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Phrases What is a phrase in general? • a group of related words, centering around ONE part of speech, which takes on a part of speech and/or has specific functions in the sentence. Note: a phrase (in almost all cases) does NOT contain both a subject and a verb A phrase includes the following: • central word • objects/complements • modifiers Embedded phrase: • a phrase within another phrase • Example: On a beautiful Sunday morning in July (in July is part of the phrase because it tells which morning—a morning in July) How do we use phrases in a sentence? • Slightly larger units of the parts of speech • Most common: N, ADJ, ADV Prepositional Phrase • a group of related words, including a preposition, a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. • A prepositional phrase may act as either an ADJ or an ADV The Adverbial Prepositional Phrase • Julia lives in the house on the corner. • Phrase: • Embedded? • What does the larger phrase modify? Adjectival Prepositional Phrase • Julia lives in the house on the corner. • Phrase? • What does it modify? Points to remember about prepositional phrases: • Prepositions must be used with ___________ • Objects of prepositions ___________________________________ ___________________________________ • What relevance do they have to subjects? • Prepositional phrases can appear ___________________________________ ___________________________________ • How many can appear in a sentence? VERBAL PHRASES • What does the word mean? • So…verbals have the characteristics of verbs BUT—and it’s a BIG BUT—act as something else… • What’s the something else? • Verbal phrase—consists of the verbal, any modifiers, AND any objects/complements it may have The Participle • a verb form which acts as an adjective! • Present participle—ends in –ing • Past participle—usually ends in –d or –ed— unless there is some sort of internal spelling change • EX. Go—went—gone • EX. Be—am—was—were—been • Perfect participle—uses a helping verb—a form of have (has, have, or had) The Participle • A participle may be just one word: • The barking dog • my sleeping uncle • The barking dog awoke my sleeping uncle. The Participial Phrase • a group of words containing a verb form which acts as an adjective, as well as any objects/complements or modifiers Examples: • Swimming in the deep end of the pool, Sarah performed the backstroke with ease. • Louis, often regarded as the chief critic in his field, spoke to a group of fellow engineers at his convention. • • Swimming the backstroke with ease, Sarah wandered to the deep end of the pool. • • Being the chief correspondent, Jim made the announcement. • Sickened, Ralph ralphed. The Gerund • a verb form which ALWAYS ends in –ing and ALWAYS acts as a NOUN. • NOTE: • A verb form ending in –ing acting as an ADJ is a participle • A verb form ending in –ing acting as a NOUN is a gerund The Gerund Phrase • Gerund phrase—includes the gerund, objects/complements, and any modifiers it may have. Uses: • Anything you can do with a noun, you can also do with a gerund: Examples: • Dancing is my hobby. • (Subject) • • My hobby is dancing. • (predicate nominative) More Examples: • I love dancing. • (direct object) • • I have passion for dancing. • (object of the preposition) More examples: • Pat Benatar gave dancing a bad name. • (indirect object) • • A bad name was given dancing by Pat Benatar • (retained object) The Infinitive • a word (usually preceded by the word ―to‖) used as either a NOUN, ADJECTIVE, or ADVERB. The Infinitive Phrase • includes the infinitive as well as any objects/complements and modifiers it may have Hints: • Gerund=always ends in –ing • Infinitive=usually preceded by “to” and uses the root, or infinitive form, of the verb • Ex. Giving (gerund) to give (infinitive) • Participle=ends in –d, -ed, or –ing • Infinitive=usually preceded by “to” and uses the root, or infinitive form of the verb • Ex. “The Giving Tree” =participle what kind of tree? • Or the set of given circumstances =participle what kind of circumstances? Given • OR a determined contestant what kind of contestant? Hints, continued… • As opposed to • To give or to determine=infinitives! • AND DON’T FORGET • To + a noun=prepositional phrase • To + a verb=infinitive phrase The Infinitive as a NOUN • He really wanted to win the game. DO • To win the game was his primary objective. SUBJ • His primary objective was to win the game. PN The Infinitive as an ADJECTIVE • His objective to win the game encouraged him to work harder. • What kind of objective? to win the game The Infinitive as an ADVERB • He exercised daily to win the game. • Why did he exercise? • His objective to win the game encouraged him to work harder. • In what manner did his objective encourage him? Curve ball: The Infinitive Clause • An infinitive phrase may ALSO occasionally have a subject. If it does, we call that type of infinitive an INFINITIVE CLAUSE. • • Ex. His family desperately wanted him to win the game. • Him to win the game=infinitive clause The Appositive • a Noun or Pronoun which follows immediately after another noun or pronoun and renames it. The Appositive Phrase • includes the appositive itself and any modifiers it may have The Nominative Appositive • an appositive which renames a subject or predicate nominative • • John, the class secretary, kept very efficient minutes. • John=subject • Secretary=noun which renames John, the subject • Phrase=the class secretary (includes the appositive and all modifiers) Another Nominative Appositive • The boy in the red shirt is John, the class secretary. • Boy=subject • Is=linking verb • John=predicate nominative • Secretary=still a nominative appositive because it renames a predicate nominative The Objective Appositive • an appositive which renames any type of object • • Everyone admired John, the class secretary. • Everyone=subject • Admired=action verb • John=direct object • Secretary=OBJECTIVE appositive now, because it renames a direct object Another Objective Appositive • Please take this to John, the class secretary. • Take=action verb • To=preposition • John=object of the preposition • Secretary=still an objective appositive because it renames the object of a preposition The Nominative Absolute • a noun/pronoun used ―absolutely‖ attached to a participial phrase. The combination of the two modifies or explains an ENTIRE CLAUSE • Absolutely=having no grammatical function in the sentence Example: • The rain having stopped, we continued with our picnic. • Subject: we • Verb: continued • Prepositional phrase: with our picnic • Prep: with • Object: picnic • The rain having stopped • The: article • Rain: noun • Having stopped: participle • What is the function of ―rain‖ in ―We continued with our picnic‖? • Rain is being used absolutely • Nominative absolute phrase: ―The rain having stopped‖ • Nominative absolute: rain • Participle: having stopped • Modifies: We continued with our picnic. More… • Sheldon and his friends jumped away from the tracks, the train coming toward them at breakneck speed. • • The students ate themselves into oblivion, the food beguiling them from the buffet.
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