat
increment” must be deducted from “____________energy” to yield “net energy”.
34. 200 g; 400 g nitrogen
Assume 50% of nitrogen consumed is deposited in tissue or milk and 50% is excreted as urinary nitrogen.
With 7.45 kcal/g nitrogen excreted, this totals a loss of _____ Mcal and _____ Mcal for the two cows in
This illustrates that food intake markedly influences efficiency by which feed energy is converted into
animal products. Doubling food intake increase product yield (<100%) (=100%) (>100%).
The temperature point below which an animal must expend extra energy to keep warm is called the
“critical” temperature. The critical temperature is therefore a point (at the low extreme) (midway) (at the
high extreme) of the comfort zone.
Fat will also consume more oxygen per unit of heat produced, so measurement of both CO2 and O2
exchange will show total heat production. The rate of CO2 produced to O2 consumed (will) (will not)
indicate whether fat or carbohydrate is being oxidized.
9. 5.13 kcal digestible energy/g protein.
Of energy in fats and carbohydrates fed to nonruminants, about 4% appear in feces. Fibrous feeds will be
much less digestible. If 4% of these components is not digested, they have 9.4 and 4.15 kcal gross energy/g
of these two nutrients, their digestible energy content is _____ and _____ kcal per gram.
22. “metabolizable energy”
Following this “heat increment” deduction, the remainder, like the income tax calculations, is called “____”
35. 0.745; 1.490 Mcal.
In addition, gaseous methane losses are about 5% of digestible energy values. This means that urine and
gaseous losses reduce the digestible energy intakes of 33.6 and 67.2 Mcal to ______ and ______ Mcal daily
of metabolizable energy.
48. > 100%
Let‟s review these figures:
Food intake 10 kg 20 kg
Gross energy of feed 4.20 kcal/g 4.20 kcal/g
(a) ____ energy intake 42 Mcal ___ Mcal
Fecal energy (20%) 8.4 Mcal 16.8 Mcal
(b) ____ energy intake 33.6 Mcal ___ Mcal
(7.45 kcal/g N) 0.7 Mcal 1.5 Mcal
(5% of dig.) 1.7 Mcal ___ Mcal
(c) ____ energy intake 31.2 Mcal ___ Mcal
1.3 Mcal/kg fed 13.0 Mcal ___ Mcal
(d) ____ energy intake 18.2 Mcal ___ Mcal
Net energy for maint.
[77 kcal x (kg)3/4] 9.6 Mcal 9.6 Mcal
(e) ________________ intake 8.6 Mcal ___ Mcal
(at 0.69 Mcal/kg milk) 12.4 kg ___ kg
61. low extreme
Homeotherms also must expend extra energy to keep cool by such processes as sweating or panting when
temperatures rise above the ________ zone range.
The mole ratio of CO2 produced to O2 consumed is called the “respiratory quotient” or, for short, RQ. For
oxidation of carbohydrate, what is the RQ? Chemical reaction: C6H12O6 + 602 6CO2 + 6H2O.
10. 9.02 kcal digestible energy per gram fat; 3.98 kcal digestible energy per gram carbohydrates.
(100 – 4 = 96%; 96% of 9.4 and 4.15 = 9.02 and 3.98 kcal/g)
For these two nutrients, these figures are rounded to the nearest whole numbers and represent the
“Physiological Fuel Values” of these two nutrients for humans. The PFV values for fat and carbohydrate
are therefore ______ and ______ kcal/g.
23. net energy.
Like net income, some energy can be saved and is called “net energy for production” for work or products
like milk, meat, eggs and wool, but some must be used to maintain the animal, so is called “net energy for
36. 33.6 - (33.0) (.05) - (.745) = 31.2 Mcal metabolizable energy
67.2 - (67.2) (.05) - (1.490) = 62.4 Mcal metabolizable energy
Heat increment is about 1.3 Mcal per kg feed fed or _____ Mcal total for Annabelle and _____ total for
49. a. Gross 84 Mcal
b. Digestible 67.2 Mcal
Gas 3.3 Mcal
c. Metabolizable 62.4 Mcal
Heat increment 26.0 Mcal
d. Net 36.4 Mcal
e. Net energy for
production 26.8 Mcal
Milk 39 kg milk
(Go to #50)
62. comfort zone or thermoneutral zone.
The lowest temperature point at which this extra energy to keep cool is expended is called the “point of
hyperthermal rise”. On the graph below, this is ________.
(kcal/ kg3/4 day) 50
10 20 30
Environmental temperature (oC)
75. RQ = = = 1.00
For oxidation of a typical fat, palmitic acid, what is the RQ? Chemical reaction:
CH3 (CH2)14 COOH + 2302 16CO2 + 16H2O
11. 9 and 4 kcal/g
For protein, the energy excreted with nitrogen in urine must be deducted as this energy is not available for
use. For every gram nitrogen in urine, 7.45 kcal combustible energy is present as nonoxidized organic
matter. This means for every 100 g protein (or 16 g N) excreted in urine, ______ kcal is excreted.
24. “net energy for maintenance.”
To determine the amount of “net energy for work or products”, one must deduct ____ and ____ from
37. 13 Mcal and 26 Mcal heat increment daily.
Of the 31.2 and 62.4 Mcal metabolizable energy, this leaves ______ Mcal and ______ Mcal net energy for
maintenance and production.
50. In summary, the combustible energy in a feed is called “________energy”.
On this graph, the critical temperature is ______oC and the comfort zone is _____ to _____ oC.
(kcal/ kg3/4 /day) 50
10 20 30
Environmental temperature (oC)
76. RQ = = = 0.70
If the RQ is 0.85, halfway between the RQ for carbohydrate (1.0) and fat (0.7) this means that (fat and
carbohydrate are being metabolized equally), (no fat is being metabolized), (no carbohydrate is being
12. 119.2 kcal urinary energy per 100 g protein.
With protein 91% digested, this means ____ kcal must be deducted per g protein fed. This reduces the
“metabolizable energy,” content from 5.13 kcal digestible energy per g protein.
25. heat increment; net energy for maintenance.
Because the net energy for maintenance is used for essential functions such as circulation, respiration and
replacement of body tissues, this energy is eventually released from the body as (light) (chemical) (heat)
38. 18.2 and 36.4 Mcal net energy daily.
Consider net energy requirement for maintenance is equal to 77 kcal per day for every kilogram “metabolic
body size”, which is kilograms body weight raised to the three quarter power. Lets figure metabolic body
size. First, if Annabelle and Zelda each weigh 1,375 pounds, they each weigh _______ kg.
51. Gross energy
Divisions of energy is as follows: Gross energy ---
o o o
64. 13 C; 13 C to 25 C
Name the points a and b and zone
b. __________________ Heat a b
77. Fat and carbohydrate equally metabolized.
The following RQ‟s are typical for animals fed carbohydrate diets. At 2 hr. after feeding, the main energy
source is _____ but this shifts to _____ from stored reserves as the animal reaches the post-absorptive state.
2 4 6 8 10 14
Fed time (hr)
13. 1.08 kcal/g; 4.05 kcal/g protein, which is rounded to 4 kcal/g.
This gives us the “physiological fuel values” or “Atwater values” for dietary food nutrients for humans of
___, ___ and ___ kcal/g carbohydrate. (Go to question 14)
The total heat loss from the body is the sum of ___ and ___.
39. 625 kg
This to the ¾ power (the square root of the square root multiplied by itself three times) is ____ kg.
52. digestible energy
Gross-- Urine and gaseous energy
65. a. Critical temperature
b. Point of hyperthermal rise
c. Zone of thermoneutrality or comfort zone
Insulation from hair, wool or clothing on surfaces would shift all these points (upward) (no change)
(downward) in environmental temperature.
78. carbohydrate; fat
Congratulations and take a break. You have finished the exercise.