Glossary by ajizai


									                                                Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
Accessibility                        A characteristic of technology that enables people with disabilities to use it.

Ajax                                 Asynchronous Javascript + XML. A set of technologies used to build Web 2.0
                                     applications that will work in any type of browser.
Analog                               A fluctuating electronic signal used for storing and transferring data. The
                                     continuous nature of analog signals makes it relatively difficult to store,
API                                  Application Programming Interface. A mechanism for programmers to
                                     make use of the functionality of a set of modules without having access to
                                     the source code.
Applet                               a small program within a program usually written in JAVA designed to
                                     perform a specific function.
Application                          A software program that allows a user to perform specific tasks like word
                                     processing, email, accounting, database management.
Architecture                         The layout or design of a hardware device or software program or the
                                     combination of the two. Open architecture refers to a system that
Artificial Intelligence              The range of technologies that allow computer systems to perform complex
                                     functions mirroring the workings of the human mind.
Asynchronous Learning                Learning where people are not online at the same time and interaction does
                                     not occur without a time delay, allowing people to participate on their
Audio Conferencing                   Voice-only connection between three or more locations.
Authoring tool                       A software application or program used by trainers and instructional
                                     designers to create e-learning courseware.
Avatar                               In online environments, a virtual digital image representing a person. In e-
                                     learning avatars usually represent the learners.
Bandwidth                            The capacity of a communication channel to carry information. The greater
                                     the bandwidth, the faster the data transfer. The amount of data sent or
                                     received over any given time is limited by bandwidth.
Blended Learning                     Combination of online and in-person learning activities, also known as
                                     hybrid education.
Blog                                 A simple webpage consisting of brief paragraphs of opinion, information,
                                     personal diary entries, or links, called posts, arranged chronologically with
                                     the most recent first, in the style of an online journal. Most blogs also allow
                                     visitors to add a comment below a blog entry.

Bookmarking                          A way for people to record (bookmark) web pages, and mark those records
                                     with significant words (tags) that describe the pages being recorded.

Bots                                 Software applications that run automated tasks over the Internet. Also
                                     known as web robots or WWW robots.
Broadband                            A transmission channel able to simultaneously carry multiple signals.

Browser                              Software for interacting with , accessing, and viewing information on the
                                     Internet or created in HTML. Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are
Chat                                 An online, real-time interactive communication method using text to send
                                     and receive instant messages

Instructional Design for eLearning                           1                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
Chat room                            An on-line facility that allows communication between learners using text.
                                     The messages are sent between learners in real-time as in a conversation
                                     but by typing on the computer rather than by talking.

Chunk                                A discrete portion of content, often consisting of several learning objects
                                     grouped together.
Cloud Computing                      Location independent computing, whereby shared servers provide
                                     resources, software, and data to computers and other devices on demand.

Cookie                               A small text file placed on your hard drive by a web site to record
                                     information about you. When you return, your computer serves up the
                                     "cookie" to the web site and previously recorded information such as your
                                     name, site login/password, and preferences.
Courseware                           Educational software that delivers course material and instruction via
Cyberbullying                        Repeated acts meant to harass, demean, intimidate, insult, defame,
                                     discriminate, or otherwise cause intentional harm to others in the online
Digital                              A discrete electronic signal used for storing and transferring data. The non-
                                     continuous nature of digital signals makes it relatively easy to store,
                                     manipulate, and transfer data. Digital signals are transmitted faster than
                                     analog signals.
Digital Divide                       The gap that exists between those who can afford technology and those
                                     who cannot.
Discussion board                     An on-line facility where e-learners involved in a learning program can post
                                     text messages for other users to read.
Discussion Forums                    A place where people can exchange messages of common interest.

Distance Education                   Education designed for delivery where students and instructors not in the
                                     same location.
Distance Learning                    Often used synonymously with Distance Education; distinct as an outcome
                                     of Distance Education.
Distributed Learning                 Often used synonymously with Distance Learning; distinct in that it is the
                                     outcome of education that combines a blend of online and traditional
                                     delivery methods.
Domain Name                          The permanent URL (absolute address) of a web site that is registered,
                                     copyrighted and safe from having anyone else use the same name.

Download                             A file transfer from one computer to yours.
E-Learning                           Learning that is accomplished over the Internet, a computer network, via CD-
                                     ROM, interactive TV, or satellite broadcast.
e-Portfolio                          An electronic collection of documents and other objects that support
                                     indivudal claims for what has been learned or achieved.
EPSS                                 Electronic Performance Support System. A computer application or series
                                     of applications that provides integrated information, tools, and
                                     methodology on demand at the moment of need. An electronic job aid.

Instructional Design for eLearning                          2                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
Facilitator                          An instructor who assists, directs, and stimulates the learning during an
                                     online course.
FAQ                                  Frequently Asked Questions. A list of common questions about a particular
                                     topic, product, or service directed primarily at new users.

File Server                          A computer that stores and manages files and software on a computer
Firewall                             Specialized hardware the capability of sharing information and other
                                     network, giving users or software designed to secure a computer or network
                                     from unauthorized access.
Folksonomy                           A collection of tags created by an individual for their own personal use.

FTP                                  File Transfer Protocol. An Internet protocol for transferring files between
                                     two computers. Most browsers incorporate FTP software to download and
GB                                   Gigabyte. A gigabyte is 1000 megabytes, or 1,073,741,824 characters and is
                                     roughly equivalent to a thousand novels.
GIF                                  Graphics Interchange Format is a type of graphic file designed to compress
                                     graphics used on the Internet, allowing them to load quickly.
GUI                                  Graphical User Interface. A computer interface that presents informatio in a
                                     user-friendly ways using pictures and icons.
Home page                            The opening page or main document that appears when you visit a web site,
                                     usually contains links to other web pages.
Host                                 A computer system on a network that distributes and receives information
                                     from other computers.
Hot spots                            Areas on e-learning screens that provide dynamic links to other media, such
                                     as audio, video, or graphics files, or that are liked electronically to other
                                     websites or pages on the Internet.
HTML                                 Hypertext Markup Language. Computer code used to structure text and
HTTP                                 Hypertext viewing Protocol. An Internet application protocol used for
                                     images forTransfer with a browser.
                                     exchanging information over the world wide web.
Hybrid Education                     A blend of online and on-campus education shown to be a more effective
                                     than either method of education alone.
Hypertext                            Highlighted text in a web page that links the user to additional related
Interactive multimedia               Allows two-way interaction with multimedia course material, another
                                     computer, or another user with direct response to the input, as opposed to
                                     one-way communication from TV, video, and other non-responsive media.
                                     Interactive attributes commonly include data or text entry, mouse input,
                                     touch screens, voice commands, video capture, and real-time interaction.

Internet                             The global network of regional and local computer networks.

Interoperability                     The ability of hardware or software components to work together
Intranet                             An internal computer network owned by a company or organization and
                                     accessible only to designated staff.
ISDN                                 Integrated digital services network. A telecommunications line that is able
                                     to carry data, voice, and video simultaneously.

Instructional Design for eLearning                          3                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                 Definition
Java                                 An object-oriented programming language. Java isn't dependent on specific
                                     hardware and can be launched from within an HTML document or stand-
Java Script                          A scripting language that's simpler than Java and can add interactivity to
                                     Webpages. JavaScript commands allow tasks to be completed by the Web
                                     browser when a user views a Webpage. (For example, making a graphic
                                     change when a user moves the cursor over it.)

JPEG                                 A popular file format for storing bitmap images. JPEG images are widely
                                     used on the World Wide Web because the format allows for easy file
                                     compression with minimal image distortion.
Knowledge Management                 The collection, organization, analysis, and sharing of information held by
                                     workers and groups within an organization.
LAN                                  Local Area Network. A group of networked computers in relative proximity
                                     to one another that allows users to communicate and share information
                                     and other devices such as file servers, printers, and modems.

LCMS                                 Learning Content Management System. A software application (or set of
                                     applications) that manages the creation, storage, use, and reuse of learning
                                     content. LCMSs often store content in granular forms such as learning
Learning object                      A reusable, program-independent chunk of information used as a building
                                     block for e-learning content.
Learning Object                      A reusable, media-independent collection of information used as a modular
                                     building block for e-learning content. Learning objects are most effective
                                     when organized by a meta data classification system and stored in a data
                                     repository such as an LCMS.
Link                                 Hypertext that is usually underlined to indicate a pointer to additional
                                     related information.
Listserv                             An automatic email service that users subscribe to in order to receive future
                                     mailings. Users must be a member of the list to receive mail, and can
                                     choose to unsubscribe at any time.
LMS                                   A Learning Management System is a software application for the
                                     administration, documentation, tracking, and reporting of training
                                     programs, classroom and online events, e-learning programs, and training
Log in/on                            The act of providing a user name and password to gain access to another
                                     computer, application, web site, or file.
Log off/out                          The act of disconnecting from another computer, application, web site, or
Lurking                              Reading the postings in a discussion forum or on a listserv but not
                                     contributing to the discussion.
Mash-ups                             Web services that pull together data from different sources to create a new
Metatag                              An HTML code line that identifies the contents of the web page to search
                                     engine indexes.

Instructional Design for eLearning                          4                             CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
Modem                                A device that converts digital signals to analog for transmission, and analog
                                     signals back to digital upon reception.
Moodle                               A free open source software content managment system designed to help
                                     create effective online learning communities.
MP3                                  A format for music file compression that enables users to download music
                                     over the Internet.
MPEG                                 A high-quality video file format that uses compression to keep file sizes
                                     relatively small.
Multicasting                         An audio, video, email, or application broadcast over the web, from one
                                     computer to many.
Multimedia                           The combination of text, graphics, audio, colors to create used to present
                                     information in an engaging and dynamic way.
Netiquette                           Etiquette on the Internet, best used when sending email, chatting, posting
                                     messages, and using limited resources.
Network                              A group of computers and peripheral devices (like printers and modems)
                                     connected to allow users to communicate and share information and
Newsgroup                            An information exchange forum where notes about a particular topic are
                                     posted and shared.
Onground                             A traditional classroom instructional setting.
Online                               Connected to the Internet or another computer.
Online learning                      An umbrella term used to describe any education or training that occurs
Open Source                          Intellectual property, especially computer source code, that is available to
                                     the general public for use and/or modification from its original design free
                                     of charge.
Page turner                          A derogatory term for e-learning that offers little to no graphics or
                                     interaction, instead comprising mainly pages of text.
PIMS                                 A personal information manager is an application software that functions as
                                     a personal organizer that can facilitate the recording, tracking, and
                                     management of certain types of personal information.

PKZIP                                A popular free file compression program
Plug and Play                        The ability of a personal computer's operating system to recognize and
                                     install--with little to no intervention by the user--new peripheral devices
                                     that are added to the computer. Also spelled plug-n-play or plug 'n' play.

Plug-in                              Software programs that enhance your browser and allow it to perform
                                     additional tasks such as playing audio, displaying video, and viewing
                                     documents as an integrated function of the browser.
PNG                                  Portable Network Graphicsis a file format similar to GIF that en-codes
                                     images as bitmaps.
Podcast                              A series of digital-media files which are distributed over the Internet using
                                     syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and computers.
                                     The term podcast, like broadcast, can refer either to the series of content
                                     itself or to the method by which it is syndicated; the latter is also called
Instructional Design for eLearning                           5                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                                Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
Pop-Up Menu                          a group of options or selections offered to a user that appears as a result of
                                     pressing a special function key, clicking a button with the mouse. It can also
                                     refer to any number of menu or toolbars either in an application or on a
                                     Web page.
Portal                               Web site that is a major starting point or gateway to additional information
                                     on the Internet.
Post                                 Used as a noun for messages "posted" to Bulletin Boards, newsgroups,
                                     blogs, etc.
Pull Technology                      In reference to the Internet or other online services, the technology
                                     whereby people use software such as a Web browser to locate and "pull
                                     down" information for themselves.
Push Technology                      In reference to the Internet or other online services, the technology
                                     whereby information is sent directly to a user's computer.

PZP                                  A type of graphic file used to sotre images to be view and edited using a
                                     variety of graphic design programs
Real-time communication              Communication with little or no delay; synchronous interaction.
Rich content                         High quality course or web page material, often presented using advanced
                                     or sophisticated design techniques employed to emphasize the message or
RSS                                  A family of formats which allow users to find out about updates to the
                                     content of RSS-enabled websites, blogs or podcasts without actually having
                                     to go and visit the site. (RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site
SCORM                                An anachronym for Sharable Content Object Reference Model, which is a
                                     set of technical standards for e-learning software products.

Screen Reader                        Computer software that speaks text on the screen. Often used by
                                     individuals who are visually impaired.
Second Life                          A 3-D multi-user virtual enviornment.
Section 508                          The section of the 1998 Rehabilitation Act that states that all electronic and
                                     information technology procured, used, or developed by the federal
                                     government after June 25, 2001, must be accessible to people with
                                     disabilities. Affected technology includes hardware such as copiers, fax
                                     machines, telephones, and other electronic devices as well as application
                                     software and Websites.

Self-paced learning                  Learning that is done asynchronously, such as from CD-ROM or over the
                                     Internet without an instructor, where the user controls the flow of course
Semantic Search                      Applications that can improve search accuracy by understanding searcher's
                                     intent and the contextual meaning of terms as they appear in the
                                     searchable dataspace, whether on the Web or within a closed system, to
                                     generate more relevant results.
Server                               A computer with large storage capacity that serves out files, applications,
                                     and other resources.

Instructional Design for eLearning                           6                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
Simulations                          Interactive multimedia presentations designed to model real scenarios and
                                     which allow the user to participate and experience without risk.

SME                                  Subject Matter Expert. One who has demonstrated competency and
                                     mastery in a particular subject or topic.
Social Media                         Anything where users can participate, create and share content. Examples
                                     are bulletin boards, podcasts, blogs, wikis, as well as Facebook or Flickr.

Social networking                    Uses software to build online communities of people who share interests
                                     and activities or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities
                                     of others. Most services are primarily web-based and provide a collection of
                                     various ways for users to interact, such as chat, messaging, email, video,
                                     chat, file sharing, blogging, and discussion groups.

Software                             Computer programming code that provides a computer with instructions to
                                     perform specific tasks; a program or application.
Spam                                 Junk email that is sent, unsolicted and in bulk, to advertise products or
                                     services or publicize a message.
Spime                                A currently-theoretical object that can be tracked through space and time
                                     throughout the lifetime of the object.
Storyboard                           An outline of a multimedia project in which each page represents a screen
                                     to be designed and developed.
Streaming                            A technique where media (audio, video, or both) are downloaded to the
                                     user's computer in a continuous stream and played upon arrival.

Style sheets:                        In traditional print publishing and on the Web, style sheets specify how a
                                     document should appear, standardizing such elements as fonts, page layout
                                     and line spacing, repeated content, and so forth. Web style sheets help
                                     ensure consistency across Webpages, but HTML coding can also override
                                     the sheets in designated sections of the pages.

Synchronous learning                 Learning where people are online at the same time and interaction occurs
                                     without a time delay (real-time) and which requires them to attend at
                                     specific times.
System                               A set of interrelated parts, all of which work together toward a defined goal
                                     or purpose.
Teleconferencing                     Video or audio conferences conducted over telecommunications channels
                                     such as telephone lines, local area networks, and the Internet

Upload                               A file transfer from your computer to another.
URL                                  Stands for Uniform Resource Locator, the absolute address of a web page.

URL                                  Uniform Resource Locator. The address used to identify a page or file on
                                     the Internet.
Usability                            The measure of how effectively, efficiently, and easily a person can navigate
                                     an interface, find information on it, and achieve his or her goals.

Instructional Design for eLearning                          7                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                  Definition
User interface                       The components of a computer system that the operator uses to interact
                                     with the computer - the screen display, keyboard, mouse, touch controls,
Video Conferencing                   Live video and audio communication between three or more locations.

Virtual                              Not physical.
Virtual classroom                    The area where students and instructors interact online.
Virtual community                    Acommunity on the Internet where people share common interests; an
                                     online community.
Virtual Hosting                      A means by which a web site is hosted by another site. A virtually hosted
                                     web site has an address that includes the host's address as part of its URL.

WBT                                  Web-Based Training. Education or training delivered over the Internet and
                                     accessible using a browser. May incorporate the use of an instructor or
Web 1.0                              Pages grouped into websites that displayed "static" or "flat" data. Anyone
                                     could put up a site but you needed technical skills and pages were hard to
                                     change. Search helped you find the sites.
Web 2.0                              The use of Internet technology and web design to enhance information
                                     sharing and, most notably, collaboration among users. These concepts have
                                     led to the development and evolution of web-based communities and
                                     hosted services, such as social-networking sites, wikis, blogs.

Web conference                       A meeting of participants from disparate geographic locations that's held in
                                     a virtual environment on the World Wide Web, with communication taking
                                     place via text, audio, video, or a combination of those methods.

Web page                             An HTML file or document; part of a web site.
Web site                             A group of related web pages that includes a home page.
Webcast                              A broadcast of video signals that's digitized and streamed on the World
                                     Wide Web, and which may also be made available for download.

Webinar                              A small synchronous online learning event in which a presenter and
                                     audience members communicate via text chat or audio about concepts
                                     often illustrated via online slides and/or an electronic whiteboard. Webinars
                                     are often archived as well for asynchronous, on-demand access.

Wiki                                 A collaborative, Web-based site for sharing text and other resources that
                                     can be easily edited by anyone who is allowed access to it.

Wizard                               A mini-application that prompts a user through the steps of a particular
                                     computer-based action. The user provides necessary information as he or
                                     she proceeds through the wizard's screens, while the wizard completes the
                                     actual steps behind the scenes.
WWW                                  World Wide Web. As defined by the World Wide Web consortium, "The
                                     World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an
                                     embodiment of human knowledge."
Instructional Design for eLearning                          8                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education
                                               Elearning Glossary

                Term                                                 Definition
WYSIWYG                              Computer text and graphics that will print exactly as they appear on the
                                     screen or, What You See Is What You Get.

Zip file                             A file that has been reduced in size to allow faster transferring between
                                     computers, or to save storage space.

Instructional Design for eLearning                          9                              CSUS College Of Continuing Education

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