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Sport WJEC

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									Sport in the 20th century
Gentlemen players and public schools set
      sporting precedents in 1900
Working class sports tended to be ones that were
 cheap or one’s that ££ could be made (boxing)




                      Q: Which sports do you think would
                      have been off limits for working class
                      people and why?
              Football 1919-51
• Popular in 1920s with 6
  million going to premier
  league annually.
• Cardiff won the F.A cup in
  ’27. No Welsh club won
  since
• Attendance hit hard
  during the depression of
  the 30s but recovered
  near the end of decade
  and promoted by radio
  and tv (the latter just
  having been invented)

                               ‘White Horse’ FA Cup final 1923 attended
                               by 250,000 to see Bolton (Wembley only
                               held 100,000!)
              The modern game
• Up until the 1960’s, players
  had a maximum wage but
  some players (led by Jimmy
  Hill the commentator who
  played for Fulham) started a
  campaign to abolish it. After
  this, wages shot up and so did
  transfers etc
• TV coverage of the game
  really took off from the 1970s
  with Match of the Day
• Sponsorship has increased
  dramatically in recent years
         Boxing and Cricket
• Both popular from 1920 but cricket more
  spectated by w/class than participated.
  The famous period was the Ashes series
  of the 1930s called the ‘bodyline tour’.
• Many w/class men boxed but this was
  hard and poorly paid in Britain. The
  American fight game more lucrative and in
  the 30’s a Welsh heavyweight took Joe
  Louis a full 12 rounds
Tommy Farr and Joe
Louis
                     English captain Douglas Jardine
                     ordered his bowlers to bowl at the
                     Australian batsmens’ bodies
                     controversially
                 Rugby
• Always popular in Wales but ran into
  problems due to arguments about whether
  men should be paid when missing work for
  the sport. Consequently, professional
  Rugby League developed and took many
  good union players from Wales particularly
  during the depression (1930s)
            Lawn Tennis
• Grew as a result of the growth of the
  middle classes and city suburbs between
  1920 and 1960. By the 30s, 3000 clubs
  were affiliated.
• The growth of parks after WWII was
  usually accompanied by the establishment
  of hard tennis courts.
                                Bazza!
            The Olympics
•  The modern games were founded by a
   Frenchman ‘Baron de Coubertin’ in 1896.
   It’s worth knowing;
a) What the games are meant to achieve
b) Key or milestone games Eg Berlin 1936
c) Issues surrounding the games in the last
   30 years (drugs, competition to get them
   etc)
      1924 Olympics. Paris.
• Famous for the athletes that became
  characters in Chariots of Fire
• Also, the swimmer Johnny Weismuller
  who became Tarzan in the original b&w
  films
• First Olympics to have a purpose built
  stadium and village for athletes
Berlin 1936
             Hitler wanted the games to
             be a showcase for the
             supremacy of the Aryan
             race. Whoops!




   Jesse Owens
The syllabus declares that you need knowledge of
        4 particular sportsmen and women

•   Jonathan Davies
•   Len Hutton
•   John Charles
•   Tanni Grey Thompson
Jonathan Davies




      Welsh rugby union captain who
      defected to league in ’88. This
      shocked the rugby world and by ’95
      the game had given up it’s long
      established claims to amateurism
Len Hutton
       One of England’s best
       batsmen and captained the
       national side to win the
       ashes back against Australia
       in the 50s. Most significantly
       however was the fact that he
       was one of the first cricket
       professionals and thus broke
       the established ‘gentleman
       amateurs’ convention of the
       game (thus opening it up to
       talented w/class men)
     Tanni Grey Thompson




Tanni is Britain’s most
successful woman disabled
athlete. She won four gold
medals at the ’92 Paralympics
and another four at the World
Championships in ’95. She
was made an OBE in ’99.
John Charles




   Youngest ever Welsh international at
   17. Played for Leeds in 1950s as
   centre forward but most significant
   as first major player to be
   transferred continentally, to
   Juventus.
           Women in sport
• Early views on this was that any
  participation was a) a novelty and b)
  largely concentrated on health and beauty
  rather than team sports.
• This changed after 1960 with increased
  leisure time, feminism and independence.
• Examples of women who paved the way
  for later female expression in sport:
                     Billie Jean King. US
                     tennis player who won
                     Wimbledon 4 times
                     during the 1960s
Fanny Blankers-
Koen
(1948 Olympic               Olga Korbutt of the
multi-gold winner)          USSR dominated
                            gymnastics in
                            Munich Olympics
                            1972
    The influence of television and
               satellite
• Has attracted big
  advertising ££
• Has enabled games to be
  watched from other parts
  of the world
• Encouraged weekday
  fixtures in football
• Has given marginal
  sports opportunity for
  exposure
  (snowboarding/sky-
  diving)
 Sponsor ship and professionalism
• It happens, and it’s altered sport. You
  need to consider:
  a) How it’s altered sport
  b) Have examples ready off the
  relationship between business and sport.

								
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