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					Communications 101
• Communication Theory
• Communication Principles
• Communication Practices
• Message Mapping Tool
• Interviews/Presentations
Communication Theory

    Why Communicate?

To Improve Your Organization’s
Are We Really Communicating?
Communication Principles
• Have an agenda

• Anticipate questions

• Stay within your boundaries

• Take control

• Keep your cool
It’s Not So Much What You Say
• Our behavior affects the perceptions and attitudes
  people have about us.
• Communication impact:
   – What you say 30%
      • Content, Words
   – What they see 40%
      • Pictures, Graphs
   – Engage, touch 70%
      • Models, Products, Tools
It’s How You Say It – What Matters?
            What We Say
            • The words we choose
            • How we put our words together to create
            • Appropriateness of our words
            How We Sound
  Speech      ________%
            • Sounds, tones, volume, pitch, articulation
            • Resonance – richness, fullness, quality
            • Variation – emphasis
            How We Appear
  Visual      ________%
 Language   • Gestures and movement
            • Facial expressions and eye contact
            • Presence - body stance and posture
What We Say - Content

                   • Less is best
   The words
   we choose       • Use colorful language
                   • Use pauses effectively
                   • Eliminate paralanguage

                   • Know your audience
   of our words    • Run a sensitivity check
                   • Avoid jargon

     How we        • Vertical and horizontal communication
     organize      • Message mapping
    our words
Delivery Channels
• What we say
  – Verbal
• How we say it
  – Vocal, visual
• Delivery must be effective and professional
• Material presented must be solid and convincing
Understanding Yourself
• How do people perceive you?
   – Aggressive, submissive, long-winded, big picture,
     tactical, professional, smart, etc.

• Introvert or Extrovert?
• Do you like to communicate or would you prefer
  to work independently all day everyday without
  having to talk with anyone?
Understanding the Audience
• Hostile, friendly or neutral?

• How favorable towards my point of view?

• How willing to accept new ideas?
Body Language
• Eye Contact
  – Look at audience individually
  – “Thank you for listening to me”
  – Rotate audience attention
     • make each person in audience of 20 believe presentation
       involves them personally
     • 2-3 seconds of sincere, natural and sustained eye contact
     • with a large audience, pick several people in different parts
       of the room
Body Language
• Gestures
  – Descriptive and specific visual pictures of words
     • Illustrate key points
  – 55% of impact comes from what people see
  – Avoid random hand movements
     • Emphasis
  – Use when describing:
     • numbers, location, size
  – Get out of your body space
Body Language
• Facial Expressions
  –   A simple smile - Best way to comfortably connect
  –   Part of “how” we say things
  –   Automatic response to help illustrate words, feelings
  –   Carry yourself as a success--express it with your face
       • pride for topic, happy to be here, etc.
Body Language
• Posture and Movement
  – Convey conversational attitude to put people at ease
  – Posture should be professional and comfortable
     •   Stand up straight
     •   Keep head up
     •   Move with purpose, then STOP--don‟t pace (feet and hands)
     •   Sit?
• Relax – (If you can‟t, go to next bullet)
• Breathe (don‟t gasp)
• Project
   – Your voice
   – Your self
• Quality
   –   Rate of speaking
   –   Volume
   –   Inflection
   –   Articulation
Communications Practices
• Message Mapping
• Media Tips
• Tools
Use message mapping…
and hit your communication targets
• A strategic visualization and framework process
• Focuses on goals and desired outcomes
• Creates a clear chain of thoughts
• Streamlines key points using rule of 3‟s
• Can be used for any communication situation
  Your Message Mapping Tool

Vertical mapping
 organizes and
  clarifies your
 message – key
   messages                       Horizontal
                               mapping allows
                              you to brainstorm
                              and colorize your
                                  message –
                               ancillaries that
                              help the audience
                                understand or
                                retain the key
Message Mapping Sample
CO – Overcome Fear of Blank Sheet of Paper
  • Introduction                 • Message 3 - What’s in it for me?
     – Eliminate wasted time         – Determine audience
     – Reduce anxiety                – Outline content
     – Communicate clearly           – Review draft with 3rd party
  • Message 1 - Background       • Closing
     – Situation background          – Time saved
     – Gather available data         – BP lowered
     – Survey popular opinion        – Issue successfully
  • Message 2 - Info.                  resolved
     – Develop new data
                                      Background, Info, What’s in it for you
     – Research current trends
     – Provide your input
Message Mapping Guidelines
• First, think about the overall desired outcomes for the presentation. What is
  the audience you want your audience to leave with? Then, think about
  three key messages that support that overall outcome. Put them in the
  three middle boxes (vertical).
• Once the vertical section of the message map is complete, you can think
  about the horizontal pieces. These can be stories, examples, slides, a prop,
  etc. Since the focus of the presentation should be on the presenter, these
  are ancillaries that help the audience understand or retain the message.
• Next, think about three supporting points to each of those key messages.
  They go next to the lines coming out of the boxes (horizontal). These
  should be words or phrases, not sentences.
• In the Introduction you want to grab your audience‟s attention. Maybe use a
  short story or anecdote that relates to your message to get them interested
  in what you have to say. Also, tell them what you‟ll be talking about – the
  three key messages.
• In the close, you want to again reiterate the three key messages.
Rules of Media Engagement
• Your have rights
   – To be treated courteously
   – To keep the discussion in your area
• No “right of review”
   – Not in an interview
   – Not in “real life”
Avoid Media Conflict
• Be polite – Meet „em half way, take another step
• Understand that media are doing their job
• Don‟t overstep your bounds, i.e., try to prohibit
  media from doing something they know they can
  do, such as photograph the facility from public
• Stick to the facts, stick to your messages
• Don‟t Lie……. EVER!
Media Tips
• Have your own agenda
  – Your job is not to answer media questions
  – Your job is to deliver your message
  – Use tough questions to deliver key messages
• Know your key message points
  –   Maximum of three
  –   What do you want to see on TV or in the newspaper?
  –   What do you want REMEMBERED?
  –   Say it! Repeat it!
  –   Say it again, Repeat it with emphasis!
Media Tips
• Buying time
  – Can‟t talk now; I‟ll call you back…. And DO IT!
  – What do you want to know?
• Pre-interview discussions
  – Preview the questions – “What‟s your angle?”
  – Clarify your expertise in advance
• Anticipate “hard” questions
  – Avoid surprises
  – Use to “bridge” to key messages – (Limb to Trunk)
Media Tips
• Body language (sit up & look at interviewer)
• Take control (deliver messages)
• Avoid repeating negative statements
• Avoid “no comment”
• There is no such thing as “off the record”
• Repeat key messages
• The interview isn‟t over until the reporter is gone
After A Crisis….. Or, Presentation
• Hold post-crisis/presentation review
• How to prevent a similar crisis in the future?
• How to improve performance the next time?
• Get feedback from your team and audience
• Analyze media coverage
• Plan proactive communication
• Schedule formal communication/media training
What If It’s Not a Crisis/Presentation?
• Performance appraisal

• Job interview

• Communicating with children/parents

• School Board meeting

• Community volunteer activity

• REMEMBER -----------------------------------
Communication Principles Apply
• Have an agenda

• Anticipate questions

• Take control

• Keep your cool

• Stay within the boundaries
Other Resources
• A primer on preparing and delivering a PowerPoint
  presentation -
• And another one -
• If you didn‟t write down the sites above try this -
• Issue Management & Crisis Communications -
• Media Tips
Good Luck!

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