To .Net or not to .Net

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					Platforms and tools for Web Services and Mobile


                 Bent Thomsen
               Aalborg University
            3rd and 4th of June 2004

         Services on Demand Vision

Array of Access Devices              Converged
                                 Networks / Broadcast

                      Cheap, Faster, Global
                     Networking via Internet

                               Cheap,               +
                          Faster Processing
                                               Revolutionary new
                                               business methods
             Interactive                       Unlimited choice
           Digital Content
                                               Individual is King
                             But how to build this vision?          2
               The Answer is: Web Services
• A Web service is like a Web site without a user interface, that serves programs
  instead of people.
• Instead of getting requests from browsers and returning web pages in response,
  a web service:
   – receives a request formatted in XML from an application,
   – performs a task,
   – and returns an XML-formatted response.

• Web Services are delivered using open industry standards
  – Services to be described in WSDL
  – Services to located via UDDI
  – Data to be exchanged via XML
  – Protocols are HTTP and SOAP

• BUT Back-end systems still need to be developed!

                The basic problem ...
• If you have software components ...
      •   ... and they shall work together in the same transaction
      •   ... and they shall have the same security boundaries
      •   ... and they shall share the same session state
      •   ... and they shall be remotely accessible
      •   ... and they shall not suffer from code overload
• Then you must have ...
      • ... an infrastructure that hosts such components for
            secure remote and local access
      • ... an infrastructure that manages transactions
      • ... an infrastructure that hides infrastructure code
• The answer is:
      • Applications on Application Servers
      • Implemented in an Enterprise Solution Framework              4
                  Sun One Architecture

Support major standards initiatives such as XML, SOAP, UDDI, WDSL
and … to make it ready for developers who want to take advantage of
the Services on Demand vision                                         5
                     Microsoft’s .NET

Support major standards initiatives such as XML, SOAP, UDDI, WDSL
and … to make it ready for developers who want to take advantage of
the Services on Demand vision                                         6
                     What is Microsoft .Net?
• It is a vision
   – The platform for the digital future
   – „.NET is Microsoft‟s platform for a new computing model
     built around XML Web Services‟
       Microsoft Corporation Annual Report, 2001

• It is a brand name
   – Applied to many things
• It is a set of products and technologies
   –   Infrastructure
   –   Tools
   –   Servers
   –   Services
• .Net is Microsoft‟s core business Strategy

                 .NET Technologies
• The .NET Framework
  – The CLR with support for XML Web services and more
  – Supporting Visual Basic.NET, C#, C++, and more
• The .Net development tools
  – Visual Studio.Net
• The .NET Enterprise Servers
  – BizTalk Server 2003, SQL Server 2003, Commerce Server
    2003 and more
• The .Net Services
  – Passport, My Services, bCentral, expedia and more

                     What is Java?
• The Java programming language
  – Took the world by storm in 1995 when introduced with the
    HotJava web Browser
  – Quickly integrated with Netscape browser
  – Now in Version 1.4
  – Coming soon Version 1.5
• The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
  – Now comes in many different flavours

                J2EE – Enterprise Java
• J2EE: Java 2 Enterprise Edition
   – Superset of Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE)
   – Adds enterprise features to Java Libraries

• Defined through the Java Community Process (JCP)
   – plus whatever Sun sees fit, Sun has last word
   – Sun writes almost all specs and other contribute
   – Submitters essentially surrender all rights to Sun
• Wholly owned property of Sun Microsystems
   – Licensing controlled by Sun, by Sun's rules
   – JCP Broadens Sun's architect's base

                             Enterprise Java
• J2EE (1.4+) is an infrastructure specification for:
    –   Components ("Beans")
    –   Data Source Connectivity
    –   XML and Messaging
    –   Web Pages and Web Services

• Implemented by: Sun, IBM, BEA, Oracle, etc.
    –   IBM WebSphere (37% market share 2002/33% 2000)
    –   BEA WebLogic (29% MS 2002/59% 2000)
    –   SUN iPlanet         (4% MS 2002/3% 2000)
    –   Oracle Application Server 9i
    –   Fujitsu Interstage
    –   …
                           Numbers from the web, allegedly originally from Gartner DataQuest
• All vendors implement core specification, but:
    – Some areas in J2EE are (intentionally) not specified
    – The more specific a functionality the more proprietary the implementation gets

 A typical .NET Enterprise Solution

              IIS on W2k Server

Browser                .NET        SQL
               ASP    managed     Server
              .NET   component


 A typical J2EE Enterprise Solution

                      Java App
                        Server      DB
                   Servlet         Server


J2EE Solutions vs Microsoft .Net Solutions

– Both multi-tiered, similar computing technologies
– Both support “standards”
– Both offer different tools & ways to achieve the same
– A lot of parallelism can be seen.
– Very difficult to compare and qualify the comparison
  because each has its own advantages &

    The TMC Petshop Performance Case Study

•   Java Pet Store is Sun‟s primary blueprint application for J2EE
•   The .NET Petshop is a port of the J2EE Java Pet Store to .NET
•   In the TMC Petshop Performance Case Study, The Middleware
    Company implemented both the Java Pet Store and the .Net
•   First version showed .Net 28 times faster than J2EE
•   Second version showed some J2EE implementation equal .Net
•   Second version is a testimony to performance tuning

        What do these comparisons tell us?
• It is very difficult to make such comparisons
• That .Net has gained maturity extremely fast
• That the two frameworks are very similar
• You will not be sacked for choosing the right J2EE
  application server ;-)
• The Devil is in the detail
    – C# is not Java
    – ADO.NET is not JDBC
    – CLR is not JVM

                          J2EE 1.5
• J2EE (1.5) preview of 26.4.2004
   – Focus on ease of development
      • Generics and metadata as in J2SE 1.5 (more like C#)
      • Java Studio Creator tool (in beta from April 2004) (more
        like Visual Studio .Net)
   – Timeframe
      • To be discussed at JavaOne in June
      • Finalized in approximately one year

   – IBM push for truly open source Java
   – Others hesitate (even Open Source JBoss)

                What about mobile?
• Web Services are fine as n-tier applications with UI
  provided through browser, but …
• On mobile devices WAP hasn‟t really caught on
• Even iMode hasn‟t caught on in Europe
• xHTML is looking promising though
• Renewed Thin/Thick client discussion
• Java applications on Mobile devices are reasonably
• Now Microsoft is moving fast into the field with .Net
  Compact Framework

             Two Devices

Nokia 6600                 Orange SPV E200
                Two Devices

Motorola V525                 Motorola MPx200
Two Devices

       Building Mobile Solutions is harder

• Mobile device
   – Software infrastructure, hardware requirements
• Communication technology
   – On-/Offline scenario
   – Wireless Wide Area Networks/ Wireless Local Area Networks
   – Communication protocol
• Application architecture scenario
   – Thin/fat client
• Data management
   – Synchronisation
   – On-/offline capabilities
• Security issues
   – Dangers for mobile devices
   – Threats of communication technology
   – Danger of exposing enterprise data

                             Therefore ...

 The Java vs. Net discussion goes mobile

• Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) is not ONE Java edition
• An J2ME compliant application consists of
   –   Configuration
   –   Profile (e.g. Personal, Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP))
   –   Application code
   –   Vendor specific UI
• 3 Contenders to compare
   – Java 2 Micro Edition – Connected Device Configuration (CDC)
   – Java 2 Micro Edition – Connected Limited Device Configuration
   – Microsoft .NET Compact Framework

                      Student Project
• Group of Master Level Students (Hovedfag)
   –   Bjørn D. Rasmussen
   –   Casper S. Jensen
   –   Jimmy Nielsen
   –   Lasse Jensen
• Collaboration with DEIF
• Project Goals
   – Build end-to-end mobile client, wireless, webservices based
     application with back-end interface to SCADA
   – In Java (J2ME/J2EE) and in .Net
   – Compare the two solutions on a set of criteria

                  Basis of comparison
Objective measurements      Subjective measurements
• Lines of code             • Developer satisfaction
• Development tools         • End-user satisfaction
• Documentation
• Infrastructure
• Performance
• Architectural pattern
• Security
• Price
• Development time

         DEIF M-Vision
(SCADA up and running in 30 minutes)

                  Subjective Measures
• Developer satisfaction
   – VS.NET integrates web service and mobile application
     development far better than any Java IDE
   – A subset of an API is a better solution for mobile devices
     instead of an entirely new API
• End-user satisfaction
   – DEIF would choose a .NET based solution since startup time
     is very important
   – DEIF only needs a limited number of IDE licenses
   – Extra price for a SmartPhone 2003 is insignificant compared
     to the value it gives
   – The SmartPhone 2003 is more ”fancy” than the Java phones

                  Students Conclusions
• We see .NET as a better designed framework because:
   – it eliminates the language barrier while also being platform
   – it makes only little distinction between desktop and mobile
     application development
• Sun‟s application server performance is very poor compared to
• License fees for a Java based solution are cheaper but .NET might
  catch up when considering development time

• We tried a combined .NET and Java solution but this has shown
  to be very troublesome!

                     My conclusions
• The two worlds are becoming more and more similar
  – But it seems that you have to work harder in Java than in .Net
  – .Net is currently driving technology transfer from Research to
• Windows generation at University now

• Watch-out in the mobile world
• Vodafone to offer Microsoft Smart phones
  – Fed-up with Nokia promoting own brand, rather than operator

           To .Net or not to .Net
       Choosing between Java and .Net

• The ultimate choice usually depends not on
  technical superiority, but on:
  –   cultural/”religious”/political preferences
  –   Customer preference
  –   Vendor relations
  –   Skill set of your developers
• You are most likely to be developing in
  both environments for the foreseeable future
• Look out for “The third way”
  – Linux, Apache, MySQL, PhP, …
              Beyond the short term
• Will somebody come up with a killer application?
• J2EE/J2ME or .Net/.Net CF are reasonably coherent,
  but maybe we will see a completely new platform
• Network operators seem reluctant to move to 3G
• And what about 4G?

An example:    Ericsson roadmap to 4G

 Ericsson defines 4G very broadly as seamless mobility for the
 user + all possible new infrastructure technologies

                     Billing         SIP Proxy     Signalling WAP Accounting     ISP
                               VHE    Server        Gateway

Satellite FES
                                                                     Context-aware information
                                                 IP backbone

Broadcast Networks
   (DAB, DVB-T)
                                                                           GSM /
                                                       micro-mobility          Wireless

We talk about 4G today because the future is open

•The term 3G was coined at academic conferences around 1990.
Then 3G meant everything beyond GSM

•One (dropped) 3G vision was mobility by wireless, + personal
phone-numbers, following the individual globally at closest fixed line

•Later the ”1G”, ”2G”, ”3G” terminology was captured by equipment
vendors in the mid 90s for selling UMTS to the market and regulators

Anybody remember the hype around 4G and 5G programming
languages in the 80s ?

Will anybody talk about ”4G ” in 2010?   I’m sceptical

     Next Innovation “S – Curve” - Mobile
% Adoption                                         Cascading S-Curves


                                                 Web         Mobile
              Mainframe           PC
                                             E-commerce     Solutions
             Minicomputer    Client-Server
                                             E-business    Web Services
              (30 years)      (15 years)
                                              (7+ years)

             80’s           90’s              00           05

     Issue: How and When should firms make the shift
         from the E-Business “S curve” to Mobile?

     The Tale of Two Perspectives

                           Business Value, ROI
Enterprise                   and Application
Customer                   Deployment Issues!
  Focus                      Not Technology

                           Selling mobile
                            technology hype
                          Selling unrealistic
Vendor                      solutions e.g., m-
Focus                      commerce portals

Vendors are ignoring customers demands: show me
    how to make or save money using mobile?

Future Dreams anno 1993


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