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Sport in the 20th century Gentlemen players and public schools set sporting precedents in 1900 Working class sports tended to be ones that were cheap or one’s that ££ could be made (boxing) Q: Which sports do you think would have been off limits for working class people and why? Football 1919-51 • Popular in 1920s with 6 million going to premier league annually. • Cardiff won the F.A cup in ’27. No Welsh club won since • Attendance hit hard during the depression of the 30s but recovered near the end of decade and promoted by radio and tv (the latter just having been invented) ‘White Horse’ FA Cup final 1923 attended by 250,000 to see Bolton (Wembley only held 100,000!) The modern game • Up until the 1960’s, players had a maximum wage but some players (led by Jimmy Hill the commentator who played for Fulham) started a campaign to abolish it. After this, wages shot up and so did transfers etc • TV coverage of the game really took off from the 1970s with Match of the Day • Sponsorship has increased dramatically in recent years Boxing and Cricket • Both popular from 1920 but cricket more spectated by w/class than participated. The famous period was the Ashes series of the 1930s called the ‘bodyline tour’. • Many w/class men boxed but this was hard and poorly paid in Britain. The American fight game more lucrative and in the 30’s a Welsh heavyweight took Joe Louis a full 12 rounds Tommy Farr and Joe Louis English captain Douglas Jardine ordered his bowlers to bowl at the Australian batsmens’ bodies controversially Rugby • Always popular in Wales but ran into problems due to arguments about whether men should be paid when missing work for the sport. Consequently, professional Rugby League developed and took many good union players from Wales particularly during the depression (1930s) Lawn Tennis • Grew as a result of the growth of the middle classes and city suburbs between 1920 and 1960. By the 30s, 3000 clubs were affiliated. • The growth of parks after WWII was usually accompanied by the establishment of hard tennis courts. Bazza! The Olympics • The modern games were founded by a Frenchman ‘Baron de Coubertin’ in 1896. It’s worth knowing; a) What the games are meant to achieve b) Key or milestone games Eg Berlin 1936 c) Issues surrounding the games in the last 30 years (drugs, competition to get them etc) 1924 Olympics. Paris. • Famous for the athletes that became characters in Chariots of Fire • Also, the swimmer Johnny Weismuller who became Tarzan in the original b&w films • First Olympics to have a purpose built stadium and village for athletes Berlin 1936 Hitler wanted the games to be a showcase for the supremacy of the Aryan race. Whoops! Jesse Owens The syllabus declares that you need knowledge of 4 particular sportsmen and women • Jonathan Davies • Len Hutton • John Charles • Tanni Grey Thompson Jonathan Davies Welsh rugby union captain who defected to league in ’88. This shocked the rugby world and by ’95 the game had given up it’s long established claims to amateurism Len Hutton One of England’s best batsmen and captained the national side to win the ashes back against Australia in the 50s. Most significantly however was the fact that he was one of the first cricket professionals and thus broke the established ‘gentleman amateurs’ convention of the game (thus opening it up to talented w/class men) Tanni Grey Thompson Tanni is Britain’s most successful woman disabled athlete. She won four gold medals at the ’92 Paralympics and another four at the World Championships in ’95. She was made an OBE in ’99. John Charles Youngest ever Welsh international at 17. Played for Leeds in 1950s as centre forward but most significant as first major player to be transferred continentally, to Juventus. Women in sport • Early views on this was that any participation was a) a novelty and b) largely concentrated on health and beauty rather than team sports. • This changed after 1960 with increased leisure time, feminism and independence. • Examples of women who paved the way for later female expression in sport: Billie Jean King. US tennis player who won Wimbledon 4 times during the 1960s Fanny Blankers- Koen (1948 Olympic Olga Korbutt of the multi-gold winner) USSR dominated gymnastics in Munich Olympics 1972 The influence of television and satellite • Has attracted big advertising ££ • Has enabled games to be watched from other parts of the world • Encouraged weekday fixtures in football • Has given marginal sports opportunity for exposure (snowboarding/sky- diving) Sponsor ship and professionalism • It happens, and it’s altered sport. You need to consider: a) How it’s altered sport b) Have examples ready off the relationship between business and sport.
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