H2112 Fall 2011 Exam 3 Study Guide by wanghonghx


History 2112: US since 1890
Fall 2011
Exam 3 Study Guide (chapters 27-29)

Please be sure that you fully understand each of these terms and can make connections between terms.

              Origins of the Cold War
   A. Rivals
      1. United States – determined to avoid isolationism
      2. USSR – determined to establish sphere of influence
   B. Roots of “Containment”
      1. “Long Telegram” (February, 1946)
         a. Who wrote it?
         b. USSR was “not rational”
         c. Only US could “contain them”
      2. “Iron Curtain” speech (March, 1946)
         a. Who wrote it?
   C. Truman Doctrine
      1. Background
         a. Truman’s worldview
             1). Lack of experience
             2). Black-and-white
         b. Greece and Turkey situations
             1). Threat of communism
             2). Strategic importance
         c. Unveiling of plan
             1). Used “freedom” 24 times in 18-minute speech
      2. Themes and significance
         a. Presidential embrace of containment policy
         b. Division of world between “free,” or non-communist, and “communist”
         c. America’s ongoing mission to lead and defend the “free” world
      3. Impact on popular American conception of postwar world
      4. Broad bipartisan support
      5. Implementation
         a. Aid to anticommunist regimes
         b. Forging of global military alliances
         c. Founding of new national security organizations, which were immune from civilian oversight
             1). Atomic Energy Commission
             2). National Security Council
             3). Central Intelligence Agency
   D. Marshall Plan
      1. Finance European economic recovery
      2. Underlying motivations
         a. Containment
         b. Pro-capitalism
         c. New Deal for Europe
      3. Succesful!
   E. Japanese Reconstruction
      1. Led by Gen. Douglas MacArthur
     2. See, Marshall Plan
     3. Successful
F.   Berlin Crisis
     1. Soviets block access to Berlin
     2. Berlin airlift
G.   Escalation of Cold War
     1. Soviet acquisition of atomic bomb (1949)
     2. Establishment of NATO (1949)
        a. What was it?
        b. Who was in it?
     3. Establishment of the Warsaw Pact (1955)
        a. What was it?
        b. Who was in it?
     4. Communist revolution in China
        a. Who led it?
        b. Was it successful
        c. How did it affect U.S. politics?
     5. NSC-68
        a. Defined cold war as struggle between the ideas of “freedom” and “slavery”
        b. Established the permanent military industrial complex
            1). What was the PMIC?
H.   Korean War
     1. Postwar division of Korea
        a. Communist in North
        b. Anticommunist in South
     2. North Korean invasion of South in June, 1950
     3. U.S. response
        a. Perception of cold war test
        b. United Nations authorization
     4. Inchon (September, 1950)
        a. Led by whom?
        b. Results?
     5. Intervention by which nation?
        a. What was the response by the U.S. general and what was the overall narrative of this thread of
     6. Stalemate
     7. Aftermath
        a. 33,000 U.S. deaths
        b. 1 million Korean soldiers and 2 million Korean civilians killed
     8. Armistice (June, 1953)
I.   Concerns raised by the cold war
     1. Simplistic east-west dichotomy
     2. Inability to see foreign situations on case-by-case basis
     3. Continual foreign intervention
     4. Tendency to side with undemocratic regimes
     5. Aversion to colonial independence
            Truman Presidency
A.   What was Truman’s domestic program called?
     1. Aims
        a. Revival of New Deal
      b. Improve social safety net and standard of living
   2. Goals
      a. Increase minimum wage
      b. Enact national health insurance
      c. Expand public housing, Social Security, and education funding
   3. Results?
B. Steps toward Civil Rights
   1. Race in wartime America
      a. On the homefront
           1). “Great Migration”
           2). Lynching
      b. In the military
           1). 1 million served
           2). Racial practices in the military
               a). What types of jobs were blacks in the military assigned?
               b). Limited GI Bill
               c). Discrimination
   2. Broadening opposition to racial inequality
      a. Black-Jewish collaboration
      b. Organized labor
      c. In government
           1). Federal pay
           2). Supreme Court: Smith v Allright (1944)
           3). Integration of armed forces
               a). Which Executive Order?
      d. Landmark publications
           1). What the Negro Wants
               a). What was this?
               b). What did “negroes” want?
           2). One World
               a). Who wrote this?
               b). What was it about?
           3). An American Dilemma
               a). Who wrote this?
               b). What was it about?
   3. Movements toward Civil Rights
      a. Anti-discrimination measures
      b. Vitality of civil rights coalition
      c. Growing anger over lynching
      d. Integration of Major League Baseball
           1). By whom?
           2). Why important?
      e. To Secure These Rights
           1). What was this?
           2). What did it call for?
      f. Truman’s civil rights initiatives
           1). Content
               a). Permanent civil rights commission
               b). Federal anti-lynching law
               c). Equal access to employment and education
            2). Results?
            3). Motivations
                a). Personal sentiments
                b). Cold war implications
                c). Political strategy
C.   Election of 1948
     1. Who were the candidates for each party?
     2. What were the issues?
     3. What were the results?
            Anti-communist crusade
A.   Wide-ranging impact of cold war on American life
     1. PMIC
     2. Federal projects
        a. Weapons development
        b. Military bases
        c. Higher education
        d. Interstate highway system
     3. Culture of secrecy and dishonesty
        a. Examples?
     4. Revised immigration policy
        a. Examples?
     5. Dismantling of segregation
        a. How are the two connected?
     6. Assault on the right to dissent
B.   Emergence of anti-communist crusade
     1. Truman’s loyalty review system (1947)
     2. HUAC
        a. What does it stand for?
        b. Who did they investigate in 1947?
        c. Who cooperated?
        d. What happened to those who refused?
     3. Legal cases
        a. Alger Hiss
            1). State Department official accused of being a spy
            2). Who accused him?
            3). Who prosecuted him?
            4). What was he convicted of?
        b. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
            1). Tried for passing atomic secrets to the USSR
            2). Were they guilty?
            3). What was their punishment?
        c. Importance
            1). What was important about these cases?
C.   McCarthyism
     1. McCarthy
        a. Background?
     2. Senate hearings
        a. Wild allegations regarding disloyalty, communist presence
     3. Downfall
        a. Army-McCarthy hearings
     4. What is McCarthyism?
D.   Breadth of anti-communist crusade around US
     1. Local initiatives
        a. Investigative committees
        b. “Red squads”
        c. Legislation
        d. Loyalty oaths
     2. Initiatives of private organizations
     3. Ideological cleansing of public libraries and universities
     4. Acquiescence of judiciary: Dennis v US
             Trends in post-war economy
A.   “Golden Age” of American capitalism
B.   GNP doubled during the 1950s
C.   60% enjoyed middle class living
D.   Poverty fell from 30% to 22% during the 1950s
E.   What were some new innovations of the 1950s?
A.   Rise of
     1. Residential construction was the main engine of economic growth
     2. Levittown
        a. Who built it?
        b. Where?
        c. Significance?
B.   Consumer culture
     1. Television
        a. Presentation of middle class life
        b. Widespread use
        c. Source of entertainment and information
        d. Common cultural experience
     2. Automobile
        a. Pivot on which suburban life revolved
        b. Widespread use
        c. What was the overall impact of the auto on the economy?
C.   Female sphere
     1. Increased numbers in the workforce
     2. Limited aims
     3. Ideal of male breadwinner
     4. Women earned 60% of equivalent male salary
     5. Affirmation of family ideal
        a. Younger marriage age
        b. Fewer divorces
        c. Baby boom
        d. And the Cold War?
D.   Exclusion of blacks
     1. Racial wall between city and suburbs
     2. Sources and mechanisms
        a. Neighborhood covenants
        b. Federal government
        c. Banks and developers
        d. Residents
     3. Resulting patterns
         a. Housing Act (1949)
         b. Private contractors
E.   Mass society and its critics
     1. Conformity
     2. Critics
         a. Hans Morgenthau
         b. C. Wright Mills
         c. David Riesman
         d. John Kenneth Galbraith
         e. William Whyte
F.   Cultural Rebels
     1. Themes
         a. Alienation from middle-class conformity
         b. Sexual provocativeness; rock and roll
     2. Examples
         a. Leather jackets, rock and roll, sex
         b. Catcher in the Rye
         c. Rebel without a Cause
         d. Elvis!
     3. Mainstream reaction to
         a. “Juvenile delinquency” panic
         b. Self-censorship in Hollywood and among publishing houses
             Eisenhower Era
A.   Election of 1952
     1. Republican ticket
         a. Dwight Eisenhower
             1). Background?
             2). Organization man
         b. Richard Nixon
             1). Political rise?
             2). Reputation?
             3). Forgotten man?
             4). Conservative triumph of the 1970s and 1980s
     2. “Checkers Speech”
     3. Eisenhower victory
B.   Ike’s domestic policy
     1. Modern Republicanism
         a. Pro-business administration
         b. Fiscal and budgetary conservatism
         c. Social moderate
         d. What were Ike’s thoughts concerning Social Security?
     2. Use of government to spur productivity and employment
         a. Interstate highway system
         b. National Defense Education Act
             1). What was it?
C.   Ebb and flow of U.S.-Soviet tensions
     1. Background
         a. Korean War armistice (June, 1953)
         b. Acquisition of hydrogen bomb
         1). U.S.?
         2). Soviets?
      c. Doctrine of “massive retaliation”
         1). Who authored it?
         2). What did it mean?
         3). How did critics refer to it?
         4). What was its legacy?
   2. Coming together
      a. Korean War armistice
      b. Death of Stalin
         1). Succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev
      c. Geneva Summit (1955)
         1). What was it?
   3. Moving apart
      a. Hungarian crisis (1956)
   4. Coming together
      a. Halt of weapons testing (1958-1961)
      b. Khrushchev tours America (1959)
   5. Moving apart
      a. U-2 incident (1960)
         1). What was it?
D. The Cold War and the Third World
   1. What was the First, Second and Third World?
   2. Emergence of Third World
      a. Bangung Conference (1955)
         1). What was it?
   3. Decolonization
      a. Independence achieved
         1). India, Pakistan (1947)
         2). Ghana (1957)
      b. Decolonization created power vacuum
         1). What does this mean?
         2). India’s Jawaharlal Nehru and Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah
             a). Socialism
   4. Cold War as determinant of U.S. alliances / interventions
      a. Containment policy easily slid over into opposition to any government which threatened U.S.
         strategic / economic interests
         1). Jacobo Arbenz Guzman – Guatemala
         2). Mohammed Mossadegh – Iran
         3). CIA intervention
             a). Why?
      b. Extension of containment to Middle East
         1). Suez Crisis (1956)
             a). Gamal Abdel Nasser
                 1). Who was he?
                 2). What did he do?
             b). Eisenhower Doctrine
                 1). What was this?
      c. Vietnam
         1). Ho Chi Minh’s nationalists versus French
             2). U.S. intervention on behalf of French
             3). Geneva Agreement (1954)
             4). U.S. support of Ngo Dinh Diem
             5). Civil War
             Emergence of Civil Rights Movement
A.   Preconditions
     1. World War II
     2. Cold War
     3. Great Migration
B.   Legal assault on segregation
     1. Brown v Board of Education (1954)
         a. Brown combined 5 cases from around U.S.
         b. NAACP legal argument
             1). Thurgood Marshall
             2). Challenged separate but equal doctrine emphasizing subversion of black self-esteem
         c. Decision
             1). Earl Warren
         d. Importance of decision?
     2. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)
         a. Rosa Parks and Jo Ann Robinson
         b. Busses, arrest, and boycott
         c. Emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr.
         d. Decision
         e. Significance?
C.   King’s leadership
     1. Themes
         a. Merging of black cause and experience with those of nation
         b. Nonviolence, civil disobedience, Christian love, forgiveness
         c. Cold War
         d. SCLC
             1). What was this?
D.   Southern intransigence
     1. Forms of
         a. Southern Manifesto
         b. Anti-desegregation laws
         c. Banning of NAACP
         d. Revival of Confederate flag (Georgia, 1956)
E.   Little Rock Crisis
     1. Governor Orville Faubus
     2. Eisenhower’s response
             Toward the Sixties
A.   Election of 1960
     1. Richard Nixon
     2. John F. Kennedy
         a. Background
         b. Lyndon Johnson
         c. Catholicism
         d. Cold warrior
         e. Glamorous
     3. Nixon-Kennedy debate
     4. Result
            Escalation of civil rights movement
A.   High Points
     1. Sit-in campaigns (1960)
        a. Where?
        b. Why?
        c. Led by?
        d. By whom?
        e. Response by Southerners?
     2. Freedom Rides
        a. By whom?
        b. Purpose?
        c. Response by Southerners?
     3. James Meredith
        a. Ole Miss
        b. Ross Barnett
        c. JFKs response
     4. Birmingham!!!
        a. Why?
        b. MLKs “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
        c. Black school children
        d. Bull Connor
        e. Impact on:
            1). Public opinion
            2). JFK
     5. KKK
     6. George Wallace and the Crimson Tide
     7. Medgar Evers
     8. Birmingham, part deux
B.   Themes and characteristics
     1. Growing involvement of college students
     2. Empowerment of blacks
     3. Commitment to nonviolence
C.   March on Washington (August, 1963)
     1. A. Philip Randolph
     2. 250,000 participated
     3. Peak of nonviolent movement
     4. Demands
     5. “I Have a Dream”
     6. John Lewis
            JFK Presidency
A.   Image
B.   Inaugural Address
C.   JFK and the world
     1. Cold War initiatives
        a. Peace Corps
        b. Space race
        c. Alliance for Progress
        d. CIA and the Third World
     2. Bay of Pigs (April, 1961)
        a. Fidel Castro
        b. Eisenhower and Kennedy
        c. Results
        d. “Operation Mongoose”
     3. Cuban Missile Crisis (October, 1962)
        a. Nuclear missiles
        b. Kennedy, Castro, and Khrushchev
        c. Nuclear war?
        d. Resolution
     4. JFK and Civil Rights
        a. Early policy
        b. Birmingham
D.   Assassination
     1. Lee Harvey Oswald
     2. Jack Ruby
     3. Lyndon Johnson
            The Johnson Presidency
A.   LBJ
     1. Background
     2. New Dealer
B.   Civil Rights!!!!!!!!!!
     1. Civil Rights Act of 1964
        a. Provisions
     2. Southern voter registration drive
        a. Led by whom?
        b. Reception in South?
C.   Voting Rights Act of 1965
     1. King and Selma
     2. Provisions
     3. 24th Amendment
D.   1964 Election
     1. Johnson v. Barry Goldwater
     2. Emergency of Sixties conservatism
        a. Young Americans for Freedom
            1). Who were they?
            2). What were their beliefs?
        b. New conservative constituencies
            1). Where?
E.   The Great Society!!!
     1. Goals and philosophies
     2. Key measures
     3. War on poverty
        a. Michael Harrington’s The Other America
        b. Key measures
        c. Achievements
        d. Limitations
            Evolution of black movement
A.   Emerging challenges to Civil Rights Movement
     1. National obligation fulfilled
     2. Reality
         a. Ghetto uprisings
         b. Kerner Study
B.   Growing attention to economic issues
     1. King’s “Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged”
     2. Freedom Budget
     3. King’s Chicago Freedom Movement (1965)
C.   Malcolm X
     1. Background
     2. Teachings
     3. Assassination
     4. Legacy
D.   Black Power
     1. Stokely Carmichael
     2. Meaning of
     3. Role in wider spirit of black self-assertion
     4. Black Panther Party
         a. Huey Newton and Bobby Seale
         b. Demands
         c. Programs
         d. Demise
            1). Fred Hampton
            Birth of the New Left
A.   Where?
B.   By whom?
C.   Ideology?
D.   Visions and inspirations
E.   Key moments
F.   SDS
     1. Port Huron Statement
G.   Free Speech Movement
            War in Vietnam
A.   Pre-LBJ
     1. Outlook of policymakers
         a. Cold War assumptions
         b. Ignorance of Vietnamese culture and history
         c. China?
     2. Key developments
         a. Defeat of French and Geneva Accords (1954)
         b. Ngo Dinh Diem
         c. Deployment of “advisors”
         d. Assassination of Diem
B.   Johnson’s War
     1. LBJs philosophy
     2. Escalation
         a. Gulf of Tonkin (August, 1964)
         b. Operation Rolling Thunder (February, 1965)
         c. Increased magnitude of troops and bombing
     3. Brutality
     4. Lack of progress
C.   Domestic opposition
             Wider currents of dissent
A.   Counterculture
     1. Whom?
     2. Vision?
     3. Symbols and manifestations
B.   Reawakening of feminism
     1. Betty Friedan
     2. Equal rights
     3. Rise of women’s liberation
C.   Gay liberation
     1. Stonewall
D.   Latino activism
     1. Cesar Chavez
E.   Indian militancy
     1. Background
     2. American Indian Movement
             Rights revolution and the Supreme Court
A.   Earl Warren
B.   Reaffirmation of civil liberties
     1. Undoing of McCarthyism
     2. Imposition of Bill of Rights protections on states
         a. Miranda v Arizona
C.   Reinforcement of separation of church and state
D.   Establishment of right to privacy
     1. Griswold v Connecticut
     2. Roe v Wade
A.   Momentous events around U.S.
     1. Tet Offensive
     2. Eugene McCarthy
     3. LBJ withdraws
     4. Assassinations
         a. MLK
         b. RFK
     5. Democratic National Convention
B.   Momentous events around world
     1. France
     2. Czechoslovakia
     3. Mexico City
C.   Richard Nixon’s comeback


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