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C1a Key Words.xls - pfellas

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					Reference          Key Word                                           Meaning
            A
C1 1.1      atom                    the smallest part of an element which can take part in a chem reaction
C1 1.1      alkali metals           very reactive light metals in group 1 e.g. sodium & potassium
C1 1.1      alkaline earth metals   reactive, denser metals in group 2       e.g. magnesium & calcium
C1 1.1      actinides               heavy and radioactive rare transition metals e.g. uranium
ST SYM      aqueous, (aq)           state symbol; dissolved in water e.g. salty water is NaCl (aq)
C1 1.4      acidic                  having a pH < 7; contains lots o hydrogen ions e.g. hydrochloric acid
C1 1.4      alkaline                having a pH > 7; contains lots of hydroxyl ions e.g. sodium hydroxide
C1 2.3      alloy                   a mixture of metals which is harder than either e.g. brass (Cu/Zn)
                                                                                     3
C1 2.6      aluminium               a light, strong metal with a density of 2.70 g/cm
C1 2.6      aluminium oxide         Al2O3 -a compound of aluminium and oxygen, , which protects Al surface
C1 3.1      alkane                  a saturated hydrocarbon with a general formula CnH2n+2
C1 3.3      acid rain               an acidic liquid made from water and the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur
C1 3.5      alternative fuels       non-fossil-based fuels e.g. hydrogen
            B
C1 1.1      bonds                   pairs of electrons holding atoms together
C1 1.3      boiling tube            fat test-tube which can be used for heating liquids safely
C1 1.3      Bunsen burner           heating apparatus popularised by Wilhelm Bunsen
C1 1.3      balanced equation       equation with equal numbers of atoms and correct formula on each side
C1 1.5      borax (sod. borate)     alkaline mineral
C1 2.2      blast furnace           large oven for reducing iron oxide to iron metal
C1 2.2      blast of hot air        tuyeres in blast furnace blow in hot air to heat oven to 2000oC
C1 2.4      brass                   an alloy of copper and zinc
C1 2.4      bronze                  an alloy of copper and tin
C1 2.5      bacteria                these can be used to dissolve ores in new mining technique
C1 3.1      butane                  C4H10, the fourth alkane, boiling at - 0.5oC; used in lighters, hair wands
C1 3.2      bitumen                 heaviest fraction in crude oil; over 60 C atoms per molecule; BP= 525oC
C1 3.2      boiling point           temperature at which the vapour pressure equals atmospheric pressure
C1 3.3      burning                 reacting with oxygen to produce less reactive compounds, e.g.CO2, H2O
C1 3.5      biodiesel               oils made from rape seed oil, sunflower oil to power lorries
            C
C1 1.1      compound                two or more elements joined together in a fixed ratio e.g. C6H12O6
C1 1.2      calcium carbonate       CaCO3 nature's mineral for exoskeletons; limestone, chalk, marble
C1 1.2      calcium oxide           CaO, basic oxide which reacts exothermically with water to form slaked l
C1 1.2      carbon dioxide          CO2 - a product of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
C1 2.2      carbon dioxide          gas formed in blast furnace at 2000oC, when air blast reacts with coke
C1 3.4      carbon dioxide          main gaseous product when gasoline or diesel are burnt in a car engine
C1 1.2      concrete                strong building material containing, sand, gravel, cement and water
                                        2-
C1 1.3      carbonates              CO3 radicals with one carbon and three oxygens e.g. Na2CO3
C1 1.3      copper carbonate        CuCO3 - harmful green compound - actually, CuCO3 . Cu(OH)2
C1 1.3      CLEAPSS                 Organization which produces Hazcards and advises on safety
C1 1.4      calcium hydroxide       Ca(OH)2 - slaked or hydrated lime; produces limewater with water
C1 1.5      copper (II) oxide       CuO, black, harmful oxidising agent which can be reduced to copper by C
C1 1.5      compression             glass is very strong under compression
C1 2.2      charge                  what goes into the blast furnace: iron ore, coke and limestone
C1 2.2      coke                    porous lumps of carbon produced by heating coal in a container
C1 2.2      carbon monoxide         CO, used in reducing iron (III) oxide to iron in the blast furnace
C1 3.4      carbon monoxide         toxic gas, which binds to haemoglobin 300 times more strongly than O2
C1 2.2      cast iron               brittle iron (only 96% iron, 4% carbon) comes directly from blast furnace
C1 2.4      construction metals     metals used in building e.g. steels
C1 2.4      copper ore              mineral containing copper compounds mixed with unwanted stuff
C1 2.6      corrode                 to eat away at e.g. acid rain corroded the bronze statue
C1 3.1   crude oil                 a mixture of many different hydrocarbons with N and S impurities
C1 3.1   chemical formula          a representation of the ratio in which the elements are present
C1 3.1   CnH2n+2                   the general formula for an alkane
C1 3.2   chain length              the largest number of carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain
C1 3.3   cobalt chloride paper     an indicator paper used to test for water: blue when dry, pink when wet
C1 3.3   combustion                burning in oxygen to produce oxides
C1 3.4   catalytic converter       device in car used to purify exhaust gases: 2CO + 2NO = 2CO2 + N2
         D
C1 1.3   delivery tube             glass tube used to pass gas into tube
C1 1.4   dissolve                  make something go into a solution e.g. ethanol can dissolve biro marks
C1 2.5   ductile                   (usually of metals) capable of being drawn into wire
C1 3.1   distillation              evaporation followed by condensation - a process used to purify a liquid
C1 3.1   decane                    C10H22, the tenth alkane; a hydrocarbon in the naphtha/petrol fraction
C1 3.2   diesel                    a hydrocarbon of about sixteen carbon atoms in length, C16H34 (15-19 C)
C1 3.5   dioxins                   extremely toxic chemicals - some are produced by incomplete burning
         E
C1 1.1   element                   simple substance made of only one kind of atom e.g. tin, silicon, neon
C1 1.1   electrons                 light, negatively-charged particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom
C1 1.2   endothermic               absorbs heat (takes heat in, or gets cold)
C1 2.1   extracting                removing e.g. extracting iron from its ore, haematite
C1 2.1   Earth's crust             thin, outer coating of silicate rocks covering the mantle c. 50 km thick
C1 2.5   electrical conductor      a substance that allows electricity to pass through it
C1 2.5   electrolysis              splitting up a molten or aqueous compound into its elements with electr
C1 2.5   environmental             the effect a change has on the surroundings
C1 2.5     impact                  (see above)
C1 3.1   ethane                    C2H6 , the second alkane; it is a gas at room temperature; BP = - 89oC
                                                                                               o       o
C1 3.2   engine oil, light         also called diesel; chain length 15 to 19 C atoms; BP = 220 to 350 C
C1 3.2   engine oil, medium        also called mineral oil; used in lubricating; 20 - 30 C atoms; BP = 350oC+
                                                                                                           o
C1 3.2   engine oil, heavy         also called fuel oil; used for power stations; 30 - 40 C atoms; BP = 400 +
C1 3.3   exothermic                gives out heat (gets hot)
         F
C1 1.4   filtrate                  liquid that comes through a filter paper
C1 1.4   filter paper              porous paper used to separate liquid filtrate from solid residue
C1 1.4   fluted filter paper       folded paper in fan shape; uses the whole surface of the paper
C1 2.5   fungi                     these micro-organisms can be used to dissolve metal from its ore
C1 3.2   fractional distillation   method for separating crude oil into six or seven less crude fractions
C1 3.2   fraction                  a product of fractional distillation containing a spread of chain lengths
C1 3.2   flammability              a measure of how easily a fuel burns: flammable, very fl. and extremely fl.
C1 3.3   fuel                      a store of energy, which is released when it burns
C1 3.3   fossil fuel               a fuel formed from coal, oil or natural gas
C1 3.4   flue gas                  removing the harmful sulfur dioxide gas escaping from a chimney
C1 3.4      de-sulfurisation
         G
ST SYM   gaseous (g)               state symbol; present as a gas e.g. CO2 (g)
C1 1.1   group                     family of elements with similar properties; increasing atomic no. down gp
C1 1.2   glass                     a semi-chaotic solid - weak under tension, strong under compression
C1 1.3   goggles                   eye protection
C1 1.4   gauze                     wire heat spreader on tripod; origin 'from Gaza' (near Egypt)
C1 1.5   G-cramp                   type of holding tool
C1 3.2   gasoline                  also called petrol; fraction containing 4 to 12 C atoms; BP = 40 - 100oC
C1 3.4   global warming            warming of the planet caused (in part) by increasing human activity
C1 3.4   global dimming            cooling of the planet caused by volcanic eruptions blocking sun's rays
C1 3.4   greenhouse gas            gas which lets sunlight through, but prevents heat getting out CO2, CH4
         H
C1 1.1   halogens                 very reactive non-metals in group 7: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine
C1 1.1   harmful                  can cause you harm by ingestion, absorption through skin or inhalation
C1 1.3   Hazcards                 safety cards produced by CLEAPSS showing safe use of chemicals etc
C1 1.4   hydrated lime            Ca(OH)2 , calcium hydroxide; also called slaked lime; not very soluble
C1 2.2   haematite                iron ore, mainly iron (III) oxide, Fe2O3 , which is blood red in colour
C1 2.3   high carbon steel        a steel in which the main alloying element is carbon; contains 1 to 2% C
C1 2.3   high alloy chromium      a stainless steel containing 22 to 32% Cr, 16 to 40% Ni and 10% Mn
C1 2.3      steel                 used in making ball bearings - strong and chemically resistant
                                                                                                 3
C1 2.4   high density             a large mass in a small volume; lead's density = 11.3 g/cm
C1 2.4   hard                     difficult to cut, squash or deform
C1 2.5   high grade copper        a copper ore in which there is a lot of the desired mineral and only
C1 2.5      ore                      a small amount of unwanted rock
C1 2.6   high-performance         an aeroplane whose body has to cope with high stresses because of
            aircraft                 high speeds and sudden changes of direction
C1 2.6   hip joint replacement    socket is made of PTFE polymer (C2F4) ; ball/shaft is made from Ti
C1 3.1   hydrocarbon              a compound made up of hydrogen and carbon ONLY
C1 3.3   hydrocarbon              a compound made up of hydrogen and carbon ONLY
C1 3.1   hexane                   C6H14 - the sixth alkane; a volatile hydrocarbon solvent
C1 3.1   heptane                  C7H16 - the seventh alkane; a volatile hydrocarbon solvent
         I
C1 1.3   irritant                 something that makes your skin itch or make it go red
C1 1.5   iron oxides              different oxides of iron: iron (III) oxide, iron (II) oxide
C1 2.2   iron                     Fe, element number 26, a transition metal with valencies of 2 and 3
C1 2.2   iron oxide               Fe2O3 - iron (III) oxide - NOT FeO, iron (II) oxide, which does not exist
C1 2.2   iron (III) oxide         Fe2O3 - the main iron-containing mineral in haematite
C1 3.5   incinerator              a burner of rubbish
         J
         K
C1 3.2   kerosine                 fraction from crude oil with 12 to 14 carbon atoms; aeroplane fuel
         L
ST SYM   liquid (l)               state symbol; present as the pure liquid e.g. water is written as H2O (l)
C1 1.2   limestone                a sedimentary rock made up mostly of calcium carbonate
C1 2.2   limestone                part of the charge for the blast furnace
C1 1.2   lime kiln                oven used to break down limestone to quicklime by thermal decomp.
C1 1.3   limewater                calcium hydroxide solution; used to test for carbon dioxide gas (-->milky)
C1 3.3   limewater                used to test for carbon dioxide as one of the products of combustion
C1 1.4   limelight                orange glow produced when marble or limestone is strongly heated
C1 1.5   lead oxide               one of the chemicals needed to make lead crystal (glass)
C1 2.3   low carbon steel         less than 0.3% carbon in steel; called mild steel; easy to shape, soft.
C1 2.3   low alloy nickel steel   tough steel with less than 8% nickel content
C1 2.3   low alloy tungsten st    hard steel, with less than 8% tungsten; works well at high temperatures
                                                                                                           3
C1 2.4   low density              small mass spread over a large volume; lithium's density = 0.53 g/cm
C1 2.5   low grade copper ore     only contains 0.5% copper mineral - mostly useless rock
C1 3.5   local resident           people who live in the area
         M
C1 1.1   metallic                 adjective from 'metal'
C1 1.3   magnesium                MgCO3 ; a carbonate that decomposes fairly easily to give
            carbonate              MgO + CO2 . The gas turns limewater milky.
                                                                                 3.
C1 1.3   measuring cylinder       a tube for measuring volumes of liquids in cm
C1 1.4   mortar                   material used for holding bricks together - made from sl.lime, sand, water
C1 1.5   manganese (IV)           MnO2 - black powder added to hydrogen peroxide to make it break down
C1 1.5    oxide                   into water and oxygen faster. 2 H2O2 (aq) --> 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g) ; unchanged
C1 2.1   metal oxide              state in which many metals are found in rocks e.g. iron (III) oxide
                                                                                 o                       3
C1 2.2   molten iron             hot, melted iron at a temperature above 1535 C; liq density = 7 g/cm
                                                                                            3
C1 2.2   molten slag             hot, melted calcium silicate, CaSiO3 (l) ; density = 2 g/cm
C1 2.4   monitor                 to check
C1 2.5   malleable               can be beaten into sheets with a mallet
C1 2.5   manganese               Mn, element number 25; a transition metal with valencies 2, 4 and 7
C1 2.7   mining with plants      using plants to extract minerals from soil using their roots
C1 3.1   mixture                 a substance that can be separated easily with a physical change
C1 3.1   molecule                tiny part of a compound; atoms are always present in the same ratio
                                                                                                     o
C1 3.1   methane                 CH4 , the first alkane, natural gas, used in laboratories, BP = -162 C
         N
C1 1.1   nucleus                 the centre of an atom containing protons and neutrons
C1 1.1   non-metallic            adjective from 'non-metal'
C1 1.1   Na                      symbol for 1 atom of sodium
C1 1.1   noble gases             Group 0 elements: unreactive gases; He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn
C1 1.5   nickel (II) oxide       can be used to colour glass dark green
C1 2.1   native state            some elements such as gold exist as the element - not as a compound
C1 2.5   nickel                  element number 27, transition metal; alloyed with steel to make it tough
C1 2.6   nuclear reactor         something that gives us energy that we will have to pay for later
C1 3.1   nonane                  C9H20, the ninth alkane;liquid present in petrol.
C1 3.3   naphtha                 fraction containing between 8 and 12 carbon atoms - used in drug making
C1 3.4   nitrogen monoxide       NO, important hormone; toxic gas in exhaust and in cigarette smoke
C1 3.4   nitrogen dioxide        NO2, brown gas which reacts with water to make acid rain
C1 3.4   NOx                     general expression for nitrogen oxides such as NO and NO2, x = 1 and 2
C1 3.4   nitrogen gas            N2 , an unreactive gas making up 78% of the atmosphere
         O
C1 2.1   ore                     metal or metal compound mixed with rock
C1 2.2   oxidation               the addition of oxygen resulting in an exothermic reaction
C1 3.1   octane                  C8H18 - the eighth alkane; volatile, flammable liquid; main liquid in petrol
         P
C1 1.1   periodic table          table showing patterns of reactivity of elements
C1 1.1   period                  row showing a change from alkali metal to semi-metal, halogen and n.gas
C1 1.3   potassium carbonate     K2CO3 contains 6 atoms per formula unit; not broken down by heat
C1 1.4   pH                      power of Hydrogen ions; the lower this is, the stronger the acid (not PH)
C1 1.5   properties              stuff about something e.g. metals are malleable, ductile and sonorous
C1 2.3   plane of atoms          a flat layer of atoms
C1 2.6   protective layer of     a thin layer which stops the normally reactive aluminium metal from
           aluminium oxide         reacting with acids - so it seems to be an unreactive metal
C1 3.1   propane                 C3H8, the third alkane used as a fuel and a propellant; BP = -42oC
C1 3.1   pentane                 C5H12, the fifth alkane; the first liquid alkane, boiling at 36oC
C1 3.2   property / properties   stuff about something e.g. butane is a denser-than-air hydrocarbon
C1 3.3   particles               general name for small parts of whole
C1 3.3   particulates            particles of soot coming out from a diesel exhaust;
C1 3.3   PM10                    Particulate Matter smaller than 10 millionths of a metre
C1 3.3   pollution               gases and particles which make the air dirty e.g. SO2, CO, PM10
C1 3.3   petrol                  a mixture of over 100 hydrocarbons whose average size is 8 C atoms
C1 3.4   power stations          place where chemical or nuclear energy is converted to electricity
         Q
C1 1.2   quarried                building stone taken from an open mine
C1 1.2   quicklime               CaO - basic oxide which reacts fiercely with water to make slaked lime
         R
C1 1.1   represented by          shown by
C1 1.1   react                   to undergo a chemical change produced by a reagent
C1 1.2   rotary (lime kiln)      long, turning oven for burning limestone to produce quicklime
C1 1.3   resistant               something that opposes something else
C1 2.1   reactive metal       a metal that reacts quickly with something
C1 2.1   reactivity series    a table showing the most reactive metals at top; least reactive at bottom.
C1 2.1   reduction reaction   a reaction in which the amount of oxygen in a compound is reduced
C1 2.2   raw materials        all the (crude) stuff that you need for a process e.g. the blast furnace
C1 2.3   rust                 hydrated iron (III) oxide: Fe2O3.x H2O, where x varies with colour of rust
C1 2.5   recycling metals     re-using metals so that you use less energy in making new metal
C1 2.6   resistance to        stands up to corrosion by acids etc because of a protective covering
C1 2.6      corrosion           e.g. Al2O3 protects Al; or the metal is just unreactive e.g. gold.
C1 2.6   resist               put up a fight against
C1 3.2   refinery gases       methane, ethane, propane and butane (C1 to C4 HCs) in top fraction
C1 3.4   reducing agent       a substance that takes away oxygen from something else e.g. C and CO
         S
ST SYM   solid (s)            state symbol, present as a solid or a precipitate e.g. CaCO3 (s)
C1 1.1   substance            solid, liquid or gaseous material
C1 1.1   sort of atom         each element has its own kind of atom
C1 1.1   symbol               sign showing an atom of an element. First letter is a capital, others small
C1 1.1   sharing              electrons are shared in bonds between atoms of non-metallic elements
C1 1.3   spatula              chemical spoon
C1 1.3   sodium carbonate     Na2CO3 medium alkaline solid - very soluble in water
C1 1.4   slaked lime          Ca(OH)2 calcium hydroxide, also called hydrated lime
C1 1.5   sand                 SiO2 - quartz, plus impurities, which give it its colour
C1 1.5   sodium borate        borax, a mild alkali
C1 2.2   smelt                to melt so as to separate the metal from the ore
C1 2.5   smelt                to melt so as to separate the metal from the ore
C1 2.2   smelter              oven to do the smelting
C1 2.2   slag                 solid scum on molten metal
C1 2.2   steel                iron containing a little carbon and some other elements
C1 2.3   stainless steel      steel which does not rust; contain chromium and nickel
C1 2.3   slide                to do with layers of atoms which move over each other easily
C1 2.4   SMA                  titanium-nickel alloy which reverts to its original shape at a temperature
C1 2.4   smart memory alloy   SMA, nitinol, alloy containing nickel and titanium
C1 2.4   spectacles           plastics' to help you see better; light frames are made from titanium
C1 2.4   soft                 easy to deform
C1 2.5   silver               Ag, unreactive metal
C1 3.1   saturated            alkane, which does not decolourise bromine water;
C1 3.1      hydrocarbon          contains no C=C double bonds; all C-C bonds are single bonds
C1 3.3   steam                gas produced when water evaporates
C1 3.3   sulfur dioxide       SO2 - a toxic gas formed when sulfur burns in oxygen
C1 3.4   sulfur trioxide      SO3 - an acidic oxide, also contributes to acid rain formation
C1 3.4   SOx                  pronounced 'sox', a general name for sulfur oxides: SO2 and SO3
         T
C1 1.1   transition metals    the ten groups from scandium to zinc and below
C1 2.4   transition metal     metal which is hard, lustrous, malleable, ductile has a high MP & density
C1 1.2   thermal              breakdown to smaller substances by heat e.g. CuCO3 --> CuO + CO2
C1 1.2      decomposition        - this is an endothermic reaction
C1 1.3   test-tube            glass tube (usually Pyrex ®) for trying out chemical reactions
C1 1.3   test-tube holder     chrome-plated holder used to heat test-tubes in a Bunsen flame
C1 1.4   tripod               three-legged stand
C1 1.4   tongs                iron holder for holding hot things
C1 1.4   teat pipette         sucking pipette [many are made of (poly(ethene)]
C1 1.5   tension              glass is weak under tension
C1 2.4   transition           a change
C1 2.5   thermal conductor    conductor of heat
C1 2.5   traditional mining   usual mining using pick-axes
                                                                                                          3
C1 2.6   titanium              Ti, light metal which is strong at high temperatures; density = 4.5 g/cm
         U
C1 1.3   unbalanced equation   equation in which the number of atoms on LHS and RHS are not equal
C1 1.4   universal indicator   mixture of six dyes which change colour at different pH's to give a
            paper / solution     rainbow effect: pH 0,1,2 red; 3,4or;5,6yel;7lgr;8dgr;9,10blue; 11+ purple
C1 2.1   unreactive            does not react with something
         V
C1 3.2   vapour                gas
C1 3.2   viscous               thick and oozy
C1 3.2   viscosity, high       flows slowly, like treacle
                                                                                                           o
C1 3.2   volatile              boils easily at a low temperature e.g. ethanol is volatile as it boils at 78 C
                                                                                                o
C1 3.2   volatility, high      boils very easily at a low temperature e.g. acetone's BP = 58 C
         W
C1 3.3   water                 H2O(l)
C1 3.3   water vapour          H2O(g) - steam
C1 3.4   waste gases           unwanted gases produced e.g. when methane burns these are: CO2&H2O
         X
                               http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=3013080
         Y                     The above is a really good website. It is readable and has 24 pages.

         Z
C1 1.3   zinc carbonate        ZnCO3 metal carbonate easily decomposed by heat
C1 1.5   zinc oxide            ZnO - base (metal oxide). Yellow when hot; white when cold.
Reference         Key Word                                        Meaning
            A
H1          appropriate        suitable for
C1 1.1      anagram            word made form the letters of another e.g. regal is an anagram of large
C1 1.6      ancient            very old
            B
H2          by chance          without looking, by luck
H8          bias               favouring one side
            C
C1 1.1      central            in the middle e.g. the transition metals form the central block in the PT
C1 2.1      combined           joined together
C1 2.4      conventional       usual
C1 3.5      chair of enquiry   person who says who is allowed to talk at a meeting
H8          credibility        believability
            D
H3          discuss            talk about
H5          discard            reject e.g. I have discarded my odd result because it does not fit
C1 2.4      deform             change the shape of by force
C1 3.5      director of        person who has a say into what decisions should be taken by company
C1 3.5        incineration       -
C1 3.5        company            -
            E
C1 3.5      environmental      person who fights to keep the world green/safe
              campaigner         -
H8          evidence           results obtained
H9          economic           to do with money
H9          ethical issues     to do with what is right and wrong
            F
H1          fact               an agreed truth
            G
H1          glow               warm light
            H
H1          heading            word at the top of a column in a table
            I
H1          improve            make better
H8          influence          to exert power on the outcome of something
            J
C1 1.1      join               to connect
            K
H1          knowledge          learning
            L
H1          leap               jump
C1 1.6      local building     materials you can get where you live to help you build
              materials          -
            M

            N
H8          necessary skills   skills you must have
            O

            P
C1 2.5      plumbing           water piping
            Q
C1 1.2      quarry             open mine for building stone
            R
H1          recapitulate       to go over the main points (also recap)
H1       reliable            results which are good; if you do the expt again, you will get the same res.
H3       reasonable result   result that might be expected
H3       repeat              do again; repeat twice means do three times: original act, then 2 repeats
C1 2.6   resist              put up fight against
H7       relationship        how one variable is linked to another
         S
H1       suggest             give an idea about
H1       stench              bad smell
C1 1.3   similar             like, the same
C1 1.5   scratching          glass, when scratched, becomes weak
C1 2.4   soft                easy to deform by force
C1 2.5   social impact       have an effect on society
C1 3.3   steam               water vapour: 1 cm3 water at 100oC becomes 1600 cm3 steam at 100oC
         T
C1 1.5   tension             stretching
         U

         V
H7       valid data          right results which were taken under appropriate conditions
C1 3.4   vehicles            cars, vans, lorries - anything that can carry things that moves.
H4       vary                change
         W

         X

         Y

         Z
Reference           Key Word                                             Meaning
            A
H1          analyse results            discover the patterns in your results and see if there are any odd ones
H4          accuracy                   how close your readings are to the true value
H5          anomaly                    an unexpected point or reading
H5          anomalous result           a point on a graph which is far away from your expected value
            B
H6          bar graph                  pattern shown for categoric or discrete variable
H8          balanced argument          a discussion in which all sides are fairly represented
H8          bias                       favouring one side rather than the other
            C
H1          controls                   a set of readings which show by how much your results have changed
H1          conclusions                what final opinion you have formed after doing an experiment
H1          cm3                        cubic centimetre = 1/1000th cubic decimetre (dm3) = 1/1000 000th m3
H2          continuous variable        a variable such as length or temperature that can have any value
H2          categoric variable         e.g. all the different smoothies you are going to taste ..mango, orange
H2          causal link                a link between two variables e.g. the hotter the tea, the faster it cools
H3          control variable           all the other variables apart from the one you are changing
H7          complex curve              curve which it is difficult to explain mathematically
H8          credibility                believability
            D
H1          dissolve                   add a solvent to spread solute molecules through the solvent
H1          dissolved sugar            sugar spread out in a solvent e.g. water, so that it cannot be seen
H2          discrete variable          one that is described using whole numbers e.g. I did ten sit-ups
H2          discontinuous variable     a variable that cannot have all values within a range
H7          draw conclusions           to form a final opinion
H7          directly proportional to   the bigger ..the bigger ..e.g. the more I grow, the bigger my shoe size
            E
H1          experiment                 trying out your idea to see if it was any good
H5          error, human               a mistake made by a person
H5          error, random              a poor measurement made - maybe method was not followed properly
H5          error, systematic          a set of bad results, possibly because the meter was unreliable
H7          evaluate                   make a judgment about how good or bad something is
H7          evidence                   data that is judged to be relevant
H7          extrapolate                to continue the curve in the way it has gone before
H9          economic                   to do with money
H9          ethical issues             to do with what is right and wrong
            F
H1          fact                       an agreed truth
H1          fridge                     colloquial word for a "refrigerator"
H1          fuse                       (to do with fireworks) blue paper you have to light to set off a firework
H1          firework                   e.g. banger, cracker, Catherine wheel, rocket etc.
H4          fair test                  keeping all things the same and just changing one variable at a time
H7          flow diagram               chart which shows the order in which things need to be done
            G
H1          gramme, g                  a mass which is one-thousandth that of a kilogram
            H
H1          headings                   word at the top of a column (usually in a table)
H3          hypothesis                 a guess to explain how things work
            I
H1          improve                    to make better or more reliable
H1          investigation              an experiment to test out an idea
H1          independent variable       the variable that you change
H5          instrument                 a piece of equipment that does a particular job
H7          inversely proportional     when one variable gets bigger, the other variable gets smaller
H7          interpolate                to fill in the missing middle part of a line or curve
H8   influence                 to affect the outcome of a decision in the way you want it to go
     J
     K
H1   knowledge                 that which is known or has been learnt
     L
H1   leap                      jump
H6   line graph                straight line or curve
H7   line of best fit          straight line or curve joining most of the points together
H7   linear relationship       when one variable gets bigger, so does the other in a simple way
H7   limitations of data       how many or how reliable measurements you have made
H9   limitations of            there are some questions that science cannot provide the answers to
H9      scientific evidence      -
     M
H6   mean value                average value e.g. the mean of 3.6, 4.0, 4.2 and 4.6 = 16.4 / 4 = 4.1
     N
H7   negative relationship     the more time that passes, the smaller the candle gets
H8   necessary skills          skills you must have
     O
H1   observation               using your senses to note what has changed
H1   objective                 what you want to achieve
H2   opinion                   a person's point of view
     P
H1   prediction                what you think will happen
H1   plotted graph             points plotted and then joined together with a line or curve
H1   phosphorus                P, flammable non-metallic element; element number 15
H1   preliminary experiment    trial experiment to help you focus on aspects of proper experiment
H4   precision                 results are precise if they are close together; no need to be accurate
H7   pattern in results        e.g. the higher the temperature, the less time a reaction will take
H7   predictable curve         you can see what shape the line or curve will take if you carry it on
H7   positive linear           e.g. the greater the surface area of the marble chips, the faster will be
H7      relationship              its reaction with hydrochloric acid
H8   political bias            a leaning towards a particular favoured political position
     Q
     R
H1   repetition of results     do several times until there is only a small spread of values
H1   recapitulation            go over the main topics
H1   refrigerator              a cooling cabinet which removes the heat by making a liquid evaporate
H1   readings                  measurements taken from a scale e.g. temperature, pressure
H1   reliable                  a reading or result, which would give a similar figure if repeated
H4   range of results          spread of values from the smallest to the largest e.g. 4.5 to 5.8, r = 2.3
H4   repeat                    do again
H4   reliability               trustworthiness
H7   relationship              how things are linked to each other
H7   relationship not easily   a complex mathematical relationship for which it is difficult to find an
H7      represented by a         equation to describe it.
H7      mathematical             -
H7      relationship             -
     S
H1   scientific enquiry        scientific study
H1   suggestion                an idea about something
H1   stirring                  turning a fluid
H5   sensitivity               a large movement in the thread for a small change in (say) temperature
H6   scatter graph             a line showing the spread of values e.g. lung capacity
H8   status of experimenter    how highly s/he is regarded in the scientific community
H9   social issues             issues that effect people e.g. opening of a nuclear power plant, quarry
     T
H1   tabulating results   putting your results into a table
H1   traditional          usual, according to custom and practice
H9   technology           applied science
H9   technological        making newer things from developing a particular scientific idea
H9     development          e.g. increasing the memory of computers
     U
                                                                                   3
H6   units                what various quantities are measured in e.g. volume cm and time s
     V
H1   volume               the space taken up by something; measured in cm3, dm3 or m3
H1   variable             something that changes e.g. time, height
H2   valid data           evidence that is both reliable and relevant to the question being studied
H4   vary                 change
     W
     X
     Y
     Z

				
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