20051008_Why TRIZ

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					      아주대학교 경영대학원 특강



Why TRIZ ?

  2005. 10. 8

아주대학교 기계공학부
   유승현
 ryseung@ajou.ac.kr
 Contents
• Why TRIZ ?
  – Paradigm change
  – Innovation
  – Engineering Education
  – R&D and Design
  – Designer‟s creativity

• What is TRIZ ?
• How to TRIZ ?
    Various views on TRIZ

•   From Innovation
•   From Engineering Education
•   From Engineering Design
•   From Knowledge Management
•   From 6 Sigma
•   From Creativity
•   From R&D
 Paradigm Change
• Industrial Revolution
   – Energy
   – 18C – 19C
• Information Revolution
   – Information
   – Now
   – N generation
• Dream Society
Change of major discipline
Improvement of specific strength
4 Major Engineering Materials
    From Tools to Subjects
   Slide rules   Calculator, Computer




      HEMMI
 From Tools to Subjects
Drawing Instruments         CAD
                 (Computer Aided Drawing)
    From Tools to Subjects
   Computation

                  1
                     x dx  0.333
                       2
    Numerical                             
                  0

                          1 3
                   x dx  x  C
                      2
    Symbolic
                          3
      SW : Mathematica, Matlab, Macsyma
From Tools to Subjects
 Labor : Human          Robot




                  Creativity
Innovation for every company
HP

                   1940
                   David Hewlett
                   Bill Packard



     1999 Carly Fiorina 2005

             Invent
            Innovation,
             Creativity
     Innovations in 2001 at OPEL, Germany
•   72,791 proposals a year
•   75 Millions € effect in saving money this year
•   Average efficiency of proposal 1,000 + €
•   11 Millions € bonuses to innovators
•   Average bonus 350 €
•   28 innovators got bonus 5100 € each
•   Efficiency of the brilliant ideas : more than
    400,000 €

      • Coefficient of economic intellect : 400 : 1
      • Coefficient of men of genius : 1000 : 1
  Radical Innovation
• Radical Innovation
  –   2003 IRI
  –   New to the world
  –   5-10배 성능 향상
  –   30 ~ 50% 비용 절감
• More than 6 Sigma
• Tools for „Innovation‟ ?
    2004 ASEE Conference
• Annual ASEE Conference
• 2004. 6. 20-23, Salt Lake City, Utah
• 3000 attended
• 한국 교수는 2명(서울대 한송엽 교수)
• “Engineering education reaches new
  heights”
• 2005. 6. 12-15, Portland, Oregon
   Main Plenary
• 6. 21(Monday) 8:30 – 10:15 am
• Prof. Woodie Flowers (Mechanical
   Eng., MIT)
• 중국, 인도 학생들 Video
  “Are we smarter, more hard working, more
  ambitious?” “NO!”-> Outsourcing
  Outsourcing 안되는 것은 Leadership
  Then, “Informed creative thinking”
• By “doing”
• Developed “ Introduction to design.” course
• 1.5 month to prepare design competition
  guideline.
 PRISM

• Monthly magazine of ASEE
• 2004 Summer Issue
• Expanding the Mind
 – pp. 30 – 36 (Scanned file 참조)
 – Covered “Engineer‟s creativity‟
 – Introduction of TRIZ
  Virtual Product Development as Part
               of the Digital Enterprise
         VPD                     Transverse
                                   System

                                                                               Order
       Prototype    Sourcing                                                Processing&
        Testing         Manufacturing                                         Control
                          Planning
  Simulation                                                                     Salse &
                                    Product &                                  Distribution
  Product
                                 Simulation Data
                                  Management
                                                       ERP                     Plant
 Definition
                   PLM            Product
                                                                            Maintenance
    Concept                                      (release              Inventory
  Development                    Support &                            Management
                                              Manufacturing)
                                  Service
                                                               Production
Knowledge
                                                                Planning

 System

                                                                “Extended
                                                                 Systems”
                            xx

                      xxx
                                     SCM
                      xxxx
      Relationships between three types
                   of knowledge
               Know-How, Activity, Background
               • • Explicit Knowledge                                 CAE
PDM
                                                                    Statistical
CAD       Experience                      Prediction and             analysis
          Knowledge                          Analysis
                                           Knowledge
                       Knowledge DB
                                                    Aggressive
                                                    Extraction of
 Refining of                Fact                    Knowledge
 Knowledge               Knowledge

                            ERP     CAM     CAT
 Engineering Design (ABET)
System, Component, Process, Concept

Resources, Constraint

Decision making

Optimization

Creativity
Function and Form
                  control
                  hold
                  move
   Function
                  protect
                  store
    Design        decision making processes

                  shape
                  configuration
    Form
                  size
                  materials
                  manufacturing
                  processes

    Form Ever Follows Function
          Luis Sullivan
    Design in PRP
                                                                   Realized
                                                                   Product




                           Production Design                 Service
                                                                  Disposal
                  Engineering Design                Distribution
           Industrial Design                Manufacturing
Sales / Marketing                           (Production)




     Customer
       Need
 Life of a product
                                     stablish function
               Design
                                     determine form

                                     fabricate
            Manufacture              assemble
                                     distribute
                                     set up
                 Use                 operate
                                     maintain
                                     repair
                                     take down
                Retire
                                     disassemble
                                     recycle
                                     dispose
To satisfy the consumer…
We must consider all the phases in the life of a product
 Cost Influential Factor (함인영박사)




원가구조 (Hitachi)   원가구조(US Metal)
Cost Influential Factor (함인영박사)
Where do engineers work ?

Employer                                      Thousands    %

Manufacturing                                       732    50

Engineering Services                                401    27

Government (Federal, State & Local)                 179    12

Self-employed                                        43     3

Other                                               110     8

Total                                               1465   100

                (U.S. Department of Labor, 2000).
Two Designs
 정형적 설계
   Incremental design,
   Routine design,
   Improvement,
   Optimization,
   Compromise
   CAE

 창의적 설계
   Creative design
   Innovative design
Over the wall design process
Concurrent design process
    4C

CAD           CAE             CAM            CAT


Dynamic                 FEA      Elements
Analysis   Dynamic
                     • ABAQUS    1. Geometry
           Loading
• DADS               • ANSYS     2. Physical Properties
                                 3. Boundary Condition
• ADAMS              • NASTRAN   4. Loading

• ADAS               • SERIANA
   CAE & TRIZ & Other tools

             What to improve ?

                                  Innovative Design
      TQM                         Management (IDM)


6 sigma   Theory of              TRIZ           CAE
          constraints



            How to improve it?
 A Product
A product is an item that is
  purchased and used as a unit
  (Dixon and Poli, 1995)

•   기능성
•   내구성, 신뢰성
•   안락성
•   디자인
•   안전성
  Quality
Survey by Time magazine (1989):
   1. works as it should,
   2. lasts a long time, and
   3. easy to maintain.
Garvin (1987) identified:
   1. performance,
   2. features,
   3. reliability,
   4. durability,
   5. service-ability,
   6. conformance to conventions/standards,
   7. aesthetics and
   8. perceived quality / reputation of manufacturer.
       QFD
• Why is a conventional design process not
  sufficient?

 Conventional design processes focus more on engineering
 capabilities and less on customer needs.
 When they do try to incorporate customer perspectives,
 these tend to be engineer-perceived or producer-perceived.
 Quality Function Deployment (QFD), however, focuses like a
 laser all product development activities on customer needs

                              - QFD Institute
  4C + CAI

CAD     CAE          CAM            CAT

                +
               CAI
      Computer Aided Innovation
                    (Invention)
                    (Intelligenc)
  3 Approaches

On creative person

On their creative thinking process

 On creative outputs
 Creativity
Inherent??
 (선천적인)




    OR
             Acquired??
             (후천적인)
              확산 기법

                        자유 연상법
On creative           •브레인스토밍(BS)법


processes             •카드 BS법
                      •브레인라이팅(BW)법
                      •카드 BW법
                      •MSB법
                      •NSB법
                      •퀵 사고법
                      •그룹 인터뷰
                      •IB(아이디어 비트)법
                      •수평사고


                        강제 연상법

                      •형태분석법          •반대 사고법
                      •체크리스트법         •초점법
                      •매트릭스법          •쌍 연관법
                      •속성 열거법         •카탈로그법
                      •희망사항 열거법1      •시스템 합성법
                      •결점 열거법         •역장 분석
                      •TRIZ법          (force field analysis)
                      •디지털 카메라 발상법    •심층 면접법
                      •SAMM법          •포커스 그룹 인터뷰
                      •에어리어 싱킹        •SIMITAR
                                      •가상 상황 설정법


                        유추 발상법
                      •고든법
                      •NM법
                      •시넥틱스
                      •바이오닉스법
                      •메카닉스
수렴 기법

          공간형 수렴법
        •KJ법
        •고자네법
        •크로스법
        •블록법
        •7×7법
        •OCU법
        •SKS법
        •디시전 테이블
        •파레토 그림
        •히스토그램
        •파일링 시스템
        •클러스터 분석


          계열형 수렴법

        •PERT법
        •카드 PERT법
        •BD(비즈니스 디자인)법
        •특성요인도
        •스토리법
        •관련 수목법
        •PATTERN법
        •FTA법
        •YM법
통합 기법

        •ZX법
        •하이브리지법
        •인풋 아웃풋법(입출법)
        •워크 디자인(WD)법
        •위즈덤 매니지먼트법
        •QFD법
        •COACH법
        •시나리오 라이팅법
        •델파이법
        •크로스 임팩드 매트릭스
        •FMEA법
        •스톱 앤 고 BS법
        •NID법
        •식스시그마
        •RSVP 사이클
        •VA법
        •IE법
        •T.T-HS법
        •ED법
        •ISM법
        •DEMATEL법
태도 기법

          명상형 기법

        •초월명상(TM)
        •자율 훈련법
        •이미지 컨트롤(IC)법
        •선(禪)
        •요가


         교류형 기법

        •TA(교류 분석)
        •인카운터 그룹
        •ST(민감성 훈련)법



         연극형 기법

        •사이코드라마
        •역할 놀이
        •창의 연극
Design (설계)
   Car, Space Shuttle
   Building
   Robot
   Experiment
   Cellular phone

   Web site
   Future
   Happiness
Engineer‟s Creativity
Leonardo da Vinci




Not all of us are da Vinci !!
 Not all of us are da Vinci !!
융합기술이 최근 부각되고 있지만 이 기술은
이미 레오나르도 다빈치 시대부터 추구되어 온
것으로 새로운 트렌드가 온 것은 아니다. 한 명
의 다빈치를 만드는 것보다 기본적인 학문의 융합
을 통해 다각화된 시각을 지닌 인재를 키우는 것이
현재 우리가 해야할 일

 -Luke Lee, Professor of Bioengineering
            UC Berkeley
 Another opinion
• 21세기에는 한 명의 천재가 만명을 먹여살리
  는 인재 경쟁의 시대
      - 이건희 삼성그룹회장
Intuition (직관)

Acquired intuition

    The purpose of computing is insight,
      Not numbers. - R. W. Hamming

But not everything
Inspiration (영감)

              BioMedical
              Engineering
Science &
Engineering
               (의공학)          Nature
                              Plant
                              Animal
                              Human
                Biomimetics

               (생체모방공학)
  Serendipity
 (기대하지 않았던 것을 뜻밖에 찾아내는 재능)


1. The faculty of making fortunate discoveries
    by accident.
2. The fact or occurrence of such discoveries.
3. An instance of making such a discovery.
Systematic Creative Engineering

Axiomatic Design

TRIZ (ASIT, USIT)
Axiomatic Design
 Prof. Nam-pyo Suh at MIT

2 Axioms

  The independence axiom

  The information axiom
   3 Approaches

On creative person

On their creative thinking process

 On creative outputs
        The most important creative
        engineering outputs are patents.
              - G. Altschuller
4th Generation R&D (R&BD)

                       세대별 R & D의 특징
      4세대 R&BD
                       • 1세대: 우수한 과학자 개인중심의
   시장 창출형 기술개발(고객)          연구개발(100년전)

       3세대 R&D         • 2세대: 2차 대전이후 생성, 합리적
                              연구개발 관리, 단기 상품화
  전사적 전략 통합 기술개발(전사)          과제 중심- 장기전략의 부재
                              (50년전)
                       • 3세대: 1980년대 이후 연구개발 성
       2세대 R&D                공이 기업성장과 직결되지
  사업지향 프로젝트 관리(연구소)           아니함을 자각(15년전)

       1세대 R&D         • 4세대: 공개적으로 공유되지 않고
                              있는 지식을 체계적으로 관
     R&D투자(연구원)               리하기 위한 지시채널 구축
                              강조(5년전)
          4th Generation R&D (R&BD)

Qualitative                Technology Roadmap

                                          Quality Function Deployment

                             TRIZ (Creative Problem Solving)

               K.J. / Brain Storming                            M.N.

                                                               Cluster
                     Technology Tree                           Analysis


                     Design of Experiment                      PPM/MDS
Quantitative

          Research              Development            Production      Market
                         R&D

                                            R&BD
Negative Factors on innovation
• Narrow specialization
                          Guessing instead of solving
                          Problem situation was not structured
• Negative thinking
                          No feeling for the contradictions
  stereotypes
                          Only one type of method
• Low motivation
                          Fear of the problem
• Negative emotions       Fear of mistakes
                          Stress „here and now“
• Unsatisfactory
  feelings                Too little practice, tiredness,
                          sickness
Positive Factors on innovation
                         Fundamental basis

                     Ecology
• Comprehensive
                         History and culture
education
                         Specialization

• Methods and
                         Modern TRIZ Academy
experience in
creative thinking        Psychological methods



• Continuous training.
  발명문제(연구개발 과제) 해결의 애로사항
                            만성적인 고민
 상품개발                생산기술
                            • 창의성이 요구되지만, 적절한
시장 Needs            개선 과제     도구가 없다.
                            • 기술한계를 돌파해야 하는데,
                              방법을 모르겠다.
상품 Concept          기술 과제   • 제한된 좁은 범위의 정보/지식
                              밖에 보이지 않는다.
             제약조건
 요구 Spec             목표 치
 목표 Cost


      해결 방법 및 해결책 생성
                              왜 문제 해결이 잘 안될까?

       CAD/CAM/CAE/실험 등       • 방법론의 결여(직감에 의존)
                              • 전문분야에 치우친 지식
                              • 심리적인 관성
                                  •.
                                  •.
     제조, 연구개발에 Feedback           •.
      발명문제(연구과제) 해결의 장애 요인
혁신적 Solution의 달성을 위해서는 제품/공정의 개발 및 개선 과정에서 혁신적
Solution 발상을 저해하는 다양한 요인을 효과적으로 극복하는 것이 필요하다.

                      혁신적 Solution 발상의 장애요인


         심리적 관성                              지식의 부족
   [Psychological Inertia]              [Lack of Knowledge]




                                  ?


      잘못된 목표의 설정                          모순의 해결 회피
     [Wrong Objective]                [Avoiding Contradiction]
      손기호 (Boeing)
              Systems Engineering



          Requirement                Concept                 Improvement

Request                                                                         Product


                                 Customer

          Source:   Systems Engineering, A Competitive Advantage in the Commercial Market,
                    Don Clausing / Lou Cohen / Madhav Phadke
              Systems Engineering


                      System Thinking
              ET, MVS, TNE (Profound Knowledge), OW
            QFD                TRIZ              6 Sigma
          R TRIZ          C     KT           I      KT
          Six Hats           Six Hats            Taguchi
           DATT          Lateral Thinking          TRIZ



Request                                                    Product


                          Customer
TRIZ : Beyond CAE, 6 Sigma
         Samsung DFSS in R&BD
           Market Segment                                     Business Planning
                                                                                         • Business Planning
                                                                                         • Risk Management
                                                                                         • SWOT Analysis
                                                                                                                                 TR
                                                                     • VOB               • Market Analysis
                                                                     • VOT               • Technology Trend Analysis
             Customer                  Interview        KJ                               • Competitor Analysis
                                                                                         • Benchmarking
                            • VOC                                            • Customer Requirement




                                                             • CTQ      QFD-1              CPM-1
                                                                             • Functional Product Requirement       Y
                                                                                                                                 TT
                   • Idea Generation
                                           TRIZ                                   ( Performance )


                       KI                       • Concept Generation
                       • CFT members
                                                                     Concept
                                                   • Concept Selection



                  Patent Map                                                                                        Y
                                                                        QFD-2              CPM-2
        Patent
                                            • Product Design Specification            • System CFR / CAP, Sub-system CFR / CAP



 TR : Technology Roadmap                                               QFD-3              CPM-3
 TT : Technology Tree                             • Component Specification          • Component CTF / CAP
                                                                                                                    X
 KI : Knowledge Intensive Meeting                     • Process Specification        • Mfg Process CTF / CAP
Is TRIZ a good tool to R&D ?
Yes ! TRIZ는 근본적 개선이나 혁신이 필요한 기술분야 및 비기술 분야의 복잡한
문제를 해결하는 과정에 적용가능



               Makes Innovations Happen


        기술적 문제해결                제품, 공정, 기술 개발 및 개선




        특허회피 및 개발                  품질 및 신뢰성 개선




   지식기반의 R&D 및 Engineering            기술예측




             기술엔지니어 및 연구원의 창조성/연구능력 향상
 What is TRIZ ?


TRIZ is a tool for thinking
but not instead of thinking
                  G. Altshuller

				
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