Slide 1 by N7UfW4


									Polar Communications & Weather (PCW)/
           PolarSat Mission

             Guennadi Kroupnik, CSA
  Second Workshop on Satellite Imaging of the Arctic
Gaps in Communications Coverage
Gaps in Meteorological Coverage 1/2
Gaps in Meteorological Coverage 2/2
• No operational satellite wind measurements beyond 55-60 deg latitude

• Experimental polar winds from MODIS (no replacement planned)

    – Product latency is problematic; 4 to 6 hours after real time
    – Image refresh rate problematic; 15 minutes is optimal, MODIS:
      ~100 minutes
    – No water vapor channel on NPOESS/VIIRS (until at least 2018)
        • Timetable for VIIRS in general is uncertain
    – Latitudinal coverage gap between MODIS and GEO winds

• => Need for “geostationary-type” imagery over high-latitude regions.
       Background on Molniya concept
• Russia:
 -Used extensively for communications and classified missions (more than 150
 - Mission including Earth observation planned for ~2015: “Arctika”
• United States
 - Concept for Earth observation first proposed by Kidder and Vonder Haar (1990)
 - NASA/Goddard proposed a mission in 2004-2005 under Earth Science Pathfinder
   Program. Main focus was on high latitude winds. Main payload was a 6-channel
   imager. Stopped at Phase A level.
• Canada
-   Several concepts of communication satellites in Molniya orbit were proposed
   by the Government and industries since 1978
 - CSA initiated a satcom/EO mission concept study in 2005
- Visit of Lars Peter Riishojgaard in 2006, presenting NASA concept , boosted
   even stronger interest at Canadian Space Agency and Environment Canada.
                      Dual Objectives
• Reliable communications in the high latitudes (North of 70º) to
    –Sustainable Development
    –Support to Northern Communities
    –Air and Marine Navigation
    –Arctic Science
• Provide high temporal/spatial resolution meteorological data
above 50º N in support of:
    –Numerical Weather Prediction (short to medium range)
    –Environmental monitoring, emergency response
    –Climate monitoring
                  User Requirements
• Provide 24/7 HDR communications services everywhere in the
• Provide continuous meteorological services and information for
  the entire circumpolar region, with the imagery data “refreshed”
  as frequently as practical (GOAL: 15 min) in order to:
    – Improve weather prediction accuracy by providing high quality data
      currently not available or available with insufficient spatial / temporal
    – Improve the monitoring and prediction of air quality variables
    – Improve the modeling of physical processes in the Arctic
    – Develop measures of climate change through high quality
      monitoring of key atmospheric and surface variables
• Improve observation and forecasting of space weather
• To have a proto-operational system in place by 2016 Lifetime of
  5 years (goal 7 years)
     Areas of Interest

                                   Meteorological Coverage
                                   Requirement (50ºN)

                                    Meteorological Coverage
                                    Goal (45ºN)

                                    Coverage Requirement

Meteo requirement pertains to the entire circumpolar domain
Mission Overview
                   2 satellites in 2 orbital
                   plains to provide
                   continuous GEO-like
                   imagery 50-90 N

                   0.5-1 km VIS
                   2 km IR

                   12-h period
                   63.4 deg. inclination
                   Apogee: ~39,500 km
                   Perigee: ~600 km
                   Mission Challenges
•   Harsh radiation environment

•   Continuously changing:
     –   Speed
     –   Altitude
     –   Sun angle
     –   Imaging geometry

•   Simultaneous pointing requirements for meteorological instrument,
    communication antennas and solar arrays

•   Location and large size of the coverage area

•   High (on a meteorological scale) spatial and temporal resolution and
    wide spectral range requirements for meteorological instrument

•   Operations of the constellation of satellites and satellite tracking and
    handover on the ground segment

•   Launch in the Molniya orbit
Preliminary Spacecraft Concept

                   Mass:              1319 kg
                   Power:             1233 W
                   Pointing Knowledge: 7.6 arcsec
                   Pointing Control:   55.1 arcsec
                   PCW Payloads
• Primary
   – 2-way HDR antenna/transponder sub-system (Ka)
   – Imaging Spectroradiometer (20 channels, 0.5-1 km VIS, 2
      km IR)
   – Space weather suit of instruments

• Secondary
   – Scientific instruments:
       • Broadband radiometer
       • Aurora Imager
       • Atmospheric composition instrument (UV-NIR)
       • Fourier Transform spectrometer (IR, similar to IASI)

    – Technology demonstration:
         • Software defined radio
         • V-band comms
  Mission Development Structure

                 Canadian Space Agency

     Users and Science Team
    Environment Canada (EC),
 Dept. of National Defense (DND),        Industrial Team
   Natural Resources Canada,
      Canadian Coast Guard,
 Transport Canada, NavCanada,
Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs,
           Gov. of Nunavut
      And other gov. agencies
              Phase A Overview
• Expected Main Outcomes:
   – Successful Preliminary SRR
   – Mission Requirements Document
   – System Requirements Document
   – Ground Segment Requirement Specification (update)
   – Spacecraft Requirement Specification (update)
   – Bus Requirement Specification
   – Payload Requirement Specification (update)
   – Mission Development Plan, including lifecycle cost
   – Government led studies to ensure mission merit
   – Treasury Board submission seeking phases B/C/D approval
   – Phases B/C/D procurement
                    Major Milestones
•   Phase 0 completed: September 2008
•   Phase A Approved: November 2008
•   Phase A contract awarded: July 2009
•   Phase A Major Milestones:
     –   Phase A kicked-off: July 2009
     –   Technology Readiness Assessment Review: September 2009
     –   Critical Technologies Development procurement: November 2009
     –   Mission Requirements Review: December 2009
     –   Preliminary System Requirements Review: March 2010
     –   Phase A contract close out: April 2010
•   Critical Technologies development contracts award: April 2010
•   Phase B/C/D approval: April 2010
•   Phase B/C/D contract award: February 2011
•   Launch of Satellite 1: August 2016
•   Launch of Satellite 2: November 2016
•   Beginning of operations: January 2017
PCW Operations
           Partnership Opportunities

• Extension of membership in the Users & Science Team to the
  international partner organizations during Phase A.
    – Bi-lateral agreements
    – WMO IGEOLAB Focus on HEO WG
    – Second Workshop on Satellite Imaging in the Arctic (September
      14-15, 2009)

• Joint Definition Study (Shall be completed before Phase B):
   – Via CSA: government and intergovernmental agencies
   – Via Prime Contractor: private/commercial entities

• Phase B and beyond: Partnership mission (International and/or
      Potential collaboration venues
•     Contribution to the U&ST:
    –     Refine observation requirements
    –     Identify new applications and products, e.g. from stereoscopy
    –     Ensure compatibility with GEO data
    –     Explore opportunities in the areas of overlap of GEO and HEO

•    Launch procurement

•    Spacecraft/payloads subsystems and/or critical components

•    Secondary meteorological, science or technology demonstration
     payload and it’s data processing

•     Ground segment:
    –     Back-up TT&C and data reception
    –     Data processing and applications
•    Other???
  International User Team Objectives
• Inform international user community of status of mission
  development (focus on meteorological and space weather payloads)

• Promote PCW met data use and integration with operational met
  applications around the world

• Explore areas for potential contributions from other countries
  (approved or proposed)

• Provide feedback on user requirements and comments on industry
   mission design
  International User Team Members
• Initial discussions have begun with NOAA/NASA, EUMETSAT/ESA
  and Finland

• Invitation to be sent by CSA, Environment Canada and Natural
  Resources Canada to partner agencies in nordic countries with
  potential interest in PCW

• Members to be designated by partner agencies in fall 2009

• Approximately 15-20 members expected
    International User Team Work
• Review proposed mission concept and user requirements

• Provide feedback

• Monitor progression of user requirements and mission
  definition throughout Phase A/UST Meetings

   • fall 2009
   • winter 2009
   • spring 2010
• PCW represents an exciting opportunity to close the gap in
  communication services and meteorological observation coverage in
  the Arctic

• PCW is open for international collaboration!

• Phase A is a perfect time to identify and explore potential venues for
  a mutually beneficial collaboration

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