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					NURS 533 Victimology
A. Student
             Introduction
   Who is a “Juvenile”???
    – Each state defines by age (15-17)
    – exceptions include violent crimes
    – For violations of Federal Law, juveniles are
      defined as under 18
   What is “Delinquency”???
    – a juvenile committing an act for which an
      adult can be prosecuted in criminal court
Upper Age Limit By State
            The History
 Originated in Illinois (1899) - The
  Juvenile Court Act
 A distinct court to address the needs of
  children (i.e. removal from abusive
    homes, truancy, etc.)
 1925- All states except Maine and
  Wyoming had juvenile courts
 1945- All states had these courts
      Juvenile Crime Clock
   A juvenile is arrested for:
    – Murder - every 3 hours and 30 minutes
    – Rape - every 2 hours
    – Robbery - every 12 minutes
    – Aggravated Assault - every 8 minutes


                                     [FBI UCR, 1995]
Juvenile Index Crimes
                                   Juvenile Arrests
                     50
                     45
                     40
                     35
        % of total




                     30
                     25
                     20
                     15
                     10
                     5
                     0
                                                     assault




                                                                                                  arson
                                           robbery




                                                               burglary




                                                                                    motor theft
                          murder

                                    rape




                                                                          larceny




       Source: US Department of Justice,
        Crime in the United States, 1994
Juvenile Homicide Rate
          Homicide Rate Per 100,000
                       (for ages 14 - 17)

   25

   20

   15

   10

   5

   0
   1975         1980          1985          1990   1995


           Source: James Alan Fox, Trends
            in Juvenile Violence
Juvenile Court Proceedings
   JUVENILE COURT                 ADULT CRIM COURT
    –   Take into custody           –   Arrest
    –   Petition                    –   Indictment
    –   Adjudication Hearing        –   Trial
    –   Adjudication                –   Conviction of guilt
    –   Dispositional hearing       –   Sentencing hearing
    –   Commitment                  –   Sentence to jail
    –   Aftercare                   –   Parole
Juvenile Court Proceedings
 Absence of guilt in juvenile court -
  “found to be delinquent”
 Treatment instead of punishment
 Proceedings are closed to the public
 No long term incarceration
 Speedy proceedings and case disposal

            Source: Clifford Simonsen, Juvenile
             Justice in America, 1991.
    Juvenile Court Procedure
 Taken into custody
 Intake
 Adjudication
 Disposition
 Aftercare


             Source: Clifford Simonsen, Juvenile
              Justice in America, 1991.
Juveniles in the Adult System
    Certification
     – Prima facie case
     – Public interest
     – Treatable
     – Burden of proof on prosecution
    Direct file juvenile cases
     – Burden on proof of defense
Prevention Programs vs Incarceration

    Cause of delinquency include:
     – Child abuse
     – Lack of family structure
     – Anti-social behavior early in life
    Examples:
     – According to U.S Advisory Board on Child
       Abuse, child abuse increases likelihood of
       arrest as juvenile by 53%
     – 85% of Texas inmates claim to be abused
Prevention Programs vs. Incarceration
   Institutions range from:
    – Serene, campuses with counselors
    – Prison-like settings
    – Half-way houses
    – Boot camps
Problems with Incarceration->
    Studies prove that incarceration does
     not work and is not cost effective
     – Early intervention programs prevent 250
       crimes per $1 million spent, while prisons
       only prevent 60 crimes a year per million
       spent
                            Source: Rand Corp


    Attempt to eliminate incarceration for
     juveniles failed in Massachusetts
Emergence of “Boot Camps”
 Programs vary, but most include a
  paramilitary style that stresses discipline
  and physical training
 Cost of the average 6 month boot camp
  is around $6700, vs incarcerating a
  juvenile, which costs $47,400
                           Source: Koch Crime Institute
     Do Boot Camps Work?
   Conflicting view of whether or not boot
    camps are effective:
    – Study of Florida boot camps revealed no
      difference in the recidivism rates between
      camps and other programs
    – Study of New Jersey revealed 41% of their
      boot camp graduates were re-arrested vs
      53% from other juvenile programs
    – Programs that provide “after-care” appear
      to have higher rates of success
    Effectiveness of Curfews
   According to a 1997 United States
    Conference of Mayor’s Report:
    – In the same survey, 26 cities with
      nighttime curfews showed reduction in
      juvenile crime averaging 21%
    – 22 cities with day and night curfews also
      averaged a 21% decline
    – 6 cities reported increases in juvenile crime
      but noted that their were declines in crime
      6 months to year after implementation
     Failures of System
 Even violent offenders have records
  cleared when becoming adults
 A juvenile must be released upon
  reaching 18 years of age
 Tough laws don’t address the roots of
  violent juvenile crime
 Programs receive minimal funding
             Failures (cont’d)
 A percentage of juveniles are held in
  county jail even before trial
 Industrial schools for juveniles are
  institutions of confinement like prisons
          violence and sexual assault plague the
           institutions
   Counselors rarely attempt to work with
    the juvenile’s family
          Juveniles go from institutions to homes with no
           consistent discipline
     Diversion Programs
 Attempts to treat juveniles who would
  be passed over by courts
 Believe juvenile courts are ineffective
  and stigmatizing
 Consider charging a juvenile for non-
  criminal behavior immoral
 Diversion Programs have their
  weaknesses also
    International Perspective
   MEXICO
    – 2 Dominant systems of juvenile legislation
         Subject to adult jurisdiction
         Subject to a separate system
    – Juvenile court procedures
    – Decisions:
         Return to family[possibly under observation]
         Enrollment in public/private school
         Hospitalization
         Commitment to juvenile facility for treatment.
International Perspectives (cont’d)
    AFGHANISTAN
     – Hanafi jurisprudence
     – Function of judiciary
     – Juvenile courts
          Investigation by judicial officers
           (possibly police)
          Investigation by special prosecutor
           (usually female)
          Determination of age of accused (7 - 14)
          Decision of court
          Conclusion
 The juvenile justice system needs to be
  reformed
 The system should address issues social
  and economic issues within the home

				
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posted:12/4/2011
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