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The Unified Process Inception Phase

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									                                         Overview
     Unified Process (UP) development methodology
           Consists of phases, iterations, and disciplines
           Provides framework for project definition and
            execution
     Project management: critical support discipline
     Project Management prominent in inception phase
     Tasks include monitoring and controlling projects

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                 3.1 Project Management
     Development project artifacts (products)
           Development of a new software system
           Enhancement or upgrade of an existing system
           Integration of software into existing environment
     Projects constrained by schedule and resources
     Project novelty presents great challenges
           Different products are produced
           Different activities required for varying schedules
           Different resources are used
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                   Project Success Factors
    Development projects produce software systems
    Projects are wide ranging
          Simple Web sites
          Implementation of real-time business applications
    Issues complicating project management
          Sophisticated business needs
          Changing technology
          Integrating OS, support programs, and new systems
    Project success rate very low: 28 percent as of 2000

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                    The Role of the Project
                          Manager
 Project manager coordinates project development
 Specifications in a detailed plan at project inception
       Activities that must take place
       The deliverables that must be produced
       Resources needed
 Project manager accountable for success or failure
 Project manager has internal/external responsibilities
 Many career paths lead to project management
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                                           Figure 3-1
                                Various Roles of Project Managers
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                       Project Management
                        Knowledge Areas
 The Project Management Institute (PMI)
       Professional organization promotes project management

       PMI provides extensive support material and training

       Defines specialist’s body of knowledge (BOK)

 PMBOK organized into nine knowledge areas

 PMBOK principles to be applied to iteration activities
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      Project Management within the
              Unified Process
   Project management is a support business discipline
   Project management tasks prominent at inception
   Other important disciplines of inception phase
         Business modeling
         Environment
         Requirements
         Design
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                                   Figure 3-2
                     UP Phases and Iterations with Disciplines

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      3.2 The Unified Process and the
              Inception Phase
     Inception phase of the UP has (5) objectives
           Identify the business need for the project
           Establish the vision for the solution
           Identify scope of the new system and the project
           Develop preliminary schedules and cost estimates
           Develop the business case for the project
     Inception phase may be completed in one iteration
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              Business Modeling and the
                   Inception Phase
      Primary purpose: understand business needs

      Chief activities
            Understand the business environment

            Create the system vision

            Create business models

      Business modeling interwoven with requirements

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          Understanding the Business
                Environment
   Objective: understand project operational context
   Initial document: statement of business problem
   Two follow-up activities
         Considering needed interfaces to other systems
         Evaluating existing architecture
   Criticality of performing stakeholder analysis
   Stakeholders: people with an interest in the system
         Users, sponsors and support staff
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           The Stakeholders for Rocky
              Mountain Outfitters
       Identify all of the stakeholders
       Most important executive stakeholders
             RMO project sponsor: VP William McDougal
             Executive stakeholders: John and Liz Blankens
       Other stakeholders
             Operational users such as sales reps and mail
             Warehouse workers
             Technical staff
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                                       Figure 3-5
                        Sample Stakeholder Analysis Form for RMO
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             Creating the System Vision
  Purpose: justify strategic importance of new system
  Clear vision statement includes (3) essential pieces
        Precisely specified objective(s)
        Concrete (dollar value) benefits tailored to sponsors
        System capabilities meeting objective(s)
  Project charter: defines need, objective, benefits, scope
        System vision
        Statement of business need
        Stakeholder analysis form
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                                   Figure 3-6a
              Objectives, Business Benefits, and System Capabilities
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                                   Figure 3-6b
              Objectives, Business Benefits, and System Capabilities
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               Creating Business Models
   Three major areas normally require business models
         Business events

         Business processes

         Information repositories and flows

   Business models tied to system requirements

   Model format and rigor vary with each project

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         Environment and the Inception
                   Phase
   Discipline concerned with development environment
   Several activities are included
         Select and configure the development tools
               ◘ IDEs and CASE
         Tailor the UP development process
         Defining the rigor of a project
         Provide technical support services
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                                   Figure 3-7
              Sample Criteria for Defining Rigor of Project Controls

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               Finalizing the System and
                     Project Scope
     System scope: defines capabilities of new system
     Project scope: describes how project is to be built
           Provides disposition toward staff training
           Provides data conversion information
           Sets parameters for quality control
     System scope is part of the larger project scope
     Essential use case model helps delineate scope
     Essential use case list attached to the project
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                                       Figure 3-8
                             System Scope and Project Scope

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                                    Figure 3-9
                      Sample Essential Use Case List for RMO

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             Developing the Project and
                Iteration Schedule
      Development team sets schedule for project and
       iterations

      Tasks involved in scheduling:

            Develop the work breakdown structure (WBS)

            Develop the schedule

            Develop resource requirements and staffing plan

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                        Developing the WBS
      Two general approaches for building a WBS
            By deliverable timeline
            By a sequential timeline
      Four techniques for identifying WBS tasks
            Top-down: Identify major activities first
            Bottom-Up: List all tasks first and organize later
            Template: Use standard template of tasks
            Analogy: Copy tasks of similar completed project

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                 Developing the Schedule
     Project schedule orders all activities and tasks
     Building the schedule
           Identify dependencies between the tasks on WBS
           Estimate the effort that each task will require
     Dependencies: identify related tasks
           Finish-start relationships
           Start-start relationships
           Finish-finish relationships
     Scheduling tool: Microsoft Project
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             Entering the WBS into MS
                       Project
      Two types of charts used to show project schedule
            PERT/CPM chart
            Gantt chart
      Charts show same information in different formats
      Key metrics
            Critical path
            Slack time, or float
            Milestones
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                                        Figure 3-11
                             Entering the WBS Into MS Project
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                                       Figure 3-13
                        Gantt Chart of RMO’s Inception Iteration
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           Develop the Resource
        Requirements and the Staffing
                   Plan
   Core team members very active in inception iteration

   Most early tasks are project management activities

   MS Project allows several ways to input resource
    information

   Formula for effort: Effort = Duration x Persons

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                                       Figure 3-16
                        Entering Resources for the Scheduled Tasks
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             Identify Project Risks and
             Confirm Project Feasibility
       Feasibility analysis: verifies project viability
       Activities used to evaluate a project’s feasibility
             Assess the risk to the project (risk management)
             Determine the organizational/cultural feasibility
             Evaluate the technological feasibility
             Determine the schedule feasibility
             Assess the resource feasibility
             Perform cost/benefit (economic) analysis
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             Assessing the Risks to the
            Project (Risk Management)
     Feasibility analysis also includes risk management
     Risk management: identify potential trouble spots
     Organize potential problems in risk matrix
     Project manager bases two strategies on matrix
           Preventing the negative event
           Developing a contingency plan

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                                       Figure 3-17
                                 Simplified Risk Analysis

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           Determining Organizational
            and Cultural Feasibility
   Identify organizational and cultural risks
   Some potential human risks impacting new system
         Low level of computer competency among employees
         Perceived shifting of organizational power
         Fear of employment loss due to increased automation
         Reversal of long-standing work procedures
    One way to counter risks: training sessions
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         Evaluating the Technological
                  Feasibility
      Staffing should have technological proficiency
      Solutions to problem are straightforward
            Provide additional training
            Hire consultants
            Hire more experienced employees
            Possibly alter scope and approach of the project
      Realistic assessments speedup corrective response
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               Determining the Schedule
                     Feasibility
  Development of project schedule involves high risk
  Assumptions and estimates made without adequate
   information
  Adaptive projects very susceptible to schedule risks
  Project managers use milestones to evaluate pace
   and compensate for slippage
  Contingency plans help reduce the risk of slippage

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                    Assessing the Resource
                          Feasibility
      Human and other resources to assess
      Primary resource consists of team members
                  ◘ Systems analysts, system technicians, users
            Support staff
            Computer resources and physical facilities
      Factors adversely impacting human resource
            Lack of required people skill sets
            Relocations or departures
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              Determining the Economic
                     Feasibility
   Economic feasibility consists of two questions
         Does anticipated value of benefits exceed project costs?
         Is there adequate cash flow to fund the project?
   Cost/benefit analysis determines economic feasibility
   Developing cost/benefit analysis is a three-step process
         Estimate anticipated development and operational costs
         Estimate the anticipated financial benefits
         Subtract costs from benefits
   MS Project supports cost/benefit analysis
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                                      Figure 3-18
                         MS Project Showing Project Labor Costs

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                               Figure 3-22
   Net Present Value, Payback Period, and Return on Investment for RMO
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         3.3 Completing the Inception
                   Phase
  Inception activities are project foundation
  Summary of key deliverables of inception
        Project charter package
        Essential use case list
        Project schedule
        Cost/benefit analysis
        Project feasibility and risk analysis
  General scope and approach should be clearly defined
  Scope and essential use case lead to elaboration phase

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             3.4 Project Monitoring and
                       Control
  Maintaining pace requires periodic adjustments
  Methods for overseeing UP phases
        Manage and control plan (schedule and deliverables)
        Manage and control internal/external communications
        Manage and control the risks and outstanding issues
  Schedules should balance flexibility with firm targets
  Project manager is communication gateway or nexus
  Project manager should maintain log of open issues
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                                         Summary
    Project management processes: initiating, planning,
     monitoring, controlling, closing
    Project manager is liaison and project focal point
    Project Management Institute divides knowledge into
     nine major areas (PMBOK)
    Develop skills managing integration, scope, cost,
     quality, communication, human resources, risk, and
     procurement

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                      Summary (continued)
    Unified Process (UP): methodology for software
     development
    UP basic premise: software developed in iterations
    Iteration: mini-project
    Four phases: inception, elaboration, construction,
     and transition
    Phases include development activities, called
     disciplines

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                      Summary (continued)

     Nine disciplines in UP

     Chief inception phase disciplines: (1) business
      modeling (2) environment (3) project management

     After inception, project manager tracks and
      controls project



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