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The Successful Career Of Juluis Caesar

Julius Caesar was born on the thirteenth day of the month Quintilis in the year of 100 BC.
His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar, the same as his father's. Gaius was his given
name and Julius was his surname. He was a strong political and military leader who
changed the history of the Greco-Roman world. This paper will answer the following
questions: What happened during his early political career? How did he become a strong
dictator of the Roman Empire? What events led up to the making of the first triumvirate?
What happened during his reign as dictator of Rome? What events led up to his
assassination? Julius Caesar is probably the most famous leader in history. (Grant, table
of dates p.1, and foreword p.xxi)

When he was young, Caesar lived through one of the worst decades in the history of
Rome. The city was assaulted and captured by Roman armies twice. First, in eighty-seven
BC by the leaders of the populares. (Caesar's aunt and uncle, Marius and Cinna.) Cinna
was killed the year that Caesar married Cornelia. The second attack against the city
happened in eighty-two BC. Marius' enemy Sulla, leader of the optimates, carried out the
attack. On each occasion the massacre of political opponents was followed by the
confiscation of their property. (Fowler, p.24)

Caesar knew that his public speaking needed improvement, he therefore announced that
he was leaving to study on the island of Rhodes. His professor was the famous Greek
rhetorician, Apollonius Molon. When he was off the coast of Anatolia pirates kidnapped
him. They demanded a large ransom for his return. Caesar broke free from the pirates and
captured a large number of them. He then returned to Rome to engage in a normal
political career. (Grant, p.9-11)

In the Roman political world Pompey and Crassus challenged the dominance of the
optimates. Quintus Latatius Catulus and Lucius Licinius Lucullus led the optimates. Sulla
was responsible for creating their careers. Caesar married Pompeia after Cornelia's death.
Then, in sixty-five BC he was appointed aedile. The aedile was in charge of the programs
of the city such as games, spectacles, and shows. As aedile, Caesar gained claim to the
leadership of the populares. (Grant, p.12)

Before leaving Rome to govern Spain for a year, Caesar divorced his wife because of an
allegation that she had been involved in the offense of Publis Clodius. Clodius was
awaiting trial for breaking into Caesar's home the previous December. While on his trip
to Spain, Caesar was very successful. He returned in a short time with considerable
military glory and enough money to pay off all his debts. (Abbott, p.64)
A short while after his trip, Caesar was elected for consul in fifty-nine BC. He joined a
political alliance with Pompey and Crassus. This alliance was named the first triumvirate.
Pompey possessed a great influence through his splendid abilities and military renown.
Crassus was powerful through his wealth. Caesar developed a plan to reconcile them, and
then of favoring himself with their united aid in accomplishing his own deeds. (Abbott,
p.71)

Caesar's purpose in the triumvirate was to gain a large military command. Pompey
wanted a part of the eastern settlement and land allotments for his discharged troops. An
agrarian bill authorizing the purchase of land for Pompey's soldiers was passed in fifty-
nine BC. This law did not go over well with the senators because they were selfish with
the lands they had annexed to their estates.

The Senators tried to block legislation with the help of Marcus Bibulus. He postponed the
voting by declaring that the heavens were unfavorable to legislation. Caesar disregarded
Bibulus' behavior, and the remainder of the legislative program was carried out.
(Thaddeus, p.116)

Caesar had control of three provinces for five years. They were Cisalpine Gaul,
Transalpine Gaul, and Illyria. Caesar became determined to conquer and rule the entirety
of Gaul. After his defeat of the Belgic tribes in the north, and the submission of the
maritime tribes on the Atlantic seaboard, he believed he had conquered the entire area of
Gaul. Caesar then decided to make two expeditions, one across the Rhine and the second
across the Straits of Dover to Britain. While in Britain, he received the submission of the
supreme commander of the southeast Britons, Cassivellaunus. (Grant, p.55)

In my opinion, by fifty-three BC the first triumvirate had totally broken apart. Caesar
now had an extreme amount of personal power, wealth, and prestige. His relations with
Pompey had ended when Caesar's daughter Julia died. (Pompey was married to Julia.)
Then, Crassus left for his province of Syria with the intention of at last overcoming the
military glory of Caesar and Pompey. While in Mesopotamia, the Parthians murdered
Crassus and three-quarters of his forty-four thousand man army. (Grant, p.75)

In Rome, the senate proposed a negotiated compromise between Caesar and Pompey. It
stated that Caesar would give up his military command and attend the consular election,
under the condition that Pompey would abandon his military command at the same time.
The two were supposed to go into Rome to find a new ruler. The law passed, Caesar was
ordered to leave his army behind and cross the Rubicon into Rome alone. Caesar knew
that if he left his army behind he would be killed. So, he brought his soldiers along and
marched across the Rubicon. This was an expression of his power directed towards the
senate and Pompey. His armies quickly defeated those of the senate in Italy, and soon
controlled the entire Italian peninsula. He defeated Pompey's troops in many battles and
became the dictator of Rome. Caesar then shaped the senate to his liking, and adding
three hundred members. (Abbott, p.128)
From the information I have gathered from the book written by Fowler, it is hard to say
whether or not Caesar and Cleopatra had an affair. A passage from Julius Caesar; some
writers, like Mr. Froude, believe that a relation between Caesar and the Egyptian princess
Cleopatra, is merely a story made up at a later date. He finds the story to be a foolish tale
that we should just reject. If the story held true it would have happened like so. In
October of forty-eight BC Caesar arrived in Egypt and stayed until the following June.
He fell in love with Cleopatra and her son Caesarion. (Fowler, p.311)

A group of conspirators believed that Julius Caesar had become too powerful. They felt
that if he became the king of Rome he would turn corrupt and use his power to create a
bad society. Marcus Brutus, Caesar's "best friend" and Cassius, led a group of members
in a conspiracy to kill Caesar. On the Ides of March he was stabbed to death at a meeting
of the senate. He fell at the feet of Pompey's statue, as if his death were a sacrifice offered
to satisfy his enemy's revenge. Three of Caesar's slaves circled his dead body. They
counted twenty-seven stab wounds on Caesar's body, and only one wound was found to
be fatal. Mark Antony prepared a notable funeral ceremony and gave a memorable
speech. After the ceremony, Caesar's body was burned. A few months later a second
triumvirate was formed. It consisted of Mark Antony, Octavian, and Marcus Lepidus.
First the group was empowered to rule Rome, then they pursued Caesar's murderers.
(Abbott, p.311)

Caesar was a major part of the Roman Empire because of his strength and his strong war
strategies. His dictatorship was the key part in Rome's transition from republic to empire.
It was a strong empire because of his courage and intelligence. I see Caesar as a military
genius. I think he saw himself as having a talent in war ever since his first battle in Gaul.
He definitely was good at fighting to get himself out of sticky situations, either by
fighting or talking. He led his troops through many battles, and escaped from pirates
alone. I find the story about the pirates hilarious, not only did he escape, but he captured a
large number of them as well. My last paper I presented for you was on George
Washington. I think that they were a lot alike. They both knew how to dictate, lead troops
in war, and run a country. Both men built a country out of nothing. Not only were they
strong militarily but politically as well. When they talked people listened. When I said
that Caesar built a country out of nothing he really did. He had to reconstruct everything,
the army, navy, treasury, laws, trade, and the system of government. He also was behind
the smaller tasks, like the calendar, weights and measures, and language. It takes a
powerful person to complete such things.

I think that Julius Caesar resembled a king. Although he was not, he acted upon certain
things as a one. When he controlled the empire he wrote laws to benefit himself and the
good of the country. I do not think Caesar's story ended properly though. The world
might be a little different today had he not been murdered. Caesar's family might have
built a kingdom, and God only knows what else. In one of my sources there is a coin
celebrating the death of Caesar. I do not see how they could celebrate the death of
someone who gave them so much. Julius Caesar is probably the most famous person in
history. I think that I have shown why.
Keywords:

successful career juluis caesar julius caesar born thirteenth month quintilis year full name
gaius julius caesar same father gaius given name julius surname strong political military
leader changed history greco roman world this paper will answer following questions
what happened during early political career become strong dictator roman empire what
events making first triumvirate what happened during reign dictator rome events
assassination probably most famous leader history grant table dates foreword when
young lived through worst decades history rome city assaulted captured roman armies
twice first eighty seven leaders populares aunt uncle marius cinna cinna killed year that
married cornelia second attack against city happened eighty marius enemy sulla leader
optimates carried attack each occasion massacre political opponents followed
confiscation their property fowler knew that public speaking needed improvement
therefore announced that leaving study island rhodes professor famous greek rhetorician
apollonius molon when coast anatolia pirates kidnapped they demanded large ransom
return broke free from pirates captured large number them then returned rome engage
normal career grant world pompey crassus challenged dominance optimates quintus
latatius catulus lucius licinius lucullus optimates sulla responsible creating their careers
married pompeia after cornelia death then sixty five appointed aedile aedile charge
programs city such games spectacles shows aedile gained claim leadership populares
grant before leaving govern spain year divorced wife because allegation been involved
offense publis clodius clodius awaiting trial breaking into home previous december while
trip spain very successful returned short time with considerable military glory enough
money debts abbott short while after trip elected consul fifty nine joined alliance with
pompey crassus this alliance named first triumvirate pompey possessed great influence
through splendid abilities military renown crassus powerful through wealth developed
plan reconcile them then favoring himself with their united accomplishing deeds abbott
purpose triumvirate gain large command wanted part eastern settlement land allotments
discharged troops agrarian bill authorizing purchase land soldiers passed fifty nine this
over well senators because they were selfish lands they annexed estates senators tried
block legislation help marcus bibulus postponed voting declaring heavens were
unfavorable legislation disregarded bibulus behavior remainder legislative program
carried thaddeus control three provinces five years were cisalpine gaul transalpine gaul
illyria became determined conquer rule entirety gaul after defeat belgic tribes north
submission maritime tribes atlantic seaboard believed conquered entire area decided
make expeditions across rhine second across straits dover britain while britain received
submission supreme commander southeast britons cassivellaunus opinion fifty three
totally broken apart extreme amount personal power wealth prestige relations ended
when daughter julia died married julia left province syria intention last overcoming glory
mesopotamia parthians murdered three quarters forty four thousand army senate proposed
negotiated compromise between stated would give command attend consular election
under condition would abandon command same time supposed into find ruler passed
ordered leave army behind cross rubicon into alone knew left army behind would killed
brought soldiers along marched across rubicon expression power directed towards senate
armies quickly defeated those senate italy soon controlled entire italian peninsula
defeated troops many battles became dictator shaped liking adding hundred members
abbott from information have gathered from book written fowler hard whether cleopatra
affair passage some writers like froude believe relation between egyptian princess
cleopatra merely story made later date finds story foolish tale should just reject story held
true have like october forty eight arrived egypt stayed until following june fell love
cleopatra caesarion fowler group conspirators believed become powerful felt became
king turn corrupt power create society marcus brutus best friend cassius group members
conspiracy kill ides march stabbed death meeting fell feet statue death sacrifice offered
satisfy enemy revenge slaves circled dead body counted twenty seven stab wounds body
only wound found fatal mark antony prepared notable funeral ceremony gave memorable
speech ceremony body burned months later second formed consisted mark antony
octavian marcus lepidus group empowered rule pursued murderers major part empire
because strength strong strategies dictatorship part transition republic empire courage
intelligence genius think himself having talent ever since battle definitely good fighting
himself sticky situations either fighting talking troops many battles escaped pirates alone
find about hilarious only escape captured number them well last paper presented george
washington think alike both knew dictate lead country both built country nothing only
militarily politically well talked people listened said built country nothing really
reconstruct everything navy treasury laws trade system government also behind smaller
tasks like calendar weights measures language takes powerful person complete such
things think resembled king although acted upon certain things controlled wrote laws
benefit good ended properly though world might little different today been murdered
family might have built kingdom knows else sources there coin celebrating could
celebrate someone gave much probably most famous person shown


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posted:12/4/2011
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