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DJing griping

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									 88.7 & 103.5 FM
  DJ HANDBOOK
your guide to fame, fortune, and fun on college radio
        WXDU is a non-profit part of the Duke University Union

                         December 3, 2011
2
                Important Numbers
              and Other Pertinent Info
     Duke Public Safety: 911
     Durham Police/Fire: 1-911
     Duke SafeRide: 684-SAFE (7233)
     Request Lines: 684-8870 and 684-8871
     Email requests: request@wxdu.org (or use the form on the website at the
      ―listen‖ page -- wxdu.org/listen/)
     Programming pager: 970-4616
     Engineering pager: 970-1310
     Office phone: 684-2957
     Fax number: 684-3260
     Mailing address: Box 90689, Durham, NC, 27708
     Physical address: 101 Bivins Building, East Campus
     WXDU web site: www.wxdu.org, wxdu.org, www.wxdu.duke.edu.
     WXDU DJSpace website: www.wxdu.org/djspace/ (ID and Password
      required)
     WXDU Email lists: 1) wxdu-internal@wxdu.org for internal discussions 2)
      wxdu-announce@wxdu.org for announcements by the board of directors.
     Contact Info for Board Members is in the Introduction section (DO NOT
      GIVE OUT).
     Contact Info for other DJs is on the DJ Space Website (DO NOT GIVE
      OUT).

    DO NOT GIVE OUT CONTACT INFORMATION/PERSONAL
INFORMATION TO CALLERS (unless it's another DJ or WXDU Board
                  member on the phone).

   If the caller is trying to reach a board member, then give the caller the office
number (684-2957) or direct them to the "People" page on the WXDU website
<http://www.wxdu.org/people/> which has public contact information for board
members.
   If it’s some complete stranger asking about a non-board member, take a
message and put it in the DJ’s box or drop them an email.
   If it’s some sort of emergency, call the DJ with the info of the caller.

                         Never give out info on DJs.


                                         3
                                          Table of Contents
Important Numbers and Other Pertinent Info ............................................................................................ 3
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................ 4
Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 7
  WXDU Board of Directors ..................................................................................................................... 7
Chapter 2: About the Station....................................................................................................................... 9
  Safety ...................................................................................................................................................... 9
  Parking .................................................................................................................................................... 9
  The Front Door and Card Access............................................................................................................ 9
  The Mailboxes ........................................................................................................................................ 9
  The Whiteboard .................................................................................................................................... 10
  The WXDU Lounge .............................................................................................................................. 10
  The Office ............................................................................................................................................. 10
  The Stairs (and the Listening Station) .................................................................................................. 10
  The Production Room ........................................................................................................................... 10
  The Library ........................................................................................................................................... 11
  The Master Control Room .................................................................................................................... 11
  The Email List....................................................................................................................................... 12
  DJ Space Website ................................................................................................................................. 12
  Outings and Fun!................................................................................................................................... 12
Chapter 3: The Rules ................................................................................................................................ 13
  DJ Etiquette........................................................................................................................................... 13
  Station Conduct..................................................................................................................................... 13
    Theft: ................................................................................................................................................. 13
    Borrowing ......................................................................................................................................... 13
    Absenteeism/Tardiness ..................................................................................................................... 13
    Guests ................................................................................................................................................ 14
    Drinking/Smoking............................................................................................................................. 14
    Keep the Place in Good Shape .......................................................................................................... 14
  Show Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 14
  Library Reshelving................................................................................................................................ 14
  On-Air Training .................................................................................................................................... 14
  Service Requirements ........................................................................................................................... 14
  Reporting Problems with Other DJs ..................................................................................................... 15
  Investigation, Probation, Suspension and Dismissal ............................................................................ 15
Chapter 4: The Unspeakable: Indecency/Obscenity ................................................................................. 16
  Limits & Laws ...................................................................................................................................... 16
    Whining and Griping ........................................................................................................................ 16
    Dissing Duke University ................................................................................................................... 17
    Inciting a Riot ................................................................................................................................... 17
    Drugs ................................................................................................................................................. 17
    Broadcasting Indecent and Obscene Material................................................................................... 17
  YOU ...................................................................................................................................................... 18
  Indecency and Obscenity: The Distinction in BIG LEGALESE .......................................................... 18
  Safe Harbor Period ................................................................................................................................ 19
  The Warning ......................................................................................................................................... 19
  Indecency: WXDU’s rules .................................................................................................................... 19

                                                                               4
  Obscenity: WXDU’s rules .................................................................................................................... 20
  Exceptions to WXDU’s Drug Content, or Obscenity and Indecency rules: ......................................... 20
  Penalties for playing proscribed music on the air: ................................................................................ 20
  Accidental Violations............................................................................................................................ 20
Chapter 5: Important Pieces of Paper ....................................................................................................... 21
  Operating Log ....................................................................................................................................... 21
    Signing In and Out ............................................................................................................................ 21
    EAS Monitoring ................................................................................................................................ 21
    Transmitter Readings ........................................................................................................................ 21
    Public Service Announcements ........................................................................................................ 22
    Legal IDs ........................................................................................................................................... 22
    Specific Show Requirements ............................................................................................................ 22
  Flowsheets............................................................................................................................................. 22
    Playlist Requirement ......................................................................................................................... 23
    How to Mark ..................................................................................................................................... 23
    Where to Find Them and What to Do with Them ............................................................................ 23
    You Get Them Back! ........................................................................................................................ 24
  Giveaways ............................................................................................................................................. 24
    Your Obligations ............................................................................................................................... 24
    Your Privileges ................................................................................................................................. 24
Chapter 6: DJing 101: The Essentials ....................................................................................................... 25
  Preparation ............................................................................................................................................ 25
  Those Important Pieces of Paper .......................................................................................................... 25
  The Shelf of Plenty ............................................................................................................................... 25
  Son of the Shelf of Plenty ..................................................................................................................... 26
  Talksets ................................................................................................................................................. 27
    Backsell ............................................................................................................................................. 27
    Frontsell ............................................................................................................................................ 27
    Background Music ............................................................................................................................ 27
    PSAs.................................................................................................................................................. 27
    Station ID .......................................................................................................................................... 28
    ArtLine and Concert Calendar .......................................................................................................... 28
  EAS Alerts and Tests ............................................................................................................................ 28
  Music Sets ............................................................................................................................................. 28
    Length ............................................................................................................................................... 28
    Structure ............................................................................................................................................ 28
  Requests ................................................................................................................................................ 28
  Surprises ................................................................................................................................................ 28
Chapter 7: DJing 102: How to be a "Good" DJ ........................................................................................ 29
  Scheduling Considerations.................................................................................................................... 29
  Programming and Music Staff Expectations ........................................................................................ 29
  Subbing ................................................................................................................................................. 30
    Your Responsibilities ........................................................................................................................ 30
    Emergencies & Circumstances ......................................................................................................... 30
    Hey I Want to Sub More ................................................................................................................... 30
  Mixing ................................................................................................................................................... 31
  Research for Variety & Growth ............................................................................................................ 31
  Tape Your Show ................................................................................................................................... 31
  Bottom Line .......................................................................................................................................... 32

                                                                              5
Chapter 8: Equipment ............................................................................................................................... 33
  The Mixing Board ................................................................................................................................. 33
  The CD Players ..................................................................................................................................... 40
  The Minidisc Players ............................................................................................................................ 41
  The Turntables ...................................................................................................................................... 41
  The Transmitter ..................................................................................................................................... 41
    Turning the Station/Transmitter ON ................................................................................................. 42
    Turning the Station/Transmitter OFF ............................................................................................... 42
  Emergency Alert System ...................................................................................................................... 43
    1) Daily Monitor Check .................................................................................................................... 43
    2) Weekly Transmitting Test ............................................................................................................ 43
    3) Weekly Receiving Test ................................................................................................................. 44
    4) Monthly Test................................................................................................................................. 44
    5) Incoming Alerts ............................................................................................................................ 44
    EAS Problems ................................................................................................................................... 45
  The Computer ....................................................................................................................................... 45
  The DJ Cam .......................................................................................................................................... 45
  Climate Control..................................................................................................................................... 45
  The Lightbulbs ...................................................................................................................................... 45
  The Telephone ...................................................................................................................................... 46
  The Microphones .................................................................................................................................. 46
Chapter 9: Frequently Asked Questions ................................................................................................... 47
  What should I do if someone wants to contact a DJ? ........................................................................... 47
  How do I get a specialty show? ............................................................................................................ 47
  Where can I find a Grid to apply for a shift? ........................................................................................ 47
  How do I fill out my Grid? ................................................................................................................... 47
  What should I do if the next DJ doesn’t show up? ............................................................................... 47
  Can I put on a long song or CD and leave the building? ...................................................................... 47
  Can I bring in music from home? ......................................................................................................... 47
  How do I go about getting a sub? ......................................................................................................... 48
  What if I’ve tried all of the above and have no luck? ........................................................................... 48
  What if The (FCC) Man shows up? ...................................................................................................... 48
  What if I want to have a guest on the show (such as a band member) for an interview? ..................... 48
  What if I want to have live music on my show? ................................................................................... 48
  What do I do if I’m having equipment problems? ................................................................................ 49
  What if the Computer, DJ Cam, Website or Email lists are giving me trouble? .................................. 49
  What if I have turn the station on or off? .............................................................................................. 49
Chapter 10: Duke Radio History............................................................................................................... 50
Chapter 11: Lingo! (the Glossary) ............................................................................................................ 53




                                                                            6
                                   Chapter 1:
                                  Introduction
     Welcome to WXDU, 88.7 FM and 103.5 FM, Duke University's radio station. This manual will
provide an introduction to the world of radio and how it works here at Duke. You should read this
manual carefully so that you not only understand how to be a DJ and what your responsibilities are as a
DJ, but so that you understand what the station is all about.
     WXDU is part of the Duke University Union, a collected network of campus organizations that
includes Cable 13, Major Attractions, Freewater Films, and others. As a member of the Union, the radio
station provides multiple services for the Duke and Durham communities. We air public service
announcements for non-profit organizations. We broadcast local sporting events and a weekly sports
show. Finally, we provide an opportunity for Duke students and local residents to learn about all
aspects of the radio media, from broadcasting to engineering. Most importantly, however, we educate
the surrounding community about what is new in music and expose listeners to different styles, genres,
and bands which are not heard on most other stations.
     Our Mission is Twofold: to Educate and to Entertain. We strive to educate both our listeners and
our DJs about music by exposing them to new forms of music and new artists. We strive to entertain
our listeners and ourselves by mixing the best selections together.
     Critics who say that the station should play "more mainstream" or "top 40" or "classic rock" music
like commercial stations misunderstand the purpose and value of WXDU. The station is not a slave to
ratings and demographics, and thus enjoys the benefit of not being forced to play only what is currently
most popular. Copying commercial radio stations would not only be "reinventing the wheel", but it
would be doing so with less money and experience. Our resources are better spent expanding our
listeners and our DJs' musical horizons and providing airplay for local bands and lesser known national
and international acts, whose musical talent and ingenuity deserve to be heard.
     Keep these ideas in mind as you read the rest of this manual. Being a part of WXDU should be a
rewarding and enjoyable experience. We encourage all DJs to explore, to do their shows as skillfully,
creatively, and responsibly as possible, and to partake in other aspects of the station such as concerts,
parties, and meetings. Study this manual, and you will be well on your way.


WXDU Board of Directors
     When DJs decide that they love 'XDU so much that they want to devote more time to it, they can
become members of the Board. The Board meets one night a week (as of Fall 2002, alternating
Wednesdays and Thursday at 6:45pm) in the station lounge; the meetings are open to all station
members and you are encouraged to attend. Sitting in on the meetings is a great way for new DJs to
learn about station issues, problems, and future plans, as well as a way to meet a large number of the
folks who work at the station.
     Applications for the WXDU board are accepted every Spring. Positions are as follows (more
detailed descriptions are available from the GM):
     General Manager / Duke Union Representative: In charge of the overall station
        operation. Runs board meetings, general body meetings. Administers the e-mail list and is in
        charge of Duke card access to the station. Also the best contact person if you don't know who
        else to contact about an issue. Kelly Quirk , 613-3067, kq3@duke.edu and Joe Franklin, 613-
        2374, jbf@duke.edu
     Programming Director for DJ Management: In charge of the schedule. Contact this
        person if you need to change your time slot. Also in charge of internal DJ related tasks. Becky
        Browning, 832-2336, progdir@www.wxdu.org or paper_airplane@hotmail.com
     Programming Director for On-Air Sound: In charge of keeping us compliant with the FCC
        and ensuring that we have a consistent on-air sound. Contact for questions about flowsheets and


                                                    7
    special broadcast decisions, such as the possibility of having a live band on your show. Jeff
    Herrick, 929-5728, progdir@www.wxdu.org or jherrick@duke.edu
   Music Director: Maintains contact with record labels. Decides which new albums go on the
    playlist. Calculates how often records are played. Aided by Assistant Music Directors. Matt Burr,
    MD, 493-4681, mhb3@duke.edu; Ann Lee, Asst. MD, theredstudio@tokyo.com; Alicia
    Korenman, Asst. MD, 403-1695/641-5298 flintywoman@hotmail.com; Dave Massung, Asst.
    MD, 416-0156 ghostworld@hotmail.com.
   Jazz Music Director: Supervises jazz shows and music, Phil Rubio, 382-0495,
    prubio@mindspring.com.
   Country, Bluegrass, and Folk (CBGF) Music Director: Supervises CBGF shows and
    music, Steve Gardner, 304-2693, steve@topsoil.net.
   World Music Director: Supervises World Music shows and music. Georg Patterson, WMD,
    384-0021 georg@nc.rr.com; Sylvia Pfeiffenberger, Latin MD, 286-7850, spike@duke.edu
   Urban Music Director: Supervises Urban Music shows and music. Shaw Hargett, 832-3524
    djburnrush@hotmail.com
   Training Director: Responsible for overseeing all aspects of DJ training, scheduling classes,
    and maintaining and updating DJ Handbook and training materials. Phillip Grosshans, 220-
    8772, phillipg@duke.edu
   Promotions Director: In charge of publicizing the station to Duke and the community. Does
    the concert planning and also internal events, such as our annual kickball game against WXYC
    and prom with WXYC. Neal Goldenberg, 493-7327, neg@duke.edu
   Giveaways Director: Responsible for concert and movie ticket giveaways, as well as other
    promotional giveaways. Maintains contact with local clubs and theaters concerning giveaways.
    Jennifer Fuller, 835-2727, jnnfuller@hotmail.com
   Production Director: Responsible for the creation and maintenance of minidisks and other
    aspects of recording. Aided by Assistant Production Directors. Greg Newby, 563-9947,
    gbnewby@ils.unc.edu
   Computing Director: In charge of the computer operations at the station, including the web
    site and the wxdu announce mailing list. Jason Sullivan, 854-9956, computing@www.wxdu.org,
    jsullivan@nc.rr.com
   Sports Director: Programs and supervises live sports broadcasts and sports shows. Vinny
    Asaro, 613-0320, vincent.asaro@duke.edu
   Business Manager: Manages all financial transactions, monitors WXDU's budget. Mike
    O'Donnell, 929-3880, modonnel@us.ibm.com
   Chief Engineer: Responsible for maintenance of technical hardware at the station. Jim Davis
    and Chuck Reisinger, 970-1310, creisinger@nc.rr.com
   Public Service Director: Creates and rotates public service announcements. Marty Smith,
    286-7760, m_k_smith@yahoo.com
   Record Librarian: Catalogues and shelves all of the station's new CDs and records (DJs are
    responsible for putting away their recordings during or after their shows). Rick Collier, 680-
    0605, rcoll@duke.edu




                                                8
                               Chapter 2:
                            About the Station
                          Getting to know your new friend, WXDU!
     It's entirely possible to spend your entire DJ career at WXDU just shambling in the front door, up
the stairs, directly into the control room, and out again without ever seeing another square inch of our
humble abode. Of course, this would be entirely missing the point. WXDU has a lot of nifty stuff
crammed into its hallowed halls, and you should take some time to get to know the place.

Safety
    First thing: Be Safe. While Duke's east campus is generally a safe place, never take that for granted,
especially during the evening/overnight shifts. Duke Safe Ride (684-SAFE) provides point to point
transportation during these shifts. Duke Public Safety (911) will escort you to your car or will quickly
respond to any situation. Durham Police/Fire Department can be reach by dialing 1-911.

Parking
     Do not park in the lot in front of the station on weekdays between 8 am and 4 pm. Duke Parking
will ticket you. At those times, you should park in the lot for the church, across the street on Markham
Ave (yes, we've confirmed that they don't mind). Or, park on the street on one of the side roads just
north of the station. The rest of the time, you may park in our lot.

The Front Door and Card Access
     Granted, this isn't the most exciting part of station, but there are a couple of things you need to
know. First off, the door is locked at all times to help prevent just anyone from walking in off the street
and helping themselves to CDs or whatnot. To get access to the building, all DJs are required to obtain
a Duke Card; just swipe it through the card reader to the right of the door to unlock the door.
     After you have completed training, we will arrange for you to have Card Access. We'll send your
name and an authorization to the Duke Card Office (Room 100 of the West Campus Union, 684-5800).
Call to confirm that your authorization is there and to find out the current hours that the office is open
(and, they can give you better directions / parking instruction than we can). Hand them $4, and you're
set. The General Manager handles all questions of card access, so contact her/him if you have any
problems.
     Second, there's the matter of who to let in. The short version is, if they aren't affiliated with XDU,
don't let 'em in! Who you can let in: New Trainees (they're not going to have card access); and Duke
maintenance and housekeeping; and delivery people. Use caution and discretion in letting anyone else.
Our DJs are supposed to have card access, so you shouldn't have to let them in. Occasionally, you'll
need to let another DJ in, but don't let them make a habit of it. Every DJ should be using their Duke
Card to enter the station.
     If you don't know who someone is and aren't comfortable about letting them in the station, you
don't have to. If someone is in the station that doesn't belong there, you have the authority to kick them
out. If you have any problems 911 will get you Duke Public Safety, and 1-911 will get you the Durham
Police. When in doubt, remember that, if you are signed in on the OpLog, anything that happens at the
station is your responsibility.

The Mailboxes
     As you walk into the station you will see a bunch of labeled boxes to your left. Every DJ with a
regular show will have a mailbox of their very own. If you have a mailbox, be sure to check it every once
in a while -- that's where you'll find old flowsheets, bulletins, flyers, and whatnot. You'll also see
mailboxes for all the WXDU board members: General Manager, Programming Directors, and the rest of


                                                     9
the fine folks who help keep the station going. If you need to get something to a board member, you can
just pop it in their box.

The Whiteboard
     Immediately in front of you as you walk into the station, you'll see a white mark and wipe board
that we use for important announcements. Always take a minute to read what's up there.

The WXDU Lounge
     To your right, you'll see the fabled WXDU Lounge. Feel free to kick back and sit a spell. The
couches are reasonably comfy, the sound baffling doubles as modern art, and it's generally a relaxing
place to be. And, if it's a Sunday afternoon, you just might find a local rock band asking you to get out
of the way while they set up as they prepare for our live local music show. Finally, you'll find the Coke
machine. In addition to distributing tasty caffeinated beverages (at 65 cents a pop, so to speak), this is
also where you can sometimes find scheduling line-ups or any other important announcements after
we've moved them off the whiteboard. The Coke machine also has a vicious reputation as a coin thief.
     Two regular events take place in the Lounge. On one night of the week (as of Fall 2002, alternating
Thursdays/Wednesday nights at 6pm), the board members have their weekly meeting. These meetings
are open to everyone involved with the station, so even if you're not on the board feel free to drop by
and hang out. And, on Sunday nights (usually around 7pm or so) the music staff gets together to go
through all the latest releases we've been sent in the past week. If you'd like to help review CDs, all you
have to do is just drop by, say hello, and dig right in. They'll appreciate the help.

The Office
     In the back of the Lounge you'll find the entrance to the office. Unless you're a board member,
there probably isn't much reason for you to be in there, but it's probably a good idea for you to know
where it is. If you find yourself in pursuit of a wily board member, you might stand a good chance of
finding one inside during the day. Or, you might not. They are easier to reach by phone and email. But,
again, the office number is 684-2957.

     Unless you need to stop by the bathroom, we've exhausted the possibilities the downstairs area has
to offer. So, moving right along:

The Stairs (and the Listening Station)
     Don't worry - there's nothing in particular you really need to know about the stairs. However, you
may want to stop on your way up to admire the Kraftwerk album covers. And, you'll defiantly want to
stop at the landing halfway up and admire the Sub Board, where you'll find folks either begging for a
sub or volunteering to be a sub. To be honest, most of this discussion happens on our email list (more
on that in a bit), but it's still a good resource to check out.
     Finally, at the top of the landing you'll find the Listening Station. Here you'll find a boombox and a
record player just waiting to be put to good use. If you're hanging out at the station and would like to
listen to something while another DJ is on the air, this is the place for you. Also, if you'd like to copy
something to cassette tape, the Listening Station does a dandy job.

The Production Room
     Turn left at the top of the stairs and the Production Room (PR) is the first thing you'll see. The
Production Room is used for Production (duh!). Inside you'll find a setup similar to that of the Master
Control Room (MCR), with a full control board, record players, MiniDisc (MD) players, CompactDisc
(CD) players -- the works, up to and including an old reel to reel machine and very-1990 digital sound
effects rack. In addition to producing legal IDs, minidiscs and whatnot, the PR is also used for DJ
Training and secret rituals. You'll notice that the room is secured with a combination lock. If you'd like
access to the PR, get in touch with the Production Director and s/he will hook you up. You'll also note


                                                    10
the sign-up sheet - to use the PR, be sure to sign up for the room in advance, for no more than two
hours at a time.

The Library
     Spread out across the second floor is the mighty WXDU record library. This is a resource that
should become your new best friend while you're at the station. Drop by sometime when you don't have
a show and just browse through it, looking for interesting stuff to check out at the Listening Station.
Stand among the stacks and bask in its healing glow. In short, make the Library an integral part of your
WXDU experience.
     Sections of the Library include:
             Pop/Rock
             Rock Compilations
             RPM (dance/electronic/techno/whatever)
             Urban (hip-hop/rap)
             New Age and Contemporary Classical
             Blues and R&B
             Country, Bluegrass, and Folk
             World Music in all it's glory: African, Brazilian, Latin, Asian, Reggae, Celtic, Fusion and
                more!
             Soundtrack and Comedy
             Jazz
             And the very extensive Vinyl collection subdivided into the same genres as the CDs. Our
                Jazz, Rock/Pop, and 7" single vinyl selections are quite impressive! World, Blues, CBGF,
                Soundtracks, RPM, and Urban vinyl are a bit sparse, but worth looking through.
     The best way to get know the layout of the library is by exploring -- just like every DJ before you
during the last 20 years. Pull out a CD or LP. Look at the label on it. It will indicate which Genre (Rock,
RPM, Jazz, etc…); that's the best way to get your bearings in the library.
     Also note the rather complex taping scheme. On the spine of each CD or LP, you'll find colored
tape that indicates the genre and the place in the alphabet of each piece of music. You'll find a key to
the color codes posted on several doors and walls in the station. While you don't have to memorize
them, the colors do make reshelving the music easier.

The Master Control Room
    Okay, so everyone just calls it the MCR. (Although, "Master Control Room," does have this
wonderful SciFi and/or S&M ring to it, doesn't it?) This is where our broadcasts originates and where
you'll be spending most of your time. Along with a good portion of the Rock CDs, there's quite a bit in
here:
    Station Documents and other Important Papers are up on the wall between the two windows.
    The Control Board -- This is where the magic happens.
    CD, MD and Record players, the Emergency Alert System (or EAS) station, and all the other
        equipment needed to run your show.
    The Shelf of Plenty!! It holds Playlist and other CDs. We'll spend a lot of time explaining this
        shelf and all its goodies in a later section.
    The Son of the Shelf of Plenty!!! It contains a copy of this Handbook, the Giveaways book, the
        Concert Box, and Station Minidiscs.
    The PSA Box is a little green box containing a bunch of index cards chock full of Public Service
        Announcements.
    The Phone and the Door/Phone light (that green bulb) are to the left of the board.
    To the right of the board is the MCR computer, currently an older machine running LINUX.
    The Counter -- a nice place to spread things out. In its shelves you'll find blank flowsheets and
        the local 7" vinyl singles.
    Since you'll be spending a lot of time in the MCR, here are a few things to keep in mind:

                                                    11
      Please don't touch anything if you don't know what it is. We really don't want to go off the air
       just because you were curious what this or that button would do.
      Don't try to open the window behind the CD players. Getting it closed again is a major pain in
       the butt.
      Keep the MCR clean. You'll find a trashcan and a recycling bin upstairs, so please put them to
       good use.
      Be sure to let people in the MCR know before you turn on the mic.
      Report any equipment problems to the station engineers (Jim and Chuck), either by paging
       them, sending them email, with the "Report Equipment Problems" form on the DJSpace
       Website.
      Don't crank up the monitor levels too high, since we don't want to annoy the rest of the folks
       who work in the Bivins Building.

     That's about it for the station itself. However, being a part of WXDU goes beyond just showing up
to the building:

The Email List
    WXDU maintains 2 email lists, and all new DJs are automatically subscribed to both lists. The
wxdu-internal@wxdu.org list is a general discussion list, used to find subs, to discuss station policies, to
gather ideas, and, our favorite, to advertise parties. Traffic on the list can occasionally get heavy,
therefore not all DJs remain subscribed. We maintain a second list wxdu-announce@wxdu.org to
distribute important information from the board of directors, such as the weekly board meeting
minutes. All DJs are required to be subscribed to the announce list. The Computing Director is the
contact for problems / questions about the email lists.

DJ Space Website
      DJSpace is a password protected web space for WXDU DJs to enjoy. There you'll find phone and
email contact info for all DJs, schedules, memos, a copy of the DJ Handbook, an archive of the email
list, and more. You can also report equipment problems online and, three times a year, have the
opportunity to submit an application (a "grid") for a show for the next semester.


Outings and Fun!
     One last thing - being a part of WXDU involves more than just showing up at the station once a
week to do your show. It also involves showing up in the field behind the station once a year to
challenge our friends at WXYC-Chapel Hill to a game of kickball. And, beyond that, there are all sorts
of other fun and exciting (okay - reasonably exciting) activities that go on. Roller disco, an annual
prom, the occasional bowling trip, 'XDU dance parties, and plenty of other parties are also a part of the
WXDU lifestyle. So, be sure to drop by, have a beer, and hang out or get down as the case may be.




                                                    12
                                      Chapter 3:
                                      The Rules
    Obviously, you know the general rules and courtesies of contemporary American culture, or else
you'd be 20 miles up the road in the Butner, NC Federal Penitentiary, right? We don't have to many
rules at WXDU: We ask that you be good to each other; keep the station in order; do some basic
paperwork; play the playlist; and obey the rules regarding indecency and obscenity. Because the FCC
and WXDU's Indecency/Obscenity policies tend to be confusing to new DJs, we've devoted an entire
chapter to them, "The Unspeakable," which follows this short chapter. Most of the other rules are
common sense or a matter of learning the paperwork/playlist requirements which are discussed in
detail in the "Important Pieces of Paper" chapter.


DJ Etiquette
    To ease the transitions between shows, please always follow these common courtesies:
        Show up on time for your shift, at least a few minutes early.
        Some DJs come in well before their shifts begin, usually to pull music. While this is
          encouraged, please make sure that you are not disturbing the DJ currently on air.
        Be prepared to start your show on time; some DJs need to leave immediately after their shift
          to make it to class or work.
        End your show on time; putting on a long song that cuts into the next DJs shift is generally
          regarded as rude; So, if it's 1:58 p.m., and you shift ends at 2:00 p.m., choose a 2 minute
          song, not a 5 minute song, with which to end.
        Clean up and reshelve CDs during your show; at the very least complete your paperwork and
          set aside all of your CDs for reshelving before the next DJ takes over. Move your CDs and
          other goodies aside from the MCR counter so that the next DJ has room to work while you
          reshelve.
        Don't leave any sort of mess for the next DJ. Pick up your trash.
        Keep the playlist CDs that you played in a separate pile; point that pile out to the next DJ so
          they do not repeat those CDs during their shift.
        Be respectful and courteous. Abusive language or actions will not be tolerated.
        Be aware of cultural and personal differences. The jokes you might want to crack with the
          other DJs might be offensive or intimidating to them.

Station Conduct
      Theft: We will investigate and prosecute any acts of theft to the furthest of our abilities. The
       station reserves the right to dismiss a DJ for even the suspicion of theft. For even the loss of a
       single CD, we will call in the Duke Police. If a piece of music is worth the risk of criminal
       prosecution, it's probably worth spending $12 for the CD at an independent record store. The
       station "library" is just that, a LIBRARY, a shared collection that should be available to current
       and future DJs. You're not the type that steals books from libraries, are you?

      Borrowing: You are not allowed to "borrow" CDs from the station. If a CD goes out the
       front door, we consider that an act of theft. You may record music to cassette on the listening
       station, or to cassette or minidisc in the Production Room. As most of the music at WXDU is
       issued on small, independent labels, we encourage you to go buy copies of the CDs, thereby
       supporting those labels and the artists.

      Absenteeism/Tardiness: You are responsible for covering your shift. If you cannot do
       your shift, YOU Must find a sub. See " How do I go about getting a sub?" in the "FAQ" chapter.
                                                   13
       If you cannot do your shift and are unable to find a sub, contact the Programming Director
       immediately, by phone, email (progdir@wxdu.org) or with the programming pager (970-4616).
       Missing your shift; frequent tardiness in arriving; and failure to contact the Programming staff
       are all grounds for suspension or dismissal from the station. Programming will, of course, take
       into consideration extenuating circumstances such as medical or family emergencies. However,
       suddenly remembering that you have a paper due or a meeting at work the next day is not an
       emergency. That's poor planning.

      Guests: You may have ONE non-wxdu DJ guest in the studio with you. Other DJs may join
       you in the studio if you wish. But, you may never have more than one non-DJ with you. The
       station is not a place to party and hangout. In the past the station has had problems with
       property destruction and theft due to non-WXDU guests. Therefore, we only allow a single
       guest. That guest is free to help you find recordings and re-file them, even suggest things to
       play, but you may not put your friend on the air if he/she is not a qualified 'XDU DJ. Having
       more than one guest is grounds for immediate dismissal from the station. See the FAQ section
       for information about having guests to be interviewed or perform on your show.

      Drinking/Smoking: Drinking beverages and smoking are not allowed behind the counter
       of the MCR and are not allowed in the Production Room. Smoke damages the circuitry of the
       equipment, and drinks are too easy to spill on the equipment, even by a cautious DJ. Unless you
       have $10,000 to buy us a new board, don't risk it. Also, not only will you sound terrible if you
       broadcast while drunk, stoned, or otherwise in an altered state -- It's illegal to be intoxicated
       while on the air.

      Keep the Place in Good Shape: There is no maid. Your mom is not going to pick up
       the mess. Clean up after yourself, use the recycle bins for cans and bottles, and put your trash in
       the trash can.

Show Requirements
    There are only two basic requirements:
       1. You must meet your meet your Playlist requirements, and
       2. You must complete the required paperwork and duties associated with that paperwork.
    See the "Important Pieces of Paper" chapter for a full discussion of both.

Library Reshelving
      You are required to reshelve all CDs, LPs and singles that you play during your show. Please allow
time to put music back. And, do it accurately!! A misfiled piece of music is basically lost. To make your
life easier, as you select music, pull an adjacent CD/LP out so that when you go to put it back, you can
easily find the correct place. And, pay attention to the Color Codes at the bottom of each piece of music.
So, Reshelve! You do know the alphabet, right?

On-Air Training
    Once a semester you may be asked to mentor a new DJ, taking them through on-air training.
Remember, you were once in their shoes. Do a thorough job in training them. If you have any
questions about training, contact the Training Director.

Service Requirements
    WXDU is an all volunteer station, completely dependent on the actions of our staff to keep us
running. Therefore every DJ at WXDU is required to do at least one task each semester, in addition to
doing their show, to help out with the operation of the station. Only DJs that complete the service
requirement each semester are eligible to get a shift for the next semester. Being an WXDU DJ is a


                                                   14
privilege, not a right, and doing your service requirement is part of earning that privilege. While service
to the station is a requirement, how you choose to fulfill that requirement is your choice.
     Some of the ways you can help out the station include these items listed below, but, there are many
other opportunities to help. Many of these are regularly posted on the wxdu-internal email list, and you
can also contact any member of the board to find out about other opportunities to help the station. Or,
better yet, come to a board meeting and say that you can help. The Board will find a task that is to your
liking and skills.
     These are some possibilities:
         Helping with the benefit show (clean-up, working the ticket table, etc.)
         Organizing/Conducting a station task (such as researching and arranging the purchase of a
            new listening station, or a like task).
         Conducting a Training session in the PR
         Working at a booth to help advertise WXDU at Oktoberfest, Springfest, Centerfest, etc.
         Reviewing CDs
         Taping and shelving for Music Staff
         Helping out at a Library Workday
         Hanging flyers to advertise an WXDU event
         Be a special assistant to a specific 'XDU department: Programming, Music Staff,
            Promotions, etc…

     Occasionally, the Board issues an additional Service requirement for all DJs. For instance, each
DJ may be assigned a small section of the library for re-alphabetizing.
     Programming does take the service requirement into account when making up the schedule. See
the "DJing 102" chapter for more detail on scheduling decisions and the service requirement.

Reporting Problems with Other DJs
      If you notice another DJ violating the rules, you should PRIVATELY report the incident to the
WXDU Board of Directors. Contact either the Programming Director or the General Manager. Do NOT
air it out on the station email list. Do NOT take matters into your own hands.
      If you notice a rather innocent mistake by another DJ (such as forgetting to sign-out in the OpLog),
you may POLITELY point it out to the DJ. Do not appoint yourself to be the rule-keeper. Be kind and
courteous; do it in the spirit of helping each other. If it is a new DJ that seems to be still having
problems with equipment or station requirements, privately report it to the Training Director or the
Programming Director. They'll gently offer encouragement and refresher training to the DJ.

Investigation, Probation, Suspension and Dismissal
     In most circumstances, the Programming Director and/or the General Manager will conduct the
investigation into any inappropriate behavior or rules violations at WXDU and arrive at a
determination of discipline in consultation with the full Board of Directors. Most investigations are
conducted as quietly and privately as possible, assuming that the DJ in question is innocent and
therefore should not be publicly accused. For minor violations, typically a DJ will simply be given a
verbal or written warning, again usually privately. In some cases, a DJ might be placed on probation,
during which they are given a specific set of expectations, but still allowed participate in station
activities. The Board reserves the right to suspend or dismiss any DJ for the violation of any station
rules or for any manner of conduct determined to be detrimental to the station and its staff, even those
not explicitly stated in this handbook.




                                                    15
                            Chapter 4:
                         The Unspeakable:
                       Indecency/Obscenity
     Non-commercial radio offers its DJs considerable freedom in their selection of material to
broadcast. At WXDU you can play everything from your favorite thirty-minute Stockhausen piece to
the rare, thirty-second God is My Copilot gem on the b-side of your most treasured 7-inch. Every week,
hundreds of Triangle listeners will be astonished, aggravated, awed, and annoyed by your eclectic and
refined taste in music. Don’t let all that freedom go to your head. The radio airwaves are not a public
space but a public trust, and to operate on those airwaves you must accept certain proscriptions on your
freedom of expression.

     The radio station that you are using operates under an FCC license held by Duke University. This
license is like a rental agreement between Duke and the Federal Government. Nobody owns the
airwaves, but the Federal Government oversees them and decides who can use them. All radio and
television broadcasters must obtain a usage permit in order to operate. And if you hold an FCC permit,
you are subject to the FCC’s guidelines restricting speech.

     The Supreme Court has repeatedly upheld the FCC’s right to sanction the broadcast of indecent or
obscene material. According to the Court, the FCC retains ―special justifications for regulation of the
broadcast media that are not applicable to other speakers.‖ Since nobody has to enter into any sort of
contract to receive television and radio airwaves, they have an ―invasive‖ character that cable and
satellite television and the Internet do not. And kids can tune in at any time. With all this in mind, the
Supreme Court argued that the Federal Government's interest in protecting children from indecent
material trumps the First Amendment rights of radio and television broadcasters.

     You might think that this is a crock and an outrage (so do we). Unfortunately, it’s the law, and
WXDU is liable to pretty severe penalties if we violate it. The FCC has recently handed down fines as
large as $20 000 to non-commercial stations found to have violated indecency laws. More troubling is
the trend towards conservatism among FCC Commissioners. Recent press releases indicate the FCC’s
willingness to apply fines to broadcasters on the skimpiest of evidence. If WXDU were to receive a
notice of forfeiture from the FCC, we could little afford the fine and would most likely lose our license to
broadcast.

    Duke University is our permit holder and another entity that we must avoid irritating. It is not
uncommon for universities to take swift and unforeseen action against their radio stations. If Duke
were to choose to intervene in our station to make policy, personnel, and programming changes, WXDU
would have no legal recourse to stop them. Maintaining a reasonable relationship with the university is
easy. Just use your head.

Limits & Laws
   So here, in increasing order of importance, are the categories of expression limited by WXDU, Duke
University, and the FCC:

   1) Whining and Griping: Also known as ―airing dirty laundry.‖ At no time should a DJ
      complain on the air about station policies or management decisions. Do not complain about
      your time slot, the playlist, the DJ before or after you, or the air conditioning. Even if you feel so
      egregiously wronged that you told all of your buddies on alt.music.chapel-hill that WXDU is
      filled with boorish, Bee Gees-loving baboons, you do not have the right to share this sentiment
      during your broadcast. There’s no law against doing this; it’s just tacky. If you have a general
                                                    16
   problem that needs to be addressed, write to the wxdu-internal email list, call a board member,
   or attend a board meeting. If it's a problem with another DJ, take it privately to a board
   member.

2) Dissing Duke University: This is sort of a subset of (1), but it can get us in a whole lot
   more trouble. Whether you like Duke or not they hold our broadcast license. So we have to be
   nice to them. Thus far, the University has had the good grace to let us do our thing without
   trying to alter the content of our programming. If, however, it gets back to administrator X that
   so-and-so used the Duke radio station to air out his/her grievances with Duke's policy of
   ____________ (insert controversy of you choice), they could shut us down. No questions
   asked. And we wouldn’t have any legal recourse to resume broadcasting.

3) Inciting a Riot: This is actually listed among the categories of unprotected speech in the
   FCC guidelines. There is an actual law against it. Don’t do it.

4) “Political” Speech: There is nothing wrong with expressing a political belief on the air or
   playing a record with explicit political content. However, if you choose to make a statement or
   play a spoken word record that could be construed by anyone as politically controversial, please
   include a disclaimer. You know how those go. Here’s an example: "The views expressed by
   Militant Angry Person in the following spoken word piece do not necessarily represent those
   held by the staff and management of WXDU or by the faculty, staff, and administration of Duke
   University." And on with it.

5) Drugs: This is a biggie at college radio stations. Everybody likes to play songs about drugs.
   They are often funny. They are transgressive. You might even think they are hip.
   Unfortunately, the FCC clearly prohibits the broadcast of material advocating the use of illegal
   drugs. While this regulation was more diligently enforced during the sixties when FM stations
   would play songs like ―One Toke Over the Line,‖ the law is still on the books. In fact, a college
   station in Houston, TX received a stern warning from the FCC for broadcasting the relatively
   benign Lou Barlow tune ―Puffin’‖ at 8 am. The morning DJ had ended his talk set by mocking
   an anti-drug PSA and began playing this: ―Puffin’ on a pot pipe/Feelin’ my head’s tight/It’s a
   celebration/Feelin’ my brain’s alive/A mental masturbation,‖ etc. As it turns out, a local mother
   was listening to the station while driving her daughter from a rehab center to her first day of
   high school. And lo and behold, the FCC heard about the whole thing.

   So here are some guidelines regarding songs with substantive drug content:

   1) If the average square can’t figure out that it’s a drug song, you’re fine (e.g. most Spacemen 3
      songs).
   2) Treat more obvious drug songs as ―indecent‖ material and play them only during the safe
      harbor period with a warning (see Indecent and Obscene Material below).
   3) Do not comment on the drugginess of the tune when on-air and don’t make drug jokes. The
      FCC places considerable weight on the context of radio broadcasts when issuing citations. If
      you play the drug song to make all your buddies giggle, you are far more likely to violate the
      law.
   4) NEVER MENTION DRUGS ON THE AIR, unless you are offering a sober and educational
      comment on the material you are playing (e.g. ―The catchiness of Roky Erikson’s solo work is
      not the only thing he had in common with Syd Barrett. They both spent considerable time
      hospitalized as a result of excessive LSD consumption‖).

6) Broadcasting Indecent and Obscene Material: The FCC’s definitions of
   indecency and obscenity are legendarily vague. Every college radio station interprets the rules
   differently. The station you grew up with might play songs with harsher language than WXDU

                                               17
       allows. Our neighbor, WXYC does not allow any sort of naughty language on the air ever. The
       following rules are WXDU’s interpretation of the FCC regulations. These rules are rigid and are
       not open to debate. We have attempted to be as specific as possible with our interpretation of
       FCC regulations. Our analysis is based on the FCC’s 2001 Indecency Report as well as numerous
       examples from the case law. At times we have erred on the side of caution, but we firmly intend
       to continue providing a forum for challenging and controversial material.

YOU
     The first, steadfast and sacrosanct rule about dirty words on the air is: YOU SHOULD NEVER SAY
THEM. (and the same goes for your on-air guests should you have any). Anything that you wouldn’t
say to your elementary school teacher you should never say on the air. If a band name or an album or
song title contains a bad word EDIT IT before announcing it on the air. The "The Fucking Champs"
becomes "The F'ing Champs." If anybody hears you cursing on the air, you might as well kiss your show
and involvement with XDU goodbye. You or your guests cursing on the air will NEVER be tolerated.
Get it? Let’s move on to the FCC’s restrictions on Indecent and Obscene material.

Indecency and Obscenity: The Distinction in BIG LEGALESE
     The FCC and the Supreme Court divide ―dirty words‖ into two categories: Indecency and
Obscenity. Despite the FCC’s best efforts, the Supreme Court recognizes First Amendment protection
of Indecency. Obscenity, according to the Court, is not constitutionally protected. Weighing the
Federal Government’s interest in protecting children from indecent material against the First
Amendment protection of such material, the Supreme Court has decided that radio and television
broadcasters must limit indecency to the safe harbor hours of 10:00 pm - 6:00 am. Obscenity may
never be broadcast. Here are the FCC’s definitions:

       ―Indecency is language or material that depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as
       measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcasting medium, sexual or
       excretory activities or organs.‖

    The FCC relies heavily on the context of a broadcast program when deciding indecency complaints.
They have further clarified this definition with a tripartite criterion for determining indecency:
       1) The explicitness or graphic nature of the description or depiction of sexual or excretory
           activities or organs.
       2) Whether the material dwells on or repeats at length those descriptions.
       3) Whether the material appears to pander or is used to titillate or whether the material
           appears to have been presented for its shock value.

For something to be Obscene it must meet a completely different three-pronged test:
       1) An average person, applying contemporary community standards, must find that the
          material appeals to the prurient interest.
       2) The material must depict or describe, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically
          defined by the applicable law.
       3) The material, taken as a whole, must lack serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific
          value.

To clarify some of the most opaque aspects of this definition:

       1) ―Contemporary community standards‖ does not refer to any specific geographic region. So
          nobody can say, ―Well, Durham is a pretty open-minded place; it’s not like we’re in Boise or
          anything,‖ because that’s wrong. We are in Boise, ID, and Salt Lake City, UT, and Mobile,
          AL. ―Contemporary community standards‖ means the standard the average American would
          apply to dirty language.


                                                   18
       2) The three-pronged obscenity test does not apply to determinations of indecency. You
          cannot get away with playing indecent material outside of the safe harbor because it’s ―art.‖
          You may have heard about the ―Your Revolution‖ case. The FCC ruled the song, an explicitly
          political satire of male posturing in hip-hop, indecent. The broadcaster appealed the
          decision citing the song’s political content. Without success. The FCC maintains that
          politics does not absolve a song of indecency. If the station had aired the tune during the
          Safe Harbor, they would have been on firm legal ground. They didn’t, and they got screwed.

Safe Harbor Period
    The Safe Harbor is the only period when you can play indecent material. It lasts from 10:00 pm-
6:00 am. It does not begin a minute before, nor does it last a minute after. If you are prone to
programming indecent material, please consider a shift during the Safe Harbor.
    And if you have a shift that does not entirely overlap with Safe Harbor (i.e. 9:00 pm-11:00 pm or
5:00am-7:00am) please don’t be a moron. It should be obvious that you can’t play your Germs CD or
your Allen Ginsberg spoken piece outside of Safe Harbor.

The Warning
    WXDU requires that a DJ precede any and every indecent song (played during the Safe Harbor, of
course) with an indecency warning. This is not required by the FCC, but you’ve gotta do it anyway. It’s
our special way of covering our butts. There are a number of excellent prerecorded warnings on
minidisc in the MCR. They come in a variety of styles for easy segues. You may also issue a spoken
warning: "You may consider the following material to be indecent." Just remember you must have a
warning for EVERY indecent song.

Indecency: WXDU’s rules
     We’re going to make this brief. The basic rule seems simple: do not play songs that are explicitly
about sex or bodily functions. But that leads to lots of contention and competing interpretations. We’ve
cleared everything up with this handy, easy-to-use, little list of words you can’t play outside the Safe
Harbor. (Oh yeah, don't read this list if you're easily offended, okay?)
         fuck (or fucking or motherfucker or fucked or fuck it or fuck you) even if it doesn’t refer
             to the act of sex.
         shit (or shitting or shitface or oh shit! or shat or shite) even if it doesn’t refer to the act
             of defecation.
         piss (―pissed-off‖ is okay, though).
         suck or blow or lick if it refers to sucking or blowing or licking ANY part of the
             human body.
         ass unless it refers to an animal or a difficult person
         asshole never, ever, can you play asshole (butthole’s okay, but only if it refers to a
             surfer).
         cunt, pussy, beaver, love meat, cock, dick, shaft, member, peter, muff, clit, cooder, smegma,
             cum, come, spooge, anal, oral, etc. unless it is the actual name of a person, the name
             of a guitar pedal, or the opposite of go: situational use, you understand?
         fisting, jacking-off, jerking-off, jack-off, jerk-off, rim-job, bushwhacking, you get the idea.
     In addition, the FCC likes to fine people for being really stupid about the innuendo and double-
entendre in the material they play. If double-entendre is tastefully done, discrete, and fleeting it’s
okay. Blues lyrics like, ―He’s like the iceman, everyday he brings a new piece‖ are not indecent.
Remember, if you can figure it out, chances are the FCC can too. If it makes you giggle or turns your
ears red, it’s probably indecent.




                                                   19
Obscenity: WXDU’s rules
     To refresh your memory, obscene material is not Constitutionally protected and can never be
played on the radio. WXDU considers the following obscene:
     Fuck (if it’s used to refer to the act of sex)
     Shit (if it’s used to refer to the act of defecating)
     Fisting, anal sex, oral sex, jerking-off, jacking-off, masturbating, rim-job, etc. (unless it’s an
        Allen Ginsberg poem or something).
     The description of any act of rape.
     The description of any act of sexual violence.
     The easy rule of thumb is this: you can fuck the police (indecent), but you can’t fuck your mother,
or your dog or that ho, etc … (obscene). Obscene material can be compared to pornography: the FCC
knows it when it sees it, and so should you.

Exceptions to WXDU’s Drug Content, or Obscenity and
Indecency rules:
     An occasion may arise when a DJ (doing a spoken word program, a bone fide news program, or a
jazz or classical show, etc.) might have reasonable cause to play some of the words listed above. Only
two people at the station can abridge these rules: the General Manager and the Program Director(s). If
you think you have a legitimate exception, you must contact those people prior to airing the piece. No
further exceptions are allowed.

Penalties for playing proscribed music on the air:
     Any repeated, or in egregious cases, singular, willful violations of the above rules will be grounds
for losing your shift. Period.

Accidental Violations
     Accidental violations are avoidable but not unlikely. You can help prevent them by carefully
reading record reviews and by previewing your songs before airing them. The Music Department makes
every effort to clearly label indecent and obscene songs. Sometimes they slip up. You have the ultimate
responsibility for keeping your show clean.
     If, by some horrible sequence of events, you play the Unspeakable, do not panic. It’s not such a
big deal, and you won’t be fired provided you follow these steps:
    1) Pot down the song IMMEDIATELY.
    2) Do not mention the mistake on the air - even a self-deprecating joke might provide the FCC with
         the necessary context to fine us.
    3) Do NOT log the mistake in the OpLog.
    4) Mark the song you played as indecent / obscene on the album review.
    5) Leave a note in the Program Director's box with this information: 1) the song you played; 2) the
         time you played it; and 3) whether or not you immediately potted it down.
     These steps are easy to follow and can save us a whole lot of unnecessary hassle. And don’t think
that the note to the Program Director is unnecessary. It won’t get you in trouble. But it’s important
that we know about every time we are liable to an FCC complaint. FCC evidentiary rules do not require
the commission to inform a broadcaster before levying a fine. The more information we have at our
disposal, the more likely it is that we won’t get into any trouble.




                                                    20
                       Chapter 5:
                Important Pieces of Paper
     In addition to avoiding indecencies and obscenities while playing interesting and educational music
for the surrounding community, you’ll have to keep track of paperwork during your show. Completing
the operating log is legally required by the FCC. Completing the flowsheets and the giveaways
manual helps WXDU staff keep track of the music we play and the tickets we give away, both
necessary for the good relations we have with the local music community and the nationwide music
distributors.

Operating Log
     The Operating Log (OpLog) keeps track of information required by the FCC, and are kept in a black
notebook, organized by day. (Consult the copy of OpLog in the appendix as your read through this
section). Also referred to as the Transmitter Log (left-hand side of OpLog) and the Station Log (right-
hand side of the OpLog).
        The left-hand side chronicles transmitter readings and the DJ on the air at any time (a), and
EAS activity (b). Also on the left-hand side is a summary of the steps for taking a transmitter reading
(c). The right-hand side chronicles which DJ is covering each shift (d), station identifications (e), public
service announcements (f), and specific show requirements (g).

    Signing In and Out
     When you start and end your shift you will need to sign in and out on both sides of the log: (a) and
(d). When you are signed in on the OpLog, you are legally responsible for the station. Because of this, it
is important that there be no gap in the times (so that no one would be responsible) nor an overlap
(when two people would be legally responsible). The signed in and out times should match exactly.

    EAS Monitoring
     Record any activity on the Emergency Alert System (EAS), whether you initiate it or receive it, on
the left-hand side (b). In addition, staple or tape the paper spit out by the machine during alerts and
tests to that part of the OpLog. See the EAS section of the manual for details on alerts and tests.

    Transmitter Readings
     The transmitter broadcasts the station’s signal to the surrounding area. The guidelines for its
operation are mandated by the FCC. A radio station must operate its transmitter according to these
regulations or be taken off the air.
     Our transmitter, as well as our tower/antenna, is located just south of Hillsborough, off NC Route
86. It is fully solid-state. It is operated remotely and monitored from the station by telephone.
     At the beginning of your show you will need to take a transmitter reading by calling the transmitter
and recording the power levels in that part of the log (a). You may also have to adjust the power if it is
too high. The steps for doing this are conveniently outlined at the bottom of that page, as well as below:

   1. Using the 684-8871 line, call the transmitter by dialing 919-732-2413. The system will answer
      and say ―enter.‖
   2. On the phone keypad, push ―887-887-88.‖ The system will identify itself with some numbers
      you don’t have to remember.
   3. Press ―01‖; the system will say ―channel 01, xxx.xx volts.‖ Write down the value in the PA Volts
      column on the log.
   4. Press ―02‖; the system will say ―channel 02, xx.xx amperes.‖ Write down the value in the PA
      Amps column on the log.
   5. Press ―03‖; the system will say ―channel 03, xxx kilowatts.‖ Write down the value in the PA
      Power column on the log.
                                                    21
    6. Write down the time on the log.
    7. If the power is between 0.95 and 1.10 kilowatts, press ―99‖ on the phone dial. The system will
       say ―goodbye‖ and hang up.

The power levels are mandated by the FCC:
 If the Power (kilowatts) reading is above 1.10, you must lower it until it is within the
   required range above.
      1. Press ―66‖; the system will say ―OK.‖ The press ―03‖ and ―*‖.
      2. Press ―03‖ again to check the power.
      3. If it is still above maximum, repeat the ―03*‖ as necessary. Once you have it at the correct
          level, take and record another complete set of readings, then press ―99‖ and hang up.

   If the Power (kilowatts) reading is below 0.95, page the engineer immediately (970-1310).

    If you are unable to get a reading, note ―unable to read‖ on the OpLog and page the engineer
    immediately (970-1310).

    Public Service Announcements
     You are required to read or play two of these during each hour of your show. As part of WXDU’s
service to the community, we air free public service announcements (PSA) from organizations in the
area. They are on cards for you to read or CDs and minidiscs for you to play. PSAs are kept in a box to
the right of the mixing board. Record which PSA (identified by number on the top of the card or name
on a minidisc) and the time you aired it in the log (f). Then replace it in the back of the stack of PSA’s in
the box. That way, the next DJ can quickly pick a new PSA to read from the front of the box.

    Legal IDs
     These are the FCC-mandated station identifications. The station must be formally identified at the
(1) top of each hour (or at a ―natural programming break;‖ that is, within a few minutes of the hour, you
don’t have to do it in the middle of a song), (2) immediately after turning the transmitter on, and (3)
immediately before turning the transmitter off.
     The legal station IDs are:
         WXDU, Durham;
         WXDU, Duke University, Durham;
         WXDU, 88.7 FM, Durham;
     and nothing else.
     You can simply say one of the above station IDs (usually preceded by something like, ―You are
listening to…‖ or ―This is…‖), or you can play one from the Legal IDs minidisc kept above the mixing
board.
     Record that you identified the station in the OpLog (e).

    Specific Show Requirements
     Some shows have specific requirements which are noted on the right-hand side of the OpLog in the
space for these shows (g). Both the Concert Calendar and Artline are public services offered by WXDU.
If you see on the OpLog that you have to read the concert calendar or play artline, then do it.
     Artline lists arts happenings in the area. Find the appropriate minidisc, kept above the mixing
board, and play it at the appointed time. Play all of the artline calendar from that day forward.
     The Concert Calendar lists music concerts in the area. The Concert Calendar is a paper list
tacked to the right side of the mixing board. Read it at the appointed time during your show. You can
read one day’s concerts or several days’.

Flowsheets
    The flowsheet is the paper on which you chronicle the songs you’ve played. You’ll use your
flowsheet when you backsell the songs you’ve played. The music and programming staffs review
                                                     22
flowsheets weekly. The programming staff is looking at both musical selection and whether or not
playlist requirements were fulfilled. The music staff uses the flowsheets to compile Top 88.7 lists and to
report tracking to various record companies and trade magazines.
     To understand how to mark your flowsheet, you'll need to understand our Playlist Requirements.
Every non-specialty DJ is required to meet the playlist requirements, and properly record their playlist
selections on the Flowsheet.

    Playlist Requirement
        Our playlist is divided into "Red" Playlist (the newest selections) and "Black" Playlist (selections
    over 3 weeks old). The color refers to the colored tape that you'll find on the upper part of the spine
    of the CD/LP/7"single. Thus Red playlist has a piece of Red tape, and Black has a piece of Black
    tape on the spine. Additionally, playlist is divided by genre (Rock; Urban; RPM; Jazz; Country,
    Bluegrass, and Folk (CBGF); World, Comedy; Blues and R&B, etc…). Genre information is marked
    on the label that music staff prints out and places on the selections.

       The playlist requirement is rather simple:
        6 songs per hour
        At least 3 of those songs must be "Red" playlist (the newest); The rest may be "Red"
          or "Black" playlist.
        At least 1 of those songs must be "Non-Rock" (Jazz, CBGF, World, Comedy, Blues,
          R&B) (non-rock selections can be either red or black)

        Only the Red or Black Playlist CDs found on the "Shelf of Plenty" count towards playlist. Other
    CD found on that shelf do not count (such as the "Green" new CDs, "Blue" jazz playlist, or "Backfill"
    CDs). You may find old playlist material in the Library; these CDs do NOT count as Playlist. Again,
    it's only the Red and Black that is currently on the Shelf of Plenty.
        Got it? Not meeting playlist requirements is one of the easier ways to get into trouble at the
    station.

    How to Mark
       There are four columns on the flowsheets labeled type, song title, artist, and album. Obviously,
    the song title, artist, and album are written in those columns. The type column is for recording
    which category any playlist song you air comes from. Songs which are not from the playlist get no
    special marking in the type column.

    Material should be marked as follows:
      Red playlist, rock/rpm/urban                   I
      Black playlist, rock/rpm/urban                 II
      Red or Black, NON-rock/rpm/urban               I or II Circled
      Green/New                                      G or N
      Jazz playlist                                  J
      Requests                                       R

       See the example of a completed Flowsheet in the Appendix.

    Where to Find Them and What to Do with Them
       The flowsheets are kept in the lower shelf of the Counter to the right of the mixing board. Take a
    new one at the start of your show, put it in the clip board during or after your show, and leave it in
    the clipboard when you leave. If the clipboard is too full, take all of the flowsheets out and put
    them in the Music Director’s box.




                                                    23
    You Get Them Back!
        A member of the Music Staff collects the flowsheets once a week to check over the sheets and
    tally the songs. Your flowsheets will be returned to you, sometime later, in your mailbox. Then you
    can preserve them for posterity.
Giveaways
    WXDU has standing agreements with several area clubs to give away tickets to all of their shows.
The Giveaways Notebook is kept on the shelf above the mixing board (if it’s not hanging around the
OpLog and flowsheets), with concert ticket giveaways organized by day. Be aware that some days have
two sheets.

    Your Obligations
          Promote the shows! The Concert Calendar is read two times a day, at noon and 8 pm.
           Even if those times aren’t during your show, you can reference the Concert Calendar to
           announce upcoming shows in the area. And don’t forget to play the CDs in the handy dandy
           concert box, just above the mixing board, with music from bands playing in the area.
          Give away tickets! WXDU can give away two pairs of tickets to the shows listed, as well as
           individual tickets to two DJs. Offer giveaways as often as you like during your show. You
           can give away tickets to a particular show after 8 pm the day before the show. You can use
           whatever gimmick you want to give away tickets: trivia question, first caller, etc. When you
           give a pair of tickets away, write down the winner’s name and phone number in the
           Giveaways Notebook in the space provided for ―listener tickets.‖ Tell the listener that, if they
           arrive at the club and their name hasn’t been called in, to ask the club to call the station
           (684-8870) to confirm the ticket giveaway.
          Call them In! This is the most important aspect of giveaways. If no one calls in the tickets,
           the clubs usually assume there are no winners. The 8 pm DJ is responsible for calling in the
           ticket winners; this is listed on the OpLog. The numbers are listed next to the clubs in the
           Giveaways Notebook, along with a handy ―Please check when called in __‖ for the DJ to
           mark. Again, if the winners arrive at the club and their names haven’t been called in, they
           can ask the club to call the station (684-8870) to confirm the ticket giveaway (but this is bad
           publicity, so call those ticket winners in!).

    Your Privileges
        Any DJ can sign up for a free ticket to an upcoming show. Peruse the Giveaways Notebook
    during your show to see what is available and sign up by writing in your name and phone number
    in the space provided for DJ tickets. Then, of course, promote the show. Don't abuse the privilege.
    If the same DJ is always signing up for the giveaways, it will be frowned upon.




                                                    24
                       Chapter 6:
                DJing 101: The Essentials
Preparation
     There are DJs who arrive at the station 5 minutes before their show with nothing in their arms;
those who arrive 15 minutes ahead with some of their collection and an idea of what they will play; and
those who arrive 45 minutes early to pull picks from our library before their show. Some DJs know
what they are going to play for most of their show, but many find their time on the air too hectic to
really listen to new music before they air it, or even fully read the reviews on playlist CDs. Here are
some handy tips to keep in mind, regardless of your style, to help make your show run smoothly.
    1. Have in mind a few opening songs or a starting set, so that you can spend the opening minutes
         of your on-air time getting your OpLog duties taken care of, and can spend some time thinking
         about the rest of the show.
    2. RESEARCH! (see "DJing 102")
    3. Arrive early enough to read some of the reviews on the playlist CDs, so that you have some idea
         of things you want to play (or not play) during your show.
    4. Make notes in between your shows of the music you like and want to play or dislike and would
         never broadcast during your show. Especially note the playlist material that you hear on the
         station.
    5. As you listen to WXDU during the week, write down music that you hear and like or dislike.
    6. After your show, note which bands you really liked and which you didn’t like.
    7. Read the reviews and the Top 88.7 posted to the wxdu-internal email list.
    8. Always have a backup song ready so that if you find that you suddenly have only 10 seconds left
         on a song and nothing cued up you can throw something on quickly.
    9. Listen to the show immediately before yours so that, if you wish, the beginning of your show will
         complement it but not duplicate it.

     To help make the first few shows flow with minimum panic, new DJs should write down songs and
artists they would like to play and arrive at least 30 minutes early to allow themselves time to find the
music in the library and playlist CDs to play.

Those Important Pieces of Paper
    As you already know, properly completing the required paperwork during your show fulfills FCC
requirements (legal obligations) and helps WXDU keep track of the music we play. The paperwork also
leads you through your show. Use the OpLog to keep track of what you have to do each hour and when
you have to do it. Use the flowsheet to keep track of the music you play and that you are fulfilling your
playlist requirements. If you mix your music well, fulfill playlist requirements, and keep track of the
paperwork, your show will flow smoothly.

The Shelf of Plenty
     To the left of the mixing board, above the turntables you will find a veritable cornucopia of music
for your show. On the Shelf of Plenty you will find playlist music and other new (and some old) music
you can play. As we explained before, the playlist categories are identified by the tape color on the top
of the CD spine.
     Playlist music falls into two categories: Red and Black. Red is the newest; after several weeks in red,
a CD will be moved to black for a few weeks until it’s pulled off of playlist.
     Jazz Playlist (marked with a piece of Blue tape on the spine) is for use during the specialty shows
You may play it Jazz playlist, but, it doesn’t fulfill requirements for a playlist show. NOTE: In our
"regular" playlist (Red/Black), you will find Jazz selections. These count towards playlist, non-rock. But,
the "Jazz" (Blue) playlist does not.

                                                    25
     Green music (again marked with a Green piece of tape on the spine) is new, but either unreviewed
or deemed not worthy of playlist. Most green is on the top right two shelves, but RPM Green, World
Green, and New Age Green are on the left-hand shelves. You can play any green during your show, but
it does not count as playlist.
     Backfill music is well-loved but not necessarily new music which has been purchased for the station
because it is missing from our collection.

In general, the shelves are organized as follows:




    As we don't want to repeat music too often on the station, we ask that you do not play the same
playlist material as the DJ before you. Therefore, we ask that when you’ve played something from the
Playlist, put it aside so that the next DJ can easily tell what was played recently. In fact, you should
point out your recent play pile to them.

Son of the Shelf of Plenty
    Above the mixing board you will find minidiscs and the concert box, also for your use during your
show. The Giveaways book and an extra copy of the DJ Handbook are also kept up here.
 Minidiscs: Useful minidiscs are kept above the mixing board on the left side. There you will find
   prerecorded indecency warnings, legal station IDs, and ArtLine. Use and enjoy!
 Concert Box: The Concert Box is the small box of CDs just above the mixing board. In it the
   Giveaways Director places CDs by artists playing in the area. Use it to promote local venues and
   ticket giveaways.




                                                    26
Talksets
    Talksets are the opposite of music sets; that is, it is the time on the air when you are talking.
Talksets are for:
    backselling the music;
    reading PSAs;
    making announcements, including station IDs, ArtLine, Concert Calendar, and EAS warnings.

      When you are talking, speak directly into the microphone (as it is "directional") otherwise you
won’t be heard. Watch your levels on the mixing board! Keep them about the same level as your music
has been (that would be around the ―0‖ -- just dancing into the red part of the meter) by either adjusting
the volume of your voice or the slider on the mixing board or both.
      Always wear the headphones during a talkset. Chances are, if the volume is too low in your phones,
it's too low from the console.

    Backsell
       This is when you announce what songs you have just played in a set, starting with the most
    recent and working backwards. Doing this fulfills part of WXDU’s mission to educate the public.
    In addition, it supports non-mainstream music, because armed with information your listening
    audience can run out and buy the CD from their local independent musicseller. Usually you
    announce the song, artist, and album/CD title. You can also include the label and interesting trivia
    about the music. Try to vary your backselling. Don't blandly announce "and that was ___, and
    before that was ____, and before that was _______." Listen to other DJs for ideas on how to vary
    your backselling.
       For backselling, fold your flowsheet in half and put in vertically up on the console in front of the
    VU meters. This has several beneficial effects. It forces you to speak directly into the mike instead
    of down or away when the flowsheet is in your hand or off to the side. You avoid that annoying
    paper-rustling sound or banging-the-clipboard-on-the-mike-arm sound going out over the air.
    Finally, you can not help but notice the VU meters as you speak, and you'll find yourself gradually
    adjusting the slider as you back sell.

    Frontsell
       That is announcing what you are going to play. Generally at WXDU we only frontsell the first
    song or two before the next set.

    Background Music
       Some DJs use background music during their talksets. This is especially useful if you are prone
    to sudden bouts of aphasia or otherwise losing your train of thought. Simply play an instrumental
    piece of music in the background; keep the level potted low and adjust the level based on what you
    are hearing through the headphones. Background music can also be used when playing the ArtLine
    minidisc.

    PSAs
        These are the public service announcements that WXDU airs free for organizations in the area.
    Doing this fulfills part of WXDU’s mission to support the community.
        You are required to read or play two PSAs in each hour. You can do them both at the same time
    or one each at different times during the hour.
        When you read or play a PSA, don’t announce it by saying, ―Now, I’m going to read a PSA.‖ Your
    listening audience will not know what you are talking about, unless they are also DJs. Plus, it
    sounds amateurish. Instead, just read/play it, or preface the PSA with something like, ―I’d like to let
    you know about,‖ ―I want to tell you about some things going on in the area,‖ ―Here’s something
    information you may be interested in,‖ ―Before we get back to the music I need to tell you,‖ etc.
    Make sure you put the PSA that you just read at the back of the PSA stack.


                                                   27
    Station ID
      These are the FCC-mandated station identifications, done near the top of each hour,
    immediately after turning the transmitter on, and immediately before turning the transmitter off.
    Remember that the official station IDs are:
       WXDU, Durham;
       WXDU, Duke University, Durham;
       WXDU, 88.7 FM, Durham;
      and nothing else.

    ArtLine and Concert Calendar
       These are other public services WXDU offers for the community. They are read/played at
    particular times of each day, as scheduled in the OpLog (in other words, if you don’t see it in the
    OpLog for your show, you don’t have to worry about it).

EAS Alerts and Tests
    These will either be in the OpLog for you to complete at a particular time (in the case of tests) or
come at you randomly, and only occasionally (in the case of alerts). Follow the directions in the
"Equipment" section of this manual.

Music Sets
    Length: A set of music, during which you play music back-to-back without talking in between,
       should be 3-7 songs long: because part of the mission of WXDU is to educate the public, you
       should ―backsell,‖ that is, announce what you’ve just played, every 10 to 20 minutes. The goal
       is to backsell often enough that the audience can keep track of what you’ve just played, but not
       so often that they are sick of your voice.
    Structure: Music sets can be all one type of music; or have a theme in the lyrics, song titles, etc.;
       or be a set in which variety is the spice. Whatever it is, think about each set as a whole to lend
       continuity to it, and make an effort to alternate playlist and non-playlist selections. Don't just
       play all of your playlist selections as a block. That's a quick way to get some negative attention
       from Music and Programming Staff.

Requests
     Some DJs enjoy getting requests, others would rather play only their own selections during the
show. While you do not have to ask for requests, you do need to honor requests you get, even if
they aren’t your favorite kind of music. The only exceptions are: 1) the request totally doesn’t fit in with
the format of the station in general (think N'Snyc or the Dave Matthews Band); and 2) you have a
specialty show. So, even if you think Jon Spencer is talentless fool, if you get a request for the Jon
Spencer Blues Explosion -- play it.
     Whether or not you would like to take requests, your listeners may want to contact you, and it is
rude to ignore them. Give out the station phone numbers and website address several times during
your show. And if you really want requests, you can also give out the handy e-mail address for requests:
request@www.wxdu.org or tell the listeners about the request form on the "Listen" page of the website
<http://www.wxdu.org/listen/>.

Surprises
     It doesn’t usually happen, but sometimes you might be blessed with an unexpected surprise. To
help avoid surprises, give yourself plenty of time to execute your duties. If you screw up, there's no
need to mention it on the air. If someone calls to tell you that you screwed up, thank them politely, even
if they're being a rude jerk. When equipment fails, the EAS spits out a warning, the FCC shows up, or
another mini-crisis interrupts your show, don’t panic, and especially don’t panic on the air. You’ll know
what to do because you will have diligently studied this manual. If you forget what to do, a copy of the
manual is available above the mixing board to the left of the concert box for your reference.
                                                    28
               Chapter 7:
    DJing 102: How to be a "Good" DJ
Scheduling Considerations
     "How do I get a better shift?" In short: Go beyond the basics of the service requirement and get in
the good graces of the Programming staff. New schedules are put together at the beginning of each
semester (September, January, and May). Each DJ turns in a "grid" detailing their availability for
shifts. The more shifts that you make yourself available for, the better your chance of getting a show.
Be realistic in what you ask for; you're probably not going to get an 8 pm or 10 pm show unless you've
been here for awhile or helped out in a very significant way.

     In putting together the schedule, the Programming Director takes into consideration a number of
factors:
    1) Your musical picks. See "Programming and Music Staff expectations" below.
    2) Your service to the station. The more you do, the more consideration you'll be given for a good
        shift. While simply meeting the requirement will get you in the pool of DJs considered for
        shifts, exceeding the requirement moves you higher up in the pile of shift applications (grids).

     Neither of these alone will assure you of a good shift. You could have brilliant shows, but if you
aren't pitching in with work around the station, you're not going to get a good shift. You could work
your butt off for the station, but if you're playing Creed, Korn, and Kid Rock, you not going to get a good
shift (heck, you'd probably be cut from the station).

    Other considerations include:
   3) Whether or not you are a Duke student. Duke students, both undergraduate and graduate are
      given a slight preference. NOTE TO STUDENTS: APPLY FOR DAYTIME SHIFTS!! The station
      prefers to have students on during the weekdays, as you typically have more flexibility with your
      schedule. This is especially true for the 9 am to Noon, and 2-4 pm shifts. Those shifts are yours
      for the taking!
   4) Seniority -- Your length of time at the station is a factor. But, only if you are still an ACTIVE
      participant at the station, meeting or exceeding your service requirement.

Programming and Music Staff Expectations
     Both Programming and Music staff review your flowsheets, assessing what you have been playing.
Occasionally they'll add comments to your flowsheets, sometimes in praise of your selections;
sometimes asking you to reconsider the direction of your picks. If they are critical of your picks, please
remember they are not attacking you personally; usually they are just trying to push you out of your
"comfort zone" -- those artists that you know well. While its fine to fall back on the old faves now and
then, we expect our DJs to educate themselves about music, as well as educating our listeners.
     Playlist shows are expected to draw from a wide variety of genres and artists. While your show will
certainly be rooted in one type of music, that one genre should never represent more than 2/3rds of
what you play. So, if you are an Indie Rocker by heart, certainly share your knowledge and love with
your listeners. But, you are still expected to play other genres: Jazz, Urban, RPM, Blues, Country, Folk,
etc…And, the same goes for DJs whose starting point is one of those other genres. Variety, variety,
variety!!! Avoid repetition and stagnation. It really is noticed quickly by both your listeners and the
WXDU staff.
     We try not to give a "litmus test" on musically taste. It's hard to say what IS the music of the
station, because our mission is to be broadly inclusive of many non-commercial, independent, and less-
widely recognized artists. But, while it's hard to say what is our music, it's very easy to pick out what
ISN'T our music:


                                                    29
    Picks that are already well represented on commercial media: if you can hear a song by turning on
    MTV, M2, VH1, or any other video channel; or if a song can be heard on any of the radio stations
    from FM 90 and above, then it probably should not be played on WXDU.
    Picks that are obvious. For instance, always playing the "hit" song from this or that Indie band,
    instead of exploring other work by that artist.
    Picks that reflect your age. This goes both ways -- both the younger and older DJs need to go
    beyond their comfort zones. Older DJs might need to consider if their show is contemporary.
    Younger DJs might need to explore the older artists that are the antecedents of their more recent
    favorites.
    Picks that are repetitious: Don't ever repeat the same song during the course of a semester (a really,
    really great song on playlist might be the only exception). Also, unless it's in playlist, there is rarely
    a need to play the same artist twice in one semester. Explore the library and find something new to
    play. The same people tend to listen at the same times, so odds are you will have a couple of steady
    listeners. They (and our staff) will notice that you've played the same song even if it's 2 months
    apart, or they'll notice that you only play the same artists over and over again. B-O-R-I-N-G!

    Programming and Music staff are there to help you discover new music that you'd otherwise never
hear and to motivate you to become a great WXDU DJ.

Subbing
     Subbing is essential to keep the station on 24/7/365. Subbing is a great way to get extra air-time,
especially for DJs who split a shift. And, it's a great way for newer DJs to impress the Programming
staff with their commitment to station. Help out and take a shift.

    Your Responsibilities
               Remember: If you cannot do your show it is YOUR responsibility to find a sub. If you are
       on the schedule it is your responsibility to find a WXDU-TRAINED DJ to cover your show if you
       cannot do your show.
               Once you find a sub we ask you to confirm to the wxdu-internal list. Please also email
       Programming at progdir@wxdu.org to let them know who is subbing for you. If you don't have
       access to email at that point please page the programming at 970-4616. Programming also asks
       that once you get a sub call the DJ on air and have them write in the subbing dj's name and
       phone number in the OpLog at the appropriate time-slot.
               Posting a note to the wxdu-internal is not always enough to get a sub. If no one answers
       you, you must start calling djs. There is a reasonably accurate phonelist on the DJSpace website.
       If you still can't find a sub contact programming!! (progdir@wxdu.org 970-4616). They realize
       that middle of the night shifts (3-5AM) may be hard to get covered. Again, please contact them
       so that they know what is going on. Often, they can help you find a sub.
               If you fail to find AND confirm a sub. Programming will consider that a missed show
       and the Board may sanction the you (ex. suspend or lose show). Also these incidents are
       remembered by programming when new schedules are made each semester. Patterns of
       tardiness or missed shows will result in the loss of your show.

    Emergencies & Circumstances
              Of course, there are times when emergencies come up. Please contact Programming
       when they come up. Suddenly remembering you have a test or an important meeting at work is
       not considered an emergency.

    Hey I Want to Sub More
          Wxdu-Internal List: The best way is to find out about subbing opportunities is on the
           wxdu-internal list and respond quickly to sub opportunities. You can also read the wxdu-
           internal list at the DJSpace without being subscribed by clicking on the mailing list archives.


                                                     30
          Pre-Emptive Strikes: If you would like to sub a certain specialty show… twang, jazz,
           urban, etc… By all means contact that do and tell them you are available to sub for them.
           Same goes with regular shows. If you want to sub a certain time slot contact that DJ.
           Chances are you'll be the first and only one on their list.
          Advertise: Post your desire to sub on the internal-list a few times a semester so DJs (and
           programming) know you're ready and willing. If you're not subscribed email programming
           and Programming will post for you. Also there is the "OLD" SUB bulletin board on the left
           as you walk up the steps. Make yourself known!!

Mixing
     Mixing music is an art. We encourage you to mix as creatively as you possibly can without making
it sound bad. When you make the transition from one song to another, there should never be any dead
air, or silence. If the ending of the song playing and the beginning of the next song to be played
somehow go together, you have the foundation of a good mix. The rest is timing.
     It is better to overlap songs than to have dead air. Most of the nuances of mixing are learned by
experimenting during your show and listening to other DJs. But you should think about the philosophy
of mixing songs together. It is easy to mix two rap songs together because they probably have a similar
beat. It is difficult to mix a hip-hop song with a folk song, but if you can do it effectively, the result can
be very satisfying for you and your listeners.
     WXDU tends towards more coherent sets with a preference for careful segues between different
styles. Some DJs play mini-sets of one or similar genres of music. This isn't a station "rule." But, we
do put an emphasis on the importance of segues between different styles of music. Thus, our sound
differs from that other college radio station 9 miles down the road. At WXYC, rather abrupt shifts in
tone and style are the norm. While you should feel free to create your own show and your own sound,
which might include some radical shifts in mid-set, we encourage you to think of your listeners.
Remember the "Entertain" part of the WXDU mission, be kind to them, and find the segue between a
Tuvian throat song and a grindcore onslot.

Research for Variety & Growth
     While research for your show is not required, we very much encourage you to do so, because
growth and variety are expected of every DJ. Come into the station and spend some time at the
listening station, either previewing new playlist material, or simply exploring the library. It's a HUGE
library, chock full of great stuff that you've probably never heard (or maybe even heard of). There are
over 20 years of reviews on Albums and CDs from the various pieces of playlist over that time. Wander
through the stacks. Pull stuff that you've heard of, but never heard. Or, try stuff that you have no clue
about. Over the course of one evening or afternoon exploring the library, you can easily fill a scratch
pad full of ideas for weeks worth of shows.
     Explore old playlists! We archive our old playlists on our website back to 1998. Many other college
radio stations do the same online. One of the finest and most respected stations, WFMU
(www.wfmu.org) has full playlists for every show (every song played on every show). While FMU's
programming is a little more adventurous than XDU's at times, we highly recommend their playlist
archive a tool to expand your musical knowledge.
     Listen to other DJs! Each DJ has their musical knowledge base, and a great way to expand yours is
to learn from the other DJs. Take note of their non-playlist picks. If something catches your ear, find
out what it was and learn more about the artist and other associated artists. We find that learning from
each other is probably the best form of research.

Tape Your Show
    It's a good idea to record and listen to your show at least once a semester. In addition to just
having a great mix tape to enjoy, you'll be able to honestly hear how your show sounds. Note whether
your levels jump between songs; if you're voice levels are too low or too high; if your mixes work.
Taping and being able to self-critique are another great tool for growth as a DJ.


                                                     31
Bottom Line
     There is no one way to become a "good" DJ. Luckily so, or else all of our shows would sound the
same. Research, dedication and an ear for the many facets of "WXDU Music" all contribute. Don't take
the station, your shift or your musical picks/knowledge for granted. And, above all, HAVE FUN!




                                                 32
                                     Chapter 8:
                                     Equipment
    The Master Control Room is just that: the room from which you control all of the main equipment
used during broadcast. When you walk into the room you’ll see two walls of equipment surrounding the
DJ.




     When standing or sitting in front of the mixing board (as in the above picture) the three turn tables
will be to your left and two CD players will be in front of you. In the left corner is the Tower of Power,
containing, from the top, the EAS machine, a cassette deck, Minidisc player 1, minidisc player 2, CD
player 1, and a strange gray box with buttons you should never never touch. Below the Tower is
telephone and 2 light bulbs which indicate if phone is ringing or doorbell is being rung while you are
speaking into the mic. To the right of the Tower is the main microphone (main mic). To the right of the
mixing board is the computer. And to the right of the computer is microphone 1. Whew. Let’s look at
the equipment one at a time.

The Mixing Board
    While running your show you will use the mixing board to control all of the equipment: turning it
on and off and adjusting the volume remotely from the board. For example, you’ll cue up the particular
song you want on CD 2, but turn on the CD player from the mixing board.
    There are many buttons and knobs and sliders on the board, way more than you’ll use in a typical
show. As a general rule, if you don't know what a button does DON'T TOUCH IT!



                                                   33
    Here are the controls you need to know about:

    In the middle is a bank of on/off and volume controls, called sliders, for each piece of equipment.
These will be explained in detail below.

    On the left are, from the top:
       Clock (orange numbers) telling you the official station time. Use it when recording
          transmitter readings, announcing time on the air, and judging when to do a station ID.
       Timer (green numbers) which resets each time you start at new piece of equipment. Since
          the MD and CD players have their own individual timers, this clock is useful mainly to judge
          when a song is about to end on an old-fashioned-but-much-loved album (as in vinyl).




                                                    34
    Above the sliders are meters which register your volume levels. The four to the right tell you how
loud or soft your broadcast is. Watch these frequently to try to keep your volume consistent, ideally with
the meter pointing at 0 (about 2 o'clock on the dial), occasionally dancing a little above zero into the
"red" part of the meter. It is especially easy to be too soft when using the mic, so watch your levels while
you talk and adjust the slider accordingly.




    To the right of the meters is the cue speaker, from which sound comes when you are cueing up a
song.




                                                    35
On the right of the sliders are, from the top:
   The Cue Volume Knob, which adjusts the volume of the cue speaker when you are cueing
      a song.
   A column of small gray buttons which determine which broadcast you hear through the
      monitors in the control room. Note that the top button is AIR and the bottom button
      is PGM. You should always monitor AIR, (keep this button depressed) as this is what is
      actually being broadcast over the air. It is possible to listen to what is being played in the
      control room but have nothing going out over the air. Monitoring AIR will insure that you
      hear dead air if there is dead air. The exception to this is if the broadcast is full of static, as
      sometimes happens in the early morning and evening. In this case you may want to monitor
      PGM to better able to hear your music. However, periodically switch back to AIR to insure
      you are still on the air, and leave the AIR button depressed when you end your show.
   Below these buttons are the volume control for the sound in the control room (MCR Monitor
      Volume) and a headphone volume control, both labeled as such.




                                                36
37
    Now we get to the heart of the mixing board, and thus the heart of the control room: the sliders.

    Each slider is labeled to identify which piece of equipment it controls. ―Mic‖ means microphone;
―TT‖ means turn table, ―CD‖ means CD player, and ―MD‖ means minidisc. (The pieces of equipment are
labeled accordingly, except the microphones; the Main mic is the one you talk into; Mic 1 is the
microphone over the computer, useful for guests who want their own 15 minute of fame).

The other things you need to know about the sliders are:

          The dial labeled S/L+R/L/R for the equipment should always set these on S, which means
           Stereo, so that your music will go out to your listening public in stereo.
          The slider, controls volume. For newer CDs (since, say 1990) set the volume control below
           0, at about –10 or so. For vinyl albums or older CDs, set the volume control at about 0 (or
           higher). Watch your levels (that is, WATCH YOUR LEVELS) and adjust the volume
           gradually if you need to. Remember, you want the volume to hover around the 2 o'clock
           mark (just in the red) of the meters.
          The cue button is below the slider. Press it to set that particular device into cue mode. This
           allows you to hear it through the board but it won’t go over the air. You can then cue up the
           device. Remember to turn off the cue button when you are ready. It's a good idea to keep
           the slider down while cueing; you don't want to accidentally send what your cueing over the
           air.
          On and Off buttons, which turn the device (CD, MD, and Turntable) on and off remotely.
           Always use the ON and OFF button to autostart these devices. If the autostart feature is not
           working properly, notify the station Engineer. Note that some device can be turned on off
           with the slider such as the Mic and the Turntable.
          If the level on a piece of music is too low/high, adjust it by gently and slowly moving the
           slider up or down to a more appropriate level (again "0" on the VU meter, going occasionally
           into the red).
          Don’t' ever leave your music levels maxed out into the red of the VU meter. While it might
           sound okay through the MCR monitors, odds are that the sound will be distorted on your
           listeners radios.
          Always aim to have your levels about the same; do your best to keep each different piece of
           music and your talksets at the "0" level on the VU.




                                                   38
For your purposes, these are all of the controls that you need to know about.




                                                   39
The CD Players
     There are, in configurations which change as needed to accommodate worn-out equipment, two
different kinds of CD players. The regular kind (el cheapo Sony brand), and the fancy radio station kind
(the "Gemini"). At this writing, CD1 is fancy.




     But the Gemini is easy to cue up. Press the cue button on the control board below the CD1 slider.
Make sure that the CD player is set to ―Single Autocue‖ If not, then set it by pressing the ―Single
Autocue‖ button on the Gemini! Put the CD in, use the < > buttons to skip to a track. If you want to
listen to the track, press PLAY and use the << >> buttons to skip through the track. When you have
found the right track, press the CUE button on the Gemini (not the one on the board) to set it to the
beginning of the track. (and don't for get to turn off the Cue button on the board). When you press the
ON button on the mixing board, the CD player will start up immediately, and will automatically stop
when the song is over.

CD2 and CD3 are the kind you are more likely to have yourself.




To cue a song, press the cue button below the CD2 or CD3 slider on the board. Put the CD in. If you
want to listen to different tracks, press play, and use the AMS knob to skip to a new track. Use the <<
>> buttons to skip through a particular track as you listen. When you’ve found the song you want, do
one of the following:
    1. Press the PLAY MODE button on the CD player until the word ―program‖ shows up in the
        window. Use the ON Button on the board to start the CD player. Using this method, the CD will
        stop automatically when the song is over. Be aware that when you use the program mode there
        is a slight delay (3-4 seconds) between the time you press ―on‖ on the board and the time the CD
        player starts up.
    2. Hit PLAY and then PAUSE. Make sure the track is cued to the very beginning. If not, you can
        use the AMS knob to spin it to the beginning. Use the ON Button on the board to start the CD
        player. Remember to slide the volume down after the song, as the CD player will not stop
        automatically using this method. The advantage of this method is that the CD player will start up
        immediately.



                                                   40
The Minidisc Players
    The Minidisc Players work essentially the same as the CD players. Use CUE Button on the board to
preview tracks (remember to turn it off). Move through tracks using the Control Knob or the << >>
buttons. Use the Program Mode (again switch to with the PLAY MODE button) to ensure the MD will
only play one track. To select a Track in the Program mode, just push in the Control knob. Hit PLAY
and PAUSE, and there will be no pause when you start the MD. Finally, Use the ON Button on the
board to start the MD player.




The Turntables
      The turntables are labeled from left to right 1, 2, and 3. TT3 is the newest, and thus best. TT1
usually works well too. TT2 works, but it's usually covered up. Feel free to remove the cover and use it.
      To cue up a record, put the record on the turn table, start it up, and swipe it with the cleaner. Press
the cue button on the slider for the appropriate turn table. When cueing up a record, you want the
needle will be far enough away from the beginning of the song that you won’t broadcast a long revving
up sound as the turn table gets up to speed. To do this, place the needle carefully before the beginning
of the track you want. Listen until you hear the first sounds of the track, then stop the turn table. You
might have to spin the record back and forth manually until you hear silence. This is the very beginning
of the song. Continue turning it backwards another 100° or so to give the turn table enough start-up
space. Now your record is cued up! Just press the ON button on the board and it will autostart.
      While most of the vinyl record library is 33 rpm and the turn tables are usually set to that, if the
song sounds funny you may need to check the rpm on the record and adjust the turntable accordingly.
      You can use the timer on the mixing board (see above) to help keep track of how long the record
has been playing, and how much time you have left. You can also look at the needle on the track to see if
it’s near the end. Remember that records don’t stop automatically, so you must stop it remotely or turn
the volume down after the song is over.

The Transmitter
     Our transmitter sends our signal out to the avid listeners throughout the Triangle (well, mostly on
the West side of the Triangle. While you can pick us up quite well in Alamance County, our signal really
doesn't penetrate too well into Wake County, or even all that well into Chapel Hill).
     As well as being able to take transmitter readings, you need to know how to turn the Transmitter on
and off, should you run into a situation were you have been given permission to turn the station off, or if
you should come to the station and find it shut down. Since WXDU operates 24/7, ideally there is no
need to turn the transmitter (and thus the station) on and off; in fact repeated cycles of on/off will cause
the transmitter to malfunction. However, if you find that you must turn the station on or off, here’s how
to do it.




                                                     41
    Turning the Station/Transmitter ON
     You do not need permission to turn the transmitter on, unless otherwise specified by the engineers
(e.g. for maintenance purpose). Any time the transmitter is on, you or another authorized DJ must be
signed on in the OpLog and present in the station.

    1. If it has not already been done for the day, perform a Daily EAS Monitor check (See below).
          Record the check on the first page of the Op Log for that day.
    2. Turn on the studio equipment that the last DJ shut off (CD players, turntables, etc.).
    3. Prepare for your show: cue up your first CDs and records, start your flowsheet.
    4. Fill out the proper information for your time slot on the OpLog.
    5. Make sure you are monitoring AIR.
    6. Turn on transmitter as follows:
         Call transmitter by dialing 919-732-2413; the system will answer on the fourth ring and say
             "enter."
         On the phone dial push 88788788; the system will identify itself.
         Record the time on the log.
         Press "66"; the system will say "OK"; then press "00#". The transmitter will come on.
         Take readings as detailed on page 22.
    7. Broadcast a legal ID ("WXDU-Durham"). This must be the first thing that you broadcast.
    8. Start your show.

    Turning the Station/Transmitter OFF
     You must have permission from the programming director to turn the transmitter
off. If a situation arises in which you need to shut down, PAGE the Programming staff (970-4616). If
you cannot reach the programming director, leave a note in the PD mailbox or send an email
(progdir@www.wxdu.org) explaining the situation. Leave a note in the MCR for the next DJ, and leave
the handbook open to the Turning the Station/Transmitter ON section.

    1. Broadcast a legal ID ("WXDU-Durham"). This must be the last thing you broadcast.
    2. Make sure you are monitoring AIR.
    3. Turn off the transmitter as follows:
         Call transmitter by dialing 919-732-2413; the system will answer on the fourth ring and say
           "enter."
         On the phone dial push 887-887-88; the system will identify itself.
         Record the time on the log.
         Press "66"; the system will say "OK"; press "00*". The transmitter will shut down.
         Take a set of meter readings, and record them on the OpLog, to be certain transmitter is off.
           (all readings should be 0).
    4. Turn off CD players, turntables, minidisk and cassette players. Leave all other equipment on.
    5. Clean up and file your CDs and records.
    6. When you leave the station, make sure that the front door locks behind you.




                                                  42
Emergency Alert System
     The Emergency Alert System (EAS) receives and transmits both tests and actual emergency
information. WXDU monitors two radio stations for EAS alerts, WQDR and G105; in other words, we
receive and transmit EAS tests and alerts with these stations. In addition, we monitor the National
Weather Service (NWS). While you are on the air, you may be required to transmit a test, or you may
receive emergency information which you need to relay over the air. You should know how to perform
all of the following:

           1) A Daily Monitor Check to confirm our connection to the stations we monitor. The first
              DJ on duty each day performs the Daily check, which is indicated in the OpLog.
           2) A Weekly Transmitting Test.
           3) A Weekly Receiving Test, sent by the stations we monitor.
           4) A Monthly Test, also sent by the stations we monitor.
           5) An Alert, to be read over the air, or sent out using the EAS.

Here is how you perform each of these functions:

    1) Daily Monitor Check
    To be performed by first DJ of the day to sign on the OP LOG, (usually the midnight–2 am DJ).

We monitor three emergency channels that send us information through the EAS unit:
    MON 1 = WQDR (you should hear Country Music, DJs or commercials when checking)
    MON 2 = G105 (you should hear boring Rock Music, DJs or commercials when checking)
    MON 3 = National Weather Service (you should hear a monotone computerized voice when
     checking)

To check that these channels are tuned:
       1) Press ENTER under MENU (first button of the four on far left).
       2) Use the up/down arrows to scroll down to MONITOR SOURCE and press ENTER.
       3) Scroll down to MON 1, press ENTER, listen to verify setting for MON 1. Press ENTER again,
           scroll to MON 2, listen, press ENTER again, scroll to MON 3, listen.
       4) Scroll up to NONE, press ENTER, scroll up to GO BACK, press ENTER to return to main
           menu.
       5) Note on OpLog the time you made check and if check was OK.


    2) Weekly Transmitting Test
    The OpLog may indicate that you are do to a weekly test, or the station engineer may ask you to do
a weekly test.
   1) Be sure that the "AIR" button is depressed on the MCR console.
   2) Insert the EAS Minidisk into a player and CUE it up. Make sure the MD will start with no pause
       (Press "PLAY" and then "PAUSE").
   3) Press WEEK on the EAS unit.
   4) Start the minidisk playing. When the first track finishes playing, depress PROCEED on the EAS
       unit.
   5) Listen to be sure that you hear the six beeps on the air monitor (not just out of the speaker on
       the EAS unit). Record on the transmitter log that you sent the test.

     The EAS minidisk is kept with the other station Minidiscs in the shelf above CD 2 and CD 3. There
are three tracks on the disk, an Intro, a 10 second gap of silence, and an Outro. The gap corresponds to
the time during which the EAS unit will send the six beeps. Thus, you need only to start playing the
minidisk and be sure to hit PROCEED immediately after the first track finishes.


                                                   43
    3) Weekly Receiving Test
    Receiving a test does not affect the broadcast. If a test is received, a message will print from the
EAS unit. Staple this paper to the left-hand side of the OpLog (Transmitter Log) and make an entry on
the OpLog indicating that a test was received.

    4) Monthly Test
     Monthly tests received from WQDR or G105 will be indicated by a printout. This test must be
relayed by WXDU within 15 minutes of receipt. When a test starts, the INCOMING light on the EAS
unit will come on as will the green light on the console.
    1) Above the four buttons you will see "MENU" -- "WEEK" -- "MSG" -- "PENDING."
    2) Push the button below PENDING.
    3) Scroll through options to SEND
    4) Press SEND; three beeps, then a message, then three beeps, will go out over the air -- as always,
        be sure AIR is depressed on the console so that you can confirm the test was sent.

    NOTE: The system will automatically broadcast this monthly test 12 minutes after it is sent to
WXDU – you can see it counting down on the screen. If you don't know what to do, do nothing and
everything will be fine, the test will be sent automatically. As with weekly tests, staple and log the
monthly test on the OpLog.

    5) Incoming Alerts
     These are emergency messages about catastrophic events or just simple weather alerts, such as
severe thunderstorm warnings. When an alert comes in, the Incoming Alert light on the EAS unit will
come on. A printout with the emergency information will issue from the unit. In most cases, the unit
will send the alert message automatically over the air. If the EAS fails to send the message
automatically, do the following:

READ THE MESSAGE OVER THE AIR. A better idea for all Nation Weather Service alerts as your
voice sounds much, much better than the computerized NWS voice. Just read the message; staple and
log the alert in the OpLog.

SEND THE MESSAGE WITH THE EAS.
   1) Over the third button on the unit you will see PEND.
   2) Push the third button and you will see "Send Cue Opt Abort". NOTE: If you do not see "Send
      Cue Opt Abort" but instead see "Again ? Done", push "Again?" until you do see "Send Cue Opt
      Abort".
   3) Be sure that the "AIR" button is depressed on the MCR console.
   4) Then press SEND on the EAS unit.
   5) Watch the short countdown on the EAS screen and listen to determine if the emergency message
      goes out over the air.
   6) Staple and log the alert in the OpLog.

    NOTE: When the EAS sends a message over the air, it will NOT cause the VU meter indicators to
move; the only way to know that listeners received the message is to listen with the AIR button
depressed. If you have music playing, it will be muted by the EAS; no need to pot down.

     There are many levels of Alerts. Our EAS is set up is so that Weather Warnings will relay within a
few minutes, Weather Watches will not. Warnings are deemed threatening while watches mean
something might happen. We leave it up to the operator to decide if they want to tell the listeners about
the watches. You should read Weather Watches over the Air.
     Then you have the tests which are the RMT (required monthly test) and RWT (required weekly
test). RWT's must be sent from every station in radio land once a week at random times, the RMT is
sent from a LP1 or LP2 or the National Weather Service/ State emergency management. This test is

                                                    44
sent at a scheduled time and every station must relay this message within 15 minutes of getting it.
(There are Items 3 and 4 above).
    The final big daddy alert is the EAN. This is the government taking control of every station and
means that the crappola has hit the fan. We hope to never get one of these.

       EAS Problems
    If you experience any problems sending tests (e.g., you don't hear the beeps), document them on
the OpLog and leave a note/drop an email to the Station Engineer.
    If the tape does not come all the way out of the unit even after it has finished printing, you may
gently pull it straight out. If the alert light on the unit and green light and alarm on the console will not
go off after receiving an incoming alert or test, the best way to kill 'em is to send a practice test (so the
beeps will not go on the air). Press MENU, scroll down to PRACTICE, press ENTER, press WEEK, then
PROCEED. You'll hear 6 beeps from the speaker on the unit and the alarms/lights should then silence

The Computer
     Currently, the MCR Computer is an older machine (read S-L-O-W!) running LINUX. If it happens
to reboot, you'll find the ID and Password taped to the monitor (they're both "XDU") Some thing you
need to know about the Computer:
     The Request Line Window. Many of your listeners will send you requests via the internet. To
read these requests, you should occasionally check the Request Line Window on the MCR Computer.
There's a handy little short-cut to it on the Task bar on the bottom. Double Click on it to open it.
ALWAYS KEEP THIS WINDOW OPEN AND CHECK FOR REQUESTS!
     Netscape Navigator. Again, there's a short-cut to it. It's also accessible in the Programs menu.
     DJ Cam Window. Most of us like to keep the DJ Cam window open so we can see how goofy we
look. If the window is closed and you want to see it, simply open Navigator and surf to the DJ Cam on
the WXDU website.
     Odds are that our trusty Mac will be back in place soon. We hope. Report any problems with the
computer to the Computing Director.


The DJ Cam
    Our DJ Cam sends out an image ever 50 seconds. Great for capturing your most embarrassing
moments of yawning, standing around like a doofus with your mouth agape, picking your nose, or
scratching your butt. If you don’t like the DJ Cam focused on you, you can turn it to show …the
Monkey, or the bobble head of the esteemed Viva, or an interesting CD or album cover. Enjoy it.

Climate Control
You have 3 means of Climate Control at your disposal:
       The Window. For those beautiful Spring and Fall days. NOTE: Never open the window
          behind the Shelf of Plenty. It's really, really hard to close again.
       The Thermostat. Located by the door as you're walking out of the MCR. Works just like
          your thermostat at home. Turn on COLD for AC, turn on HEAT for the heater. Adjust to the
          desired temperature with the slider at the top.
       The Radiator. There is a steam radiator for additional heat in the winter. It's located in the
          MCR, along the wall, below the Ms and Ns in the Rock Library. Turn the handle on the side
          to counterclockwise to open (more heat); turn Clockwise to close (less heat).

The Lightbulbs
    In between the phone and the tower of power are two light bulbs. These light up to alert you to the
phone or doorbell, and they are particularly useful if they ring while you are on the air (that is, doing a
mic), as the phone won't ring when the mic is on; however, the green light bulb next to it will light up,
along with a flashing button to let you know which line it is.

                                                     45
The Telephone
     It is a joy to operate something so simple in the midst of juggling the mixing board and it’s various
devices. If the phone rings, simply depress the whichever light on the phone is flashing — either 8870
or 8871 -- to answer that line. Despite being labeled as such, the buttons on the gray box above the
telephone are not to be used to answer the phone. Don’t touch them. Depressing these buttons
messes up the phone system completely.
     The two clear plastic buttons on the lower left of the phone will switch you between our two
hotlines: 684-8870 and 684-8871. Aside from that, you shouldn't need to bother with any of the other
buttons. Most of us answer the phone by simply saying, "WXDU." Be sure to be polite on the phone, no
matter how obnoxious the person on the other end may be. The phone won't ring when the mic is on;
however, the green light bulb next to it will light up, along with a flashing button to let you know which
line it is. (and, don't push in that flashing button; use the buttons on the phone). If the bulb is flashing
without a corresponding phone number lighting up, it means someone is ringing the doorbell.

The Microphones
    When you turn on the microphone the monitors in the MCR cut off so that the Mic doesn't
feedback. Therefore, it's always necessary to use the headphones to listen to yourself speak. Also,
remember that the microphones are directional, meaning that you need to speak directly into them to
be heard. Don’t put your mouth right on them, however, because you’ll sound distorted, and besides it’s
unhealthy to share germs with the DJs before and after you. When reading a PSA or your playlist into
the mic, hold it in front of you so that you can speak directly into the mic.




                                                    46
                     Chapter 9:
             Frequently Asked Questions
What should I do if someone wants to contact a DJ?
     If it’s for someone on the board, then give the caller the office number (684-2957) or direct them to
the "People" page on the WXDU website <http://www.wxdu.org/people/> which has public contact
information for board members.. If it’s some complete stranger asking about a non-board member,
take a message and put it in the DJ’s box or drop them an email. If it’s some sort of emergency, call the
DJ with the info from the caller. In other words, never, never, never, never give out info on DJs.
There’s a reason the programming guide doesn’t include last names.

How do I get a specialty show?
    You don’t. If you’re reading this, you’re probably new to the station, and specialty shows go to
people with seniority. Hey, you can play whatever you want, as long as it’s not obscene and you meet
playlist requirements. If we let you come right in and do a specialty show, you wouldn’t be forced to
acquaint yourself with anything new.

Where can I find a Grid to apply for a shift?
     Before each new semester, paper copies of Grids are left out on the shelf between the mailboxes and
the bathroom. Grids may be submitted online also at DJSpace.

How do I fill out my Grid?
     Mark which shift you are available for. Rank them in order as groups: (1) for your most preferred;
(2) for the ones that would still be great; and (3) for the ones that you could live with. Remember, the
more shifts that you make yourself available for, the more likely you are to get a show. That said, don't
apply for a shift that you can't do. And, be realistic in which shifts you ask for.

What should I do if the next DJ doesn’t show up?
     Panic, and settle in for the long haul. Not really! First call the DJ in question — that’s why DJ
phone numbers are conveniently located in the OpLog next to their time slots. If they aren’t there, then
send the DJ an email (if you can), just in case. If you can’t stay, and it’s during hours when most people
could reasonably be assumed to be awake, post an email to the wxdu-internal list to see if anyone can
come in, and start calling people on the sub list. If this doesn’t work, call or page the program director.
If you can’t reach the next DJ and it’s the middle of the night/early morning, call the programming
pager (970-4616) to see if you can shut the station down and go home. However, if you can stay, please
do, because our goal is to keep the station on the air 24 hours a day.

Can I put on a long song or CD and leave the building?
    NO. It's illegal. The FCC requires that DJ be in the station, operating it, at all times that we are
broadcasting.


Can I bring in music from home?
     Of course you can, but you shouldn’t rely solely upon your own collection, because it’s finite and
you’ll soon begin to repeat yourself. The station has tons of music you’ve never heard and never heard
of, so take this opportunity to broaden your musical horizons. Browse the CDs as if you’re in a record
store, and you can take chances with your picks because you don’t have to put any money down. Take a
stroll through the vinyl if you want to find some really interesting stuff that’ll likely be new to you.


                                                    47
How do I go about getting a sub?
    First, post a message on the wxdu-internal@wxdu.org email list. If that doesn’t work, look at the
sub board, and if that doesn’t work, start calling people from the phone list. See "Subbing" in the
"DJing 102" chapter.

What if I’ve tried all of the above and have no luck?
    Call or email the program director. But you have to make the effort to get your shift covered — it’s
your responsibility. There’s that word again.

What if The (FCC) Man shows up?
    The Federal Communications Commission has the authority to drop in and check on a station’s
compliance with federal regulations at any time. Please make sure you understand the legal aspects of
WXDU policy before you go on the air. If you don’t you are putting our station license at risk.
    In the event someone from the FCC comes by the station during your show, ask for identification
before answering any questions. If it turns out the person is indeed an FCC inspector, congratulations!
You have the chance to be a major player in a radio station’s worst nightmare. Alert a board member
immediately, and be polite and accommodating.
    Things you might be asked if The Man comes a knockin’:
    Where is the station license posted? Our station license is posted on the wall over turntable
       one (between the windows).
    Where are the Operator Permits posted? Operators of stations with educational permits (such
       as this one) no longer have to have Operator Permits.
    Show me your station log. Show the inspector your properly filled-out station log (OpLog).
       Hopefully, you will have remembered to sign in as the DJ on the air.
    Demonstrate that you know how to operate your transmitter. Show the inspector that you
       have control of the transmitter -- that you can regulate the output power and can turn it off if
       necessary (but don’t actually do these things unless the inspector specifically asks). Show
       him/her that the power limits are posted and that the transmitter power is within legal limits.
    Prove that your tower lights are working. Our tower is under 200 feet, and therefore not
       required to have lights.
    Show that you are in compliance with the Emergency Alert System. Show the inspector that
       the system is monitoring WQDR, G105, and NWS correctly.
    Send an EAS test. Do it.
    Where’s your Public File? A station’s Public File is a collection of documents that are to be
       made available to the public during business hours. Listener letters, licensing documents, and
       other papers are in the file. Tell the inspector that the Public File is available for review at the
       office of the Vice President for Student Affairs on West Campus. The phone number there is
       684-3737.
    Where is a copy of the FCC rules? Downstairs in the office. A board member can access it for
       you.
    Finally, try to play the most inoffensive music you can locate while the inspector is there.

What if I want to have a guest on the show (such as a band
member) for an interview?
     First, clear it with the programming and music staffs. They can help advertise it. You still have to
do station IDs and read PSAs.

What if I want to have live music on my show?
    See above.



                                                    48
What do I do if I’m having equipment problems?
    If it’s not an emergency, email or page (if it’s a decent time of day) the Engineers (Chuck and Jim)
970-1310, and it’s a good idea to email the internal list, as well, just so other DJs are prepared. Then
put a note on the equipment. If it’s an emergency — for example, the board starts smoking — page the
Engineers immediately at 970-1310.

What if the Computer, DJ Cam, Website or Email lists are giving
me trouble?
      If it’s a computer problem, call the Computing Director — again, be aware of the time when calling.
If it’s very late/early, then send an email (computing@wxdu.org) or call when the hour is more
conducive to everyone being awake. If it’s a computer problem, it’s not going to be urgent, at this point
in the station’s computer use history. The Computing Director also maintains the Website, the DJ Cam
and the 2 email lists, so again contact him if you have problems subscribing/unsubscribing/posting to
the email lists or if you have concerns about the website or DJ Cam.

What if I have turn the station on or off?
     PAGE THE PROGRAMMING STAFF (970-4616)!!! You MUST get permission (or attempt to get
permission) to turn the station off. Follow the instructions for turning the station off found in the
"Equipment" section. Never leave the station on if there’s no DJ on the air, because that’s
illegal.




                                                   49
                            Chapter 10:
                         Duke Radio History
    Student radio at Duke began in the late 1940s when the Undergraduate Men's Student Government
Association formed a "radio council" to look into the possibility of establishing a campus radio station.
Their efforts produced WDBS (Duke Broadcasting System), which signed on the air in 1950 on AM
frequency 560.

    WDBS's offices and studios were located in the basement of the Gray building. It used carrier-
current AM in order to broadcast to the University's dorms and union building. With carrier-current,
wires are placed in these buildings, and any radio plugged into an outlet in one of the buildings could
receive AM 560. In the '50s, this was the state-of-the-art way to broadcast.

     WDBS earned an excellent reputation for its programming. The music shows featured hits of the
day, as well as classical and jazz shows. The WDBS news and sports departments were nationally
acclaimed, winning "Best College News Department" awards from 1956-1959. David Hartman, former
host of "Good Morning America," got his start at WDBS.

    WDBS continued its broadcasting during the student activism of the '60s, with its music
programming changing to reflect students' changing tastes. WDBS was the first station to initiate a
program exchange with Radio Moscow. Each week, the two stations would air the other's show, with
complete translation of news and editorial comments. This program brought with it a lot of interest
from the CIA, and it was eventually stopped, for reasons that are still unclear.

    While the WDBS sports staff was covering national championship teams, the news department was
busy reporting on-campus events. The years 1967-69 were tumultuous ones on the Duke campus, and
the WDBS news team was always there with live news coverage, even when the main quad was tear-
gassed. In 1969, when student protesters took over both the Allen Building and the President's home,
WDBS reporters were inside sending out the only live reports from the scene. WDBS also sent a
reporter to the Republican and Democratic conventions in 1968; live reports were broadcast when
Chicago police clashed with young demonstrators outside the Democratic convention hall.

    FM radio had begun to achieve popularity in the late 60s, as students were attracted to the
advantages of stereo radio. The management of WDBS did not want to be left behind with its now-
outdated carrier current system. In 1969, WDBS managers and University officials began the search for
an FM frequency. With a $200,000 loan from the University, WDBS purchased the frequency 101.7
from the near-bankrupt WSRC. WDBS-FM signed on as Duke's new radio station in May of 1971. They
moved the studios into the once-condemned Bivins Building on East Campus.

    In order to repay the loan, WDBS intended to operate as a commercial, profit-making station, while
maintaining a student staff. However, the realities of commercial radio soon necessitated an entirely
professional staff, as former student volunteers stayed on to become employees. By 1973, there was
only a handful of student station members left, and WDBS was, for all practical purposes, no longer the
Duke station.

     In the early years, WDBS attracted a substantial following in the Triangle. It was one of the first
free-form album rock stations in the Southeast, and its reputation grew as it expanded its programming
to include blocks of classical and jazz music every day. The early WDBS certainly defined "alternative"
radio.

    WDBS was not without a major problem, though. The former students now managing it had no
previous business experience, and in no time, WDBS was losing money by the truckload. The
University continued to loan the station money just to meet its operating expenses.
                                                   50
     In the meantime, Duke students were without their own radio station. In the fall of 1974, with the
help of WDBS and the University, a group of students resurrected the antiquated carrier-current
system, and turned an old classroom next door to the Bivins building into their studios. WDUR signed
on the air at 1600 AM.

    WDUR received constant trouble from the old transmission system. The station's small budget
prevented them from buying any new equipment, and the old system had been allowed to deteriorate.
Only a few dorms could receive an acceptable signal. Station engineers spent much of their time
repairing the old transmission wires, only to have them go out again before too long.

     WDUR's fortunes brightened during the 1975-76 school year when the station officially became a
student activity, and began receiving funding from the Associated Students of Duke University (ASDU).
Reception was improved, and the station set up a direct line to the CI. The station grew, and developed
into a tight Top 40 format. "Duke Radio 16", as it was called, then added progressive rock and jazz
shows, and a juke box named "Otto", which automatically played singles at night, keeping the station on
the air 24 hours a day. Otto would insert taped messages to identify the station at regular intervals.
This sort of operation was legal because of WDUR's carrier-current status; a regular broadcast station
could not operate automatically under the law.

   As the story goes, the last message on Otto's tape said something like, "The first caller at 684-
XXXX wins $20.00." The number was that of the Program Director, who would then tell the caller he
knew nothing about any money, and then would proceed over to the station to rewind the tape.

    During the summer of 1977, a local commercial station petitioned the FCC for the call letters
WDUR. Since a carrier-current station is unlicensed, and actually makes up its own call letters, the FCC
granted the commercial station's request. The Duke station became WDUK.

   While all this was happening, WDBS continued to pile up a huge debt, losing much favor with the
administration in the process. By 1978, this debt was said to be over $400,000.

    Progressive rock grew to make up half of WDUK's programming, but the continued weak reception
prompted management to look into alternatives. The decision was made to research the possibility of
going FM. 1980 ended with two significant announcements: an open frequency had been found for an
FM station (88.7), and WDBS was moving off-campus, allowing WDUK to move into larger studios.

     Getting an FM station on the air is no trivial task: among other things, WDUK would need a large
amount of funding, University support, an FCC license, and a place to put the transmitter. The decision
on where to put the transmitter was pivotal. Due to nearby stations of 88.5 and 88.9, a new station on
88.7 would not be able to operate at a very high power level. If the transmitter were put on campus, it
could operate at a couple of hundred watts of power, and could reach almost a hundred square miles. If
the transmitter were put at a location in the Duke Forest in Hillsborough, it could operate at over one
thousand watts, and could reach over three hundred square miles. The latter option would be a gamble,
however, as studies showed that reception on campus could turn out to be marginal.

     Enticed by the offer of a larger coverage area, the management decided to put the transmitter in
Hillsborough, and an FCC application was prepared (a lengthy process). WDUK continued to operate,
and by this time progressive rock had entirely taken over the station's programming. Disaster was to
strike, though; in January of 1982, just as WDBS had finally left and WDUK was getting ready to begin
building it's new studios, the 32 year old transmission system died. The entire spring semester of 1982
was spent repairing the old transmitters.

    WDUK was finally back on the air by the 82-83 school year. Situated in it's new studios (the same
studios used today), the station fine tuned its progressive format tin anticipation of going FM. As it

                                                   51
turned out, the FCC acted surprisingly quickly on the University's application for an FM station, and on
December 1, 1982, the University was notified that it's request had been approved. Since a commercial
station with the call letters WDUK already existed, the name of the station was changed to WXDU.

     With a resounding 98% vote, the student body approved a referendum allocating $76,000 of their
activities fee for the construction of the new FM station. Vice President William Griffith, one of the
original members of the student "radio council" that founded WDBS in the late 1940s, provided
additional funding. As construction progressed, WDUK continued to get attention by being the only
station in the country to provide live coverage of the Duke-Indiana NCAA soccer championship game.

    In October of 1983, with the song "Station to Station" by David Bowie, WXDU signed on the air,
and a new era on Duke radio had begun.

     As it turned out, coverage on campus was indeed marginal. In 1984, the station applied for and
received FCC approval of an antenna change that would bring the stations Effective Radiated Power up
to its present level of 1600 watts. This improved coverage, but WXDU was still not providing adequate
service to campus. During the 1986-87 school year, the management researched the possibility of
putting an FM translator station on campus. A translator would pick up the station's main signal on
88.7, shift it to another frequency, and re-transmit it at a low power level. But because a translator
could be located on the campus, this power level would be enough to provide excellent service to those
who could not receive the station at all.

    The frequency 90.7 was chosen for the translator (and later changed to 103.5), and an FCC
application was submitted in June of 1987. The application was granted in September of 1987, and the
translator went on the air at the start of 1988.

    Over the next five years, WXDU developed a national reputation for the progressive music it
played, and the growing local music scene it promoted. Ironically, at the same time, some student
dissatisfaction with the station's format developed on campus. This culminated in the spring of 1992,
when the speaker of the ASDU legislature tried to single-handedly slash the station's budget to
subsistence level. His attempts were foiled by press coverage in the Chronicle of his dictatorial ways,
and an aggressive public counterattack by the station's executive board. Eventually, WXDU managed to
have most of it's original budget restored, but the whole incident was enough to prompt the board to
seek alternatives, so that such an incident would not happen again.

    During the 1992-93 school year, WXDU left the supervision of the student government and joined
the Duke University Union. The move has allowed the station to grow in new and exciting ways.
WXDU can now, for instance, sponsor concerts on campus at the Coffeehouse, and pool resources with
other Union groups such as Cable 13 and Major Attractions. The move also brought much-needed
financial support to WXDU, and has allowed the station to refurbish the dilapidated studio equipment
and furniture.

    In the years since then WXDU has continued to flourish with the support of the Union. We've
maintained a national reputation for great music, and in the late 90s/early 00s, our CBGF
programming has been noted on both the local and national levels.

     During Hurricane Fran in 1996, the WXDU Tower collapsed and we spent the next 2 years virtually
off the air with a very limited signal. Through a series of benefits and through the generosity of the
Duke Union, we were able to raise a new tower.

    As we head into 2003, XDU and the Union are beginning to plan out our eventual move from the
Bivins Building to a new location. We anticipate moving in the next 3-4 years.



                                                   52
                           Chapter 11:
                       Lingo! (the Glossary)
Air Check -- A tape of a radio show as broadcast, used to evaluate DJ performance, or to share your
talents with friends and family. Excellent car listening for the egotistic--after all, you know what you
like.

Backsell -- You’ve heard DJs announce the songs they’ve just played, from last to first? This is what
you call that.

Board -- Refers either to that large piece of mixing equipment that takes up lots of room in the MCR or
PR (also known as a console), or to the managerial board. This is context-dependent.

Cart -- Broadcast tape cartridge that looks like an 8-track; an interesting anachronism as we now use
minidiscs to hold announcements and intros, etc., for broadcast.

Cold fade -- A sudden end to a song.

Console -- See ―board.‖

Copy -- Printed material that’s read on-air, such as PSAs.

Cue -- You can cue up a piece of music to the place you want it to start, or you can cue another DJ to
start talking, start the music, bark like a dog, and what-have-you.

Cut -- a single track off of a record/CD/tape/minidisc.

Emergency Alert System (EAS) -- A nationwide network of stations that relays emergency
information to the public. You have likely heard the annoying beeps which preface the words ―This is a
test.‖

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) -- The federal agency that regulates all broadcasts.
These are the people who can take away our license for being obscene or broadcasting indecencies
outside of Safe Harbor.

Flowsheet -- The page on which you write down all of the stuff you play during your show.

Legal ID -- The legal station IDs are:
       "WXDU, Durham"
       "WXDU, Duke University, Durham"
       "WXDU, 88.7 FM, Durham"
     and nothing else. As a reminder, you must give a legal ID at the top of the hour (whenever the big
hand is on the twelve), immediately after turning on the station and immediately before going off the
air.

Level -- Volume of an audio signal. The console has many VU meters with which to check the levels.
Generally, you want to keep your levels at Zero, with the dial just dancing into the red part of the VU
meter.

Master Control Room (MCR) -- The glorious room from which WXDU makes radio history 24
hours a day, 365 days a year.

                                                    53
Modulation -- The relative volume of a radio signal; whose relative is unclear. For FM the modulation
of the signal may not exceed 100%.

OpLog -- The document on which a DJ signs on and off the air, records EAS events, and records
transmitter power readings. Also referred to as the Station log (right-hand side) and Transmitter log
(left-hand side).

Playlist -- Those titles which can be found in the MCR to the left of the board. These selections have
been deemed worthy of regular rotation by our esteemed music staff. You will be playing six of these for
every hour you’re on the air, unless you have a specialty show, which is highly unlikely.

Pot -- Both a noun and a verb, pot always refers to volume. Comes from "potentiometer." Synonyms
for the noun include slider and fader; all of these refer to those buttons on the board that move up and
down. Sometimes you might see the verb form used in a review in this way: ―Track 4 is quiet. Pot high.‖
Use the pot to pot the music.

Production Room (PR) -- A soundproof room in which to record promos, copy music to other
media, learn to use the board, etc.

Promo (Promotional Announcement) -- Broadcast to advertise programming on WXDU.

Public Service Announcement (PSA) -- WXDU broadcasts PSAs for local non-profit organizations
to benefit both the organizations and our listeners.

Remote -- Broadcast originating from an out-of-studio location.

Segue -- (seh’-gway, not ―seeg‖) The transition, or mix, between two songs or between a talk set and a
music set.

Set -- A group of songs played without interruption, or a period of talking between songs. The first is
simply ―set‖, while the second is ―talk set.‖

Station Log -- See "OpLog."

Studio-to-Transmitter Link (STL) -- A system, other than the phone lines, used by a radio station
to get audio to the transmitter for broadcast.

Sub List -- List of WXDU DJs who don’t currently have shows, but are willing to fill in for a DJ during
their show.

Talkup -- To announce a record as the introduction is playing.

Translator -- A device that receives a signal on one frequency, shifts (translates) it to another, and
rebroadcasts it. At WXDU, the transmitter receives our main signal on 88.7 and translates it to 103.5.




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