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Questions on the human body An orientation


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Questions on the human body: An orientation
I-Define the followings
 *organ system
 *anatomical position
*body cavities
*levels of structural organization
*necessary life functions
*mechanisms that control homeostasis and give 2 example for each
*5 directional terms and the opposite of each
*5 regional terms in the head
*4 regional terms in the back
*6 regional terms in the lower limb
*4 regional terms in the upper limb
*sections that can be made in the body
*the 4 regions to which the abdominal cavity can be divided
III- True or false
*anatomy and physiology are always related
*structure determines what functions can take place
*every living organism must be able to maintain its inside distinct
from its outside
*metabolism depends on the digestive and respiratory systems
*all nutrients are useless unless oxygen is also available
*cardiovascular and respiratory systems are needed to make oxygen
available to the body
*if body temperature drops, metabolism reactions become slower
*homeostasis indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium
*most homeostatic control mechanisms are positive
*midsagittal section is also called median section
*abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity are continuous
*the most vulnerable abdominopelvic organs are those in the
abdominal cavity
IV-Fill the spaces
*coronal section is also called…….
*occipital region is ………………..to cervical one
*most body heat is generated by………………
*the single most abundant chemical substance in our body is …………
*most homeostatic control mechanisms are………………
*…………………and……………..are examples of positive feedback
*the forehead is……………………to the nose
*the umbilical region is inferior to the…………….
*the lumber region is…………to iliac region
*the popliteal region is…………………to the thigh
*the sural region is………….to the tarsus
*bones are……………..to the muscles
*a transverse section is also called…………….
*………………..divides the body into two equal halves
*dorsal body cavity is divided into……………….and……………
*ventral body cavity is divided into……………………and………….
*thorasic and abdominal cavities are separated by……………..
*iliac region is lateral to………………
*hypogastric region is medial to……………
Questions on :cells and tissues
-cell inclusions
-passive transport
-active transport
-selective permeability
-osmotic pressure
-isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic solution
-types of glands
-types of bulk transport
-the main components of a cell
- the main components of a nucleus
- the main components of cytoplasm
-the organelles
-stages of mitosis
-fluid compartments
-passive transport processes
-active transport processes
-the main four elements found in the cell
-main components of plasma membrane
-characters of substances that do not pass by diffusion
-the primary tissue types
-functions of epithelial tissue
-types of muscles and characters of each
-types of tissue repair
III-Fill spaces
-the nonliving matrix of blood is------------------while the fibers are------------
-the most abundant cartilage is------------------------
-the ability of a barrier to allow some substances to pass while excluding other is called--
-the most rigid connective tissue is----------while the softest one is--------------------
-periods of cell life cycle are-----------------and-------------
-division of the nucleus is called --------------while of cytoplasm is called------------
- -about -------of the cell is water
-exchange between cells and blood is made through-----------------fluid
-cells are bathed in a dilute solution called-------------
-the headquarter of the cell is--------------------
-when the cell is not dividing,DNA is called---------------
-during cell division,chromatin condenses to form--------------
-plasma membrane is formed mainly of--------------------
-the powerhouse in the cell is-----------
-the site of protein synthesis is ------------------
-the minicirculatory system for the cell is----------------------
-rough ER is so called because it is studded with-----------------
-during cell division,------------------directs the formation of spindle
-cells that cover and line body cavity is called----------------
-cells of reproduction are------------------&------------------
-the tendency of a solution to hold water is called---------------------
-hypertonic solution leads to-----------------of red cells
- hypotonic solution leads to-----------------of red cells
 -the control center of the cell is------------
-when cell is not dividing, DNA is called--------------
-the metabolic machinery of the cell is---------------------
-cellular not functioning units are called---------------------
-examples of inclutions are--------------------,---------------,------------------
-membrane bags containing digestive enzymes are called----------------
-------------------is a paired rod-shaped bodies lies close to the nucleus, it directs the
formation of mitotic spindle
-the only example of a flagellated cell in human body is the ---------------------
-male cell of reproduction is-------------while that of female is-------------
-in --------------------,fluids move down their concentration gradient
-diffusion of water through plasma membrane is called------------------------
-sodium –potasium pump are examples of-------------------------
------------------is called cell eating while ------------------ is called cell drinking
VI-True or false
-bone regenerate beautifully
-all cells undergo mitosis until the end of puberty
-cells exposed to friction can replace lost cells throughout life
-nerve tissue become amitotic years after birth
-most connective tissues are well vascularized
-cartilage is avascular
-tendons and ligaments are poorly supplied with blood
-in mitosis, the daughter cell has the same genetic material as the mother cell
-in meosis , the daughter cell has the same genetic material as the mother cell
-filtration is a passive process
- glucose is both lipid - insoluble and too large to pass through membrane pores
- glucose pass through membrane by facilitated diffusion
-facilitated diffusion needs a protein carrier
-in filtration, hydrostatic pressure is exerted by the blood
-all molecules posses kinetic energy
-ovum is the largest cell in the body
-the higher the solute concentration, the greater the osmotic pressure
-isotonic solution cause no visible changes in cells
-the nucleus always have one nucleolus
-metabolically active cells have hundreds of mitochondria
-mitochondria is the site where oxygen is used to breakdown foods
-lysosomal rupture results in self-digestion of the cell
          Table A ( ) filteration                      Table B 1- ATP is needed
                  ( ) diffusion                                2-pressure gradient
                  ( ) solute pumping                            3-concentration gradient

                    (   ) facilitated diffusion                   4- sodium –potasium
                    (   ) active transport                        5-protein carrier is needed

                   (    ) pinocytosis                            6- cell eating
                   (    ) phagocytosis                           7- cell drinking
                                                                 8-isotonic solution
Questions on the Integumentary System
I- Define:
- body membranes
II- Mention in short
-       groups of body membranes and example of each
-       examples of epithelial membranes
-       body systems which open to the exterior
-       differences between mucous and serous membranes as regards location
-       the specific names of the serous membranes you know
-       sites where the serous membranes present
-       functions of the skin
-       components of the integumentary system
-       appendages of the skin
-       groups of skin glands
-       some complications to obstruction of sebaceous glands ducts
III- Fill the following spaces with proper words
    - epidermis is composed of -----------------------

  - serous membrane line body cavities that are ------------to the exterior
  - serous membrane layers are separated by--------------
  - the deepest layer of epidermis is called--------------------
  - the ---------------layer is the only epidermal layer which receive good nutrition
  - all cutaneous glands are--------------------glands
  - sebaceous glands become active during--------------
  - the part of the hair enclosed in the follicle is called--------------while that projecting
   from the skin is called-----------
  - all skin appendages are formed from------------------------
IV- True or False
      - serous membrane is composed of several layers of simple squamous
     - serous layers are separated by air
     - synovial membrane contain no epithelial cells at all
     - epidermis is avascular
     - stratum germinativum always undergoes cell division
     - black people seldom have skin cancer
     - the dermis is abundantly supplied with blood
     - sebaceous glands are oil glands
     - sebum keeps skin soft and moist
     - sebum prevents bacterial growth
     - sweat is acidic
     - skin appendages are formed from the dermis
-        nails are dead keratinized cells
-        with aging skin looses its elasticity
-        excessive exposure to sunlight may lead to cancer

I- Define
        - Epiphysial plate
        - Osteoclasts
        - Open fracture
        - Open reduction
        - Paranasal sinuses
        - Osteoporosis
       II- Mention in short
        - divisions of the skeletal system
        - functions of bones
        - features of synovial joints
        - groups of vertebrae and number of each group
        - primary curvatures of the spine
        - secondary curvatures of the spine
        - abnormal curvatures of the spine & meaning of each
        - groups of ribs and number of each
        - parts of sternum
        - important landmarks in the sternum
        - bones of the upper limb
        - bones of the lower limb
        - bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles
        - causes of the exceptionally free movement of the shoulder joint
        - bones of the hand
        - components of the coxal bone
        - differences between male and female pelves
        - bones of the foot
        - types of bone tissues
        - types of bones according to shape and characters of each
        - examples of : flat , long, short and irregular bones
        - names of bone cells and function of each
        - types of fractures
        - events of fracture repair
        - components of skull bones
        - bones of the cranium
        - names of sutures
        - names of paranasal sinuses
        - benefits of paranasal sinuses
        - benefits of fontanells
III -Fill spaces with proper words
        - adult skull is composed of----------------bones
        - bones of the wrist and ankle are---------------------while the bones of the
            -------are long.
        - The shaft of long bone is called --------------while -----------is the end of
            long bones
- ---------------is a fibrous connective tissue membrane cover the diaphysis
- --------------fibers secures the periosteum to underlying bone
 - in adults, the remnant of the epiphyseal plate is called-----------
- in adults, the medullary cavity is full of ---------------while in children
- in adults, red bone marrow is present in--------------------
- instead of periosteum, bones inside the joint are covered with-------------
- - ------------------is a large opening in the occipital bone
- the occipital bone joins parietal bones at--------------------
- parietal bones meet at midline at--------------------suture
- parietal bones meet the frontal bones at ------------------suture
        - mandible articulate with -------------------through--------------------joint
       -    the only movable bone in skull is-----------------
       -    -------------is the only bone of the body which does not articulate with
            any other bone
         - hyoid bone is ----------------------------shaped, it is about 2 cm above the
         - the adult skull represents---------of his length while it is ---------------in
         - -------------are fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones in the
         - -------------------is the largest and strongest bone in the face
         - the largest fontanel is called ----------------
         - fontanels can no longer be felt ----------------------after birth
         - sternal angle lies at the level of the -----rib
         - taking blood for hematopoietic study is possible from --------------and--
         - all ribs articulate with --------------while only ------are attached to the---
         - the ---------------is a shallow socket in the scapula that receives the head
            of------------------- to form -------------------joint
         - the ---------------------receives the head of the femur
         - the -----------------------------is the process that receives body weight when
         - pubic bones fuse together through-------------------
         - the --------------------is an important landmark in the pelvis during
         - the superior opening of the pelvis is called---------------while --------------
            ---is its inferior opening
         - running in the cavity of the spine is---------------
         - before birth, the spine consists of---------------separate bones ,but
            eventually -----------of them fuse to form two composite bones called----
         - the-------------separates two vertebrae
         - -----------------and ------------------are primary while -------–and------are
            secondary curvatures
         - ---------is the first cervical vertebrae while------------------------ is the
         - the superior surface of atlas articulates with---------- , this joint allows
            you to nod :-------:
         - the superior surface of axis articulates with ----------------,this joint
            allows you to nod:------:
         - the large upward process of axis is called-----------
         - the sacrum is formed by the fusion of----------------vertebrae, it
            articulates laterally with------------ to form ----------------joint and
            superiorly with ----------------------------to form ----------------joint
         - inflammation of joint is called---------------
         - excessive stretch on ligament is called--------
         - at birth, UL ratio is---------,it becomes-------------at-----------years
         - if bones are thin and fragile ,a disease called-------------
         - spontaneous breaks without apparent injury is called------------ it is
            common in ------------------after------------years
         - bones are classified into four groups these are --------,---------,-----------
         - the number of phalanges in one foot is------------
    III- True or false
- long bones are mostly compact bones
- vertebrae are short bones
- the infants face is very small compared to the cranium
- the infants skull is large compared to his body length
- with age the water content of the disc decreases
- symphysis pubis is a cartilaginous joint
- osteoporosis is more common in female
-bones change in shape throughout life
- vertebral column is C-shaped at birth
- most joints of the body are synovial joints
IV-Match table A With table B
Table A (    )-clavicle                  Table B 1- formed of 3 fused bones
        (   )-femur                               2-main bone of the leg
        (   )-tibia                              3-posterior wall of the pelvis
        (   )-sacrum                              4-the longest bone in our body
                  ( )-pelvic bone                        5-bone of pectoral girdle

                                                   6- bone of the arm
                                                  7-bone in the forearm
 TableA      ( )-clavicle                   Table B1-formed of three fused
             ( )-femur                                   2-main bone of the leg
             ( )-tibia                                   3-posterior wall of the pelvis
             ( )-sacrum                                  4-the longest bone in our body

            ( )-humerus                                  5-bone of pectoral girdle
                                                        6- bone of the arm

       Multiple Choice on : The Human Body + Cells and
1-To understand the human organism you must study which of the following?

    a. Anatomy        b. Physiology      c.Botany.       d. a and b are correct

2-The simplest level of the structural ladder is

  a.Tissue level      b.Organ level       c.Cellular level         d. Chemical level

3- The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane is termed:

   a. osmosis.     B. dialysis.   C. diffusion     d.pinocytosis        e. phagocytosis

4- Which is not a function of epithelial tissue

a. Make and secrete a product          b. Protection       c. Regeneration          d. Store energy

5-The ability of the body to maintain a relatively stable internal condition is

 a. Hemostasis         b. Homeostasis            c. Positive feedback         d.Negative feedback

7- Which of the following is a sign of homeostatic imbalance?

a.Disease    b. Changes associated with aging.          C. Loss of efficiency of organs.    d.all the

9- The dorsal body cavity is divided into two subdivisions, they are:

   a.Thoracic cavity & abdominal cavity              b. Cranial cavity & thoracic cavity

   c.Cranial cavity & spinal cavity                  d. None of the above

10- When standing in the correct anatomical position your feet are in which of the
following           relatioships to your knees?
     a.Medial        b. Proximal             c. Lateral            d. Distal

11-The imaginary line that runs through the body dividing the body into right and left
parts is

   a.Midsagittal          b. coronal          c.Transverse            d. Frontal      e. Sagittal

12- Which body system is most closely associated with information assessment?

     a.integumentary.         b. nervous. C. lymphatic.               D.reproductive.      e. endocrine.

13- The anatomical term meaning toward the midline of the body:

     a.anterior.      b. inferior.       c. distal.     d. lateral.        e. medial.

14- The anatomical term meaning close to the point of attachment of a limb

      a.inferior.          b. proximal.           c. medial.            d.distal              e.lateral.

16- Positive feedback control mechanisms are _______ rare than negative feedback

and tend to _______ the original stimulus.

 a.less; have no effect on           b.less; decrease                  c.more; increase

 d.more; have no effect on                 e. more; decrease

17- Which of the following is NOT a posterior body landmark?

  a.Popliteal.      b. Sternal.          c. Scapular.      d. Occipital             e. Vertebral.

18- The right and left _______ regions flank the epigastric region and contain the lower

   a hypogastric.          b.epigastric         c.lumbar               d.iliac        e. hypochondriac

19- All exchanges between cells and the blood are made through

   a.interstitial fluid       b.other cells           c.. water.        d. air.       e. lymph.

20- Which of the following represent(s) active transport?

a facilitated diffusion. b. concentration gradient              c.filtration      d.simple diffusion       e. solute

21- Which of the following types of epithelial tissue usually forms membranes where
filtration or

exchange of substances by diffusion occurs?

   a. simple squamous                       b.simple columnar                  c. simple cuboidal

  d.stratified squamous                    e.pseudostratified columnar

22-Most connective tissues are well vascularized except

   a.bone        b.tendons        c. ligaments          d. areolar tissue           e. b and c

23- The tissue that covers the body surfaces, lines its cavities and forms glands is

   a.blood                b.epithelial       c.connective           d.muscle          e. nervous
24- Which of the cell organelles form the minicirculatory system in the cytoplasm of
the cell?

 a.lysosomes b. endoplasmic reticulum c.chromatin net                d.ribosomes           e.Golgi

25- The uptake of liquids that contain dissolved proteins or fats into a cell occurs
because of:

 a.osmosis.      b. pinocytosis      c. passive transport.        d. phagocytosis.         e. Diffusion

MCQ on skin

( )The two major classes of body membranes are:

    a-Cutaneous and serous            b-Serosa and parietal.
    c-Epithelial and connective.      d-Mucous and cutaneous.

( )The cutaneous membrane is made up of:

  a-The peritoneum.        b- The mucosa.        c-The pericardium.         d-The skin.

( )One of the following is not a serous membrane:

    a-Pericardium        b-Pleura        c-Peritoneum         d-Perineum

( )Which of following is not a function of mucous membranes?

  a-Remain moist        b-Absorption or secretion         c-Cushion organs          d-Secretion of mucus

( )Which is not a derivative of the skin?

   a-Hair follicle     b-Sebaceous glands           c-Nerve receptors            d-Nails

( )The protein that provides a water repellant and toughening quality to the skin is:

   a-Collagen          b-Melanin     c-Keratin         d-Fibroblasts

( )Exposure to ultraviolet (U/V) light causes the skin to darken by stimulating
production of:

     a-haemocyanin.           b- keratin.     c-sebum.        d-carotene.        e-melanin.

( )The structure that contracts to cause "goose bumps" is the:

    a-dermal papilla       b-hair bulb      c-hair follicle    d-arrector pili     e-skeletal muscle.

( )Two types of glands found in the skin are the _______ and _______ glands.

    a-sebaceous and lunula b-pilous and sudoriferous                 c-sweat and cutaneous
    d-sudoriferous and sebaceous

( )Sebaceous glands secrete:

   a-oil.       b- melanin.         c-cerumen.          d-sudoriferous.          e- wax.

( )A mucus membrane:

  a-lines the heart.      b- lines all closed body cavities.         c- lacks epithelial cells.

   d-covers the muscles.                 e-lines the digestive and respiratory tracts.

( )Growth of the epidermis takes place because of mitosis in the:
      a-stratum corneum.       b-stratum granulosum.         c- stratum lucidum.

       d-stratum basale.        e-stratum corneum.

( )The type of tissue making up the bulk of the dermis is:

  a-stratified squamous epithelium.           b-transitional epithelium.

  c-visceral muscle.       d-dense connective tissue.          e-adipose connective tissue

( )In order to reduce an excess amount of body heat:

      a-the body shivers. b- goose bumps appear. c- the cutaneous blood vessels dilate.
      d-reduces the production of sweat. e- the cutaneous blood vessels constrict.

( )What kind of membranes line body cavities that, except for the dorsal body cavity
and joint capsules, do not open to the outside of the body?

      a-Mucous       b-cutaneous       c-visceral        d-serous      e-synovial

( )What kind of membranes is composed of connective tissue but no epithelial cells?

   a-Mucous b-parietal      c-synovial    d-serous     e-cutaneous
( )The layer of the skin that is made of stratified squamous epithelium is called the
   a-fat layer b- hypodermis c-epidermis d-subcutaneous            e-dermis

( )The epidermis and dermis are normally firmly connected together. However a burn
or friction may cause these layers to separate which results in a:

  a-blister.      b-abscess.    c-sty.       d-pimple.       e-scratch.

( )The deepest layer of the epidermis is called the:

      a-stratum basale.     b-stratum corneum. c- stratum granulosum. d-stratum spinosum.
      e-stratum lucidum.

( )The protein found in large amounts in the stratum corneum cells, nails, and hair is:

      a-Keratin     b- elastic fiber     c- melanin       d-collagen      e- hemoglobin

( ) The cutaneous glands are all _______ glands.

      a-Sebaceous      b-sweat         c-endocrine       d-exocrine     e-eccrine
( )   The outer portion of the hair is termed the:
      a-hair cortex. b- hair bulb. c-shaft      d- hair follicle.                   e- hair medulla.

( )The dermis is abundantly supplied with _______ that play a role in maintaining
body temperature homeostasis.

 a-blood vessels       b-nerve endings        c-phagocytes      d- lymphatic vessels e- melanocytes

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