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Design Catalog Section - The Systems Realization Laboratory

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Design Catalog Section - The Systems Realization Laboratory Powered By Docstoc
					            Output                                                      Pneumatical-/Hydraulical                                                                                                                                Chemical/Biological/Nuclear
                                   Mechanical                                                         Electrostatic                     Magnetostatic             Sound                   Light               Thermal
                                                                                 Energy                                                                                                                                                    Energy
                                      Energy                                                             Energy                            Energy                 Energy                 Energy               Energy
                                                                            (Potential-/kinetic-                                                                                                                                (Nuclear-/reaction-/oxidation-
Input                   (Potential-/kinetic-/strain-energy)                                         (Capacitive-energy)               (Inductive-energy)      (Kinetic-energy)       (Quantum-energy) (Heat-capacity/-enthalpy)
                                                                       /pneumatic/hydraulic-energy)                                                                                                                                        energy)
                     - Inertia (translational/rotational)              - Bernoulli-principle              - Electrostriction          - Magnetostriction      - Impact               - Mechanochromics           - Pressure state change         - Residual stress
                     - Elastic/inelastic deformation                   - Viscosity                        - Induction                 - Induction             - Stick-slip-effect    - Dichroic-effect           - Friction                      - Phase transformations
                    (tension/compression/bending/shear/torsio          - Toricelli's law                  - Electrokinetic-effects    - Aligning magnetical   - Doppler-effect       - Mechanolumin-(fluor-,     - Hysteresis
                    n/buckling/fracture/cutting/inversion/extrusi      - Gravitation                      - Electrodynamic-effects   dipoles                                        phosphor-)escence            - Turbulence
                    on/drawing/flow)                                   - Boyle-Mariotte-law               - Friction                  - Elastic/inelastic                            - Doppler-effect            - Inelastic deformation
                     - Impact (translational/rotational)               - Impact                           - Capacitance-effect       deformation                                                                 - Joule-Thomson-effect
                     - Friction (static/dynamic)                       - Buoyancy                         - Josephson-effect          - Barnett-effect                                                           - Doppler-effect
                     - Refraction (waves/particles)                    - (In)compressibility              - Deformation electrical                                                                               - Conduction
                     - Lever-effect (translational/rotational)                                           resistance                                                                                              - Convection
                     - Poisson's-effect (positive/negative)                                               - Impact-ionization                                                                                    - Radiation
                     - Stress-induced Martensitic                                                         - Stewart-Tolman-effect
                    transformation                                                                        - Lenard-effect
   Mechanical
                     - Force field (gravity/surface-
     Energy         tension/contact-force/atomic-force)
(Potential-/kinetic- - Wedge-effect
 /strain-energy) - Boyle-Mariotte-law
                     - Magnus-effect
                     - Lotus-effect
                     - Resonance
                     - Co-/Adhesion
                     - Capillary-effect
                     - Weissenberg-effect
                     - Load spreading (fixed/flexible constraints
                    or unconstrained)
                     - Blocking and bracing
                     - Topology


                       - Lift                                          - Bernoulli-principle             - Electrostriction          - Magnetostriction       - Impact              - Friction                   - Pressure state change         - Residual stress
  Pneumatical-/        - Buoyancy                                      - Continuity-law                                                                                             - Mechanochromics            - Friction                      - Phase transformations
   Hydraulical         - Turbulence                                    - Conduction                                                                                                                              - Inelastic deformation
                       - Magnus-effect                                 - Absorption                                                                                                                              - Joule-Thomson-effect
      Energy
                       - Flow resistance                               - Dalton's-law
(Potential-/kinetic-   - Backpressure                                  - Lotus-effect
/pneumatic/hydra       - Reaction principle                            - Von Kármán vortex street
   ulic-energy)        - Compressibility

                        - Electrostriction (piezoelectric materials,   - Electrostriction                - Interference              - Eddy current           - Electrostriction     - Photostriction            - Joule-heating                 - Electrochemistry
                       electroactive polymers)                         - Electrorheology                 - (Super-/Semi-)            - Biot-Savart-law                               - Kerr-effect               - Eddy current                  - X-Ray-effect
                        - Capacitance effect                           - Electrophoresis                 Conduction                  - Farraday's-law                                - Pockels-effect            - Electric arc                  - Electrodialysis
                        - Coulomb's-law                                - Cataphoresis                    - Ohm's-law                 - Hall-effect                                   - Stark-effect              - Peltier-effect                - Electrolysis
  Electrostatic
                        - Johnson-Rhabeck-effect                       - Electro-osmosis                 - Farraday's-law            - Meissner-effect                               - Electrolumin-(fluor-,     - Hysteresis
     Energy             - Biot-Savart-law                                                                - Impedance                                                                phosphor-)escence
   (Capacitive-         - Electrokinetic-effects                                                         - Capacitance-effect                                                        - Electrochromism
     energy)            - Friction                                                                       - Skin-effect                                                               - Liquid-crystal/sus-
                        - Induction                                                                      - Quantum tunneling                                                        pended-particle effect
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Incandescence
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Laser-effect
                       - Magnetostriction                              - Magnetostriction                 - Farraday's-law           - Interference           - Magnetostriction     - Farraday-effect            - Eddy current                 - Ferromagnetism
                       - Ferro-/electro-magnetism                      - Magnetorheology                  - Hall-effect              - (Super-/Semi-)         - Barkhausen-effect    - Zeemann-effect             - Hysteresis                   - Electromagnetism
                       - Christofilos-effect                                                              - Induction (Lorentz       Conduction                                      - Cotton-Mouton-effect       - Demagnetization
                       - Induction (Lorentz-effect)                                                      force)                      - Reflection                                    - Magnetolumin-(fluor-,      - Thermal Hall-effect (Righi
 Magnetostatic         - Elihu-Thomson effect                                                             - Magnetoresistivity       - Total reflection                             phosphor-)escence            effect)
    Energy             - Einstein-de-Haas-effect                                                                                     - Refraction
                                                                                                                                     - Absorption
  (Inductive-                                                                                                                        - Induction
    energy)                                                                                                                          - Farraday's-law
                                                                                                                                     - Ferromagnetism
                                                                                                                                     - Saturation
                                                                                                                                     - Remanence

                       - Sound excitation                              - Sound pressure                  - Electrostriction          - Magnetostriction       - Reflection          - Acousto-optic effect        - Eddy current                 - Elastic deformation
                                                                                                                                                              - Refraction                                        - Hysteresis
    Sound                                                                                                                                                     - Interference                                      - Demagnetization
    Energy                                                                                                                                                    - Dispersion                                        - Thermal Hall-effect (Righi
                                                                                                                                                              - Birefringence                                    effect)
(Kinetic-energy)                                                                                                                                              - Polarization


                       - Photostriction                                 - Electromagnetical radiation    - Photostriction            - Photostriction          - Acousto-optic       - Reflection                - Thermoluminescence            - Photoeffect
                       - Electromagetical radiation pressure           pressure                                                                               effect                 - Refraction                - Radiation                     - Photoresistor-effect
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Birefringence                                             - Photochemical-effect
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Interference
                                                                                                                                                                                     - (Super-/Semi-)
      Light                                                                                                                                                                         Conduction
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Photonic crystal effect
     Energy
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Fluorescence
   (Quantum-                                                                                                                                                                         - Phosphorescence
     energy)                                                                                                                                                                         - Fermat's principles
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Polarization
                                                                                                                                                                                     - Photoluminescence
                                                                                                                                                                                    (Photochromics)


                       - Temperature change of state                   - Temperature change of state     - Thermoelectric-effect     - Curie-Weiss-law         - Thermo-optic        - Pyroelectricity           - Conduction                     - Heat capacity
                       - Thermal expansion                             - Thermal expansion               - Thermionic emission                                effect                 - Thermolumin-(fluor-,      - Convection                     - Phase transformations
                       - Steam pressure                                - Steam pressure                  - Pyroelectricity                                                          phosphor-)escence            - Radiation                      - Heat induced martensitic
                       - Osmotic pressure                              - Osmotic pressure                - Thermal-noise-effect                                                      - Thermocromics             - Insulation                    transformations
                       - Gas laws                                      - Gas laws                        - Conductivity                                                                                          - Condensation                   - Thermoelectric effect
   Thermal             - Heat-induced martensitic transformations      - Thermophoresis (Soret-effect)   - Semiconductivity                                                                                      - Evaporation                    - Stefan-Boltzmann-law
                                                                                                         - Superconductivity                                                                                     - Freezing                       - Wien's displacement-law
    Energy
                                                                                                         - Curie-Weiss-law                                                                                                                        - Destillation
(Heat-capacity/-
   enthalpy)




                       - Exothermic reactivity                         - Exothermic reactivity           - Electrochemistry           - Magnetic-dipole-       - Exothermic          - Cotton-effect             - Combustion                     - Photosynthesis
                       - Osmosis                                       - Osmosis                         - Molecular dipole          formation                reactivity             - Combustion                - Conduction                     - Endo-/exo-thermic reactivity
                       - Molecular-velocity                            - Adhesion                        - Ionization                 - Bioelectromagnetism    - Nuclear fission     - Chemochromics             - Exothermic reactivity          - Nuclear fission/fusion
                       - (De)Sorption                                  - Cohesion                        - Fermentation                                        - Nuclear fusion      - Chemolumin-(fluor-,       - Nuclear fission                - Radiation/Absorption
                       - Nuclear fission                               - Nuclear fission                 - Bioelectromagnetism                                                      phosphor-)escence            - Nuclear fusion                 - Oxidation/Reduction
                       - Nuclear fusion                                - Nuclear fusion                                                                                              - Exothermic reactivity                                      - Ionic transport
   Chemical/           - Isometric/isotonic contraction                - Chromatography                                                                                              - Nuclear fission                                            - Bohr-effect
   Biological/                                                         - Effusion                                                                                                    - Nuclear fusion                                             - Di-/Association/(Dis-)Solution
     Nuclear                                                                                                                                                                         - Di-/Association                                            - Adsorption
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  - Electrodialysis
     Energy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       - Autolysis
    (Nuclear-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     - Catalysis
    /reaction-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    - Phase separation
   /oxidation-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    - Meiosis
     energy)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      - (Bio-)Sensing (antibody, DNA,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 receptor, enzyme, abzyme, (living)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 tissue, cell, organelle, isotopes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 microbes)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  - Self-replication/-repair/-assembly/-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 diagnostic/-destruction
            Output                                             Pneumatical-/Hydraulical                                                                                                         Thermal         Chemical/Biological/
                                    Mechanical                                                     Electrostatic            Magnetostatic          Sound                 Light
                                                                        Energy                                                                                                                   Energy            Nuclear Energy
                                       Energy                                                         Energy                   Energy              Energy               Energy
                                                                (Potential-/kinetic-/pneu-                                                                                                   (Heat-capacity/-    (Nuclear-/reaction-
Input                    (Potential-/kinetic-/strain-energy)                                    (Capacitive-energy)       (Inductive-energy)   (Kinetic-energy)     (Quantum-energy)
                                                                 matic/hydraulic-energy)                                                                                                        enthalpy)         /oxidation-energy)
                      - Inertia (translational/rotational)     - Bernoulli-principle         - Electrostriction           - Magnetostriction - Impact              - Mechanochromics         - Pressure state  - Residual stress
                      - Elastic/inelastic deformation          - Viscosity                    - Induction                 - Induction         - Stick-slip-effect - Diochroic-effect        change             - Phase
                     (tension/compression/bending/shear        - Toricelli's law              - Electrokinetic-effects    - Aligning magne- - Doppler-effect - Mechanolumin-                 - Friction       transformations
                     /torsion/buckling/fracture/cutting/inve   - Gravitation                  - Electrodynamic-effects   trical dipoles                           (fluor-, phosphor-)        - Hysteresis
                     rsion/extrusion/drawing/flow)             - Boule-Mariotte-law           - Friction                  - Elastic/inelastic                     escence                    - Turbulence
                      - Impact (translational/rotational)      - Impact                      - Capacitance-effect        deformation                               - Doppler-effect          - Inelastic
                      - Friction (static/dynamic)              - Buyoncy                     - Josephson-effect           - Barnett-effect                                                  deformation
                      - Refraction (waves/particles)           - (In)compressibility         - Deformation                                                                                   - Joule-Thomson-
                      - Lever-effect                                                         electrical resistance                                                                          effect
                     (translational/rotational)                                              - Impact-ionization                                                                             - Doppler-effect
                      - Poisson's-effect                                                     - Stewart-Tolman-                                                                               - Conduction
                     (positive/negative)                                                     effect                                                                                          - Convection
   Mechanical         - Stress-induced Martensitic                                            - Lenard-effect                                                                                - Radiation
      Energy         transformation
(Potential-/kinetic- - Force field (gravity/surface-
  /strain-energy) tension/contact-force/atomic-force)
                      - Wedge-effect
                      - Boyle-Mariotte-law
                      - Magnus-effect
                      - Lotus-effect
                      - Resonance
                      - Co-/Adhesion
                      - Capillary-effect
                      - Weissenberg-effect
                      - Load spreading (fixed/flexible
                     constraints or unconstrained)
                      - Blocking and bracing


                        - Lift                                  - Bernoulli-principle        - Electrostriction          - Magnetostriction - Impact              - Friction                 - Pressure state  - Residual stress
   Pneumatical-/        - Buyoancy                              - Continuity-law                                                                                  - Mechanochromics         change             - Phase
    Hydraulical         - Turbulence                            - Conduction                                                                                                                 - Friction       transformations
       Energy           - Magnus-effect                         - Absorption                                                                                                                 - Inelastic
 (Potential-/kinetic-   - Flow resistance                       - Dalton's-law                                                                                                              deformation
/pneumatic/hydraul      - Backpressure                          - Lotus-effect                                                                                                               - Joule-Thomson-
     ic-energy)         - Reaction principle                    - Von Kármán vortex                                                                                                         effect
                        - Compressibility                      street
                        - Electrostriction (piezoelectric       - Electrostriction           - Interference              - Eddy current         - Electrostric-    - Photostriction         - Joule-heating     - Galvanic element
                        materials, electroactive polymers)      - Electrorheology            - Conduction                - Biot-Savart-law     tion                - Kerr-effect            - Eddy current      - X-Ray-effect
                        - Capacitance effect                    - Electrophoresis            - Ohm's-law                 - Farraday's-law                          - Pockels-effect         - Electric arc      - (Electro-)dialysis
                        - Coulomb's-law                         - Cataphoresis               - Farraday's-law            - Hall-effect                             - Stark-effect           - Peltier-effect    - Electrolysis
  Electrostatic         - Johnson-Rhabeck-effect                - Electro-osmosis            - Semiconductivity          - Meissner-effect                         - Electrolumin-(fluor-   - Hysteresis
     Energy             - Biot-Savart-law                                                    - Impedance                                                          , phosphor-)escence
   (Capacitive-         - Electrokinetic-effects                                             - Capacitance-effect                                                  - Electrochromism
     energy)            - Friction                                                           - Skin-effect                                                         - Liquid-crystal/sus-
                        - Induction                                                          - Quantum tunneling                                                  pended-particle effect
                                                                                                                                                                   - Incandescence
                                                                                                                                                                   - Laser-effect

                        - Magnetostriction                     - Magnetostriction             - Farraday's-law           - Interference        - Magneto-          - Farraday-effect       - Eddy current       - (Magneto)-dialysis
                        - Ferro-/electro-magnetism             - Magnetorheology              - Hall-effect              - Conduction         striction            - Zeemann-effect        - Hysteresis
                        - Christofilos-effect                                                 - Induction (Lorentz       - (Total) Reflection - Barkhausen-        - Cotton-Mouton-effect - Demagnetization
                        - Induction (Lorentz-effect)                                         force)                      - Refraction         effect               - Magnetolumin-         - Thermal Hall-
  Magnetostatic         - Elihu-Thomson efffect                                               - Magnetoresistivity                                                (fluor-, phosphor-      effect (Righi effect)
                                                                                                                         - Absorption
     Energy             - Einstein-de-Haas-effect                                                                                                                 )escence
                                                                                                                         - Induction
(Inductive-energy)                                                                                                       - Farraday's-law
                                                                                                                         - Ferromagnetism
                                                                                                                         - Saturation
                                                                                                                         - Remanence
                        - Sound excitation                     - Sound pressure              - Electrostriction          - Magnetostriction - Reflection                                    - Sound pressure    - (In)elastic
                                                                                                                                            - Refraction                                                        deformation
     Sound                                                                                                                                  - Interference
     Energy                                                                                                                                 - Dispersion
 (Kinetic-energy)                                                                                                                           - Beat
                                                                                                                                            - Birefringence
                                                                                                                                            - Polarization

                        - Photostriction                        - Electromagnetical          - Photostriction            - Photostriction                          - Reflection          - Thermolumi-          - Photoeffect
                        - Electromagetical radiation           radiation pressure                                                                                  - Refraction          nescence               - Photoresistor-effect
                        pressure                                                                                                                                   - Birefringence       - Radiation            - Photochemical-effect
                                                                                                                                                                   - Interference
                                                                                                                                                                   - Conduction
     Light                                                                                                                                                         - Photonic crystal
    Energy                                                                                                                                                        effect
(Quantum-energy)                                                                                                                                                   - Fluorescence
                                                                                                                                                                   - Phosphorescence
                                                                                                                                                                   - Fermat's principles
                                                                                                                                                                   - Polarization
                                                                                                                                                                   - Photoluminescence
                                                                                                                                                                  (Photochromics)

                         - Temperature change of state          - Temperature change of      - Thermoelectric-effect     - Curie-Weiss-law                         - Pyroelectricity        - Conduction         - Heat capacity
                         - Thermal expansion                   state                         - Thermionic emission                                                 - Thermolumin-(fluor-    - Convection         - Phase
                         - Steam pressure                       - Thermal expansion          - Pyroelectricity                                                    , phosphor-)escence       - Radiation         transformations
                         - Osmotic pressure                     - Steam pressure             - Thermal-noise-effect                                                - Thermocromics          - Insulation         - Heat induced
                         - Gas laws                             - Osmotic pressure           - Conductivity                                                                                 - Condensation      martensitic
    Thermal              - Heat-induced martensitic             - Gas laws                   - Semiconductivity                                                                             - Evaporation       transformations
     Energy             transformations                         - Thermophoresis (Soret-     - Superconductivity                                                                            - Freezing           - Thermoelectric
 (Heat-capacity/-                                              effect)                       - Curie-Weiss-law                                                                                                  effect
    enthalpy)                                                                                                                                                                                                    - Stefan-Boltzmann-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                law
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Wien's displacement-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                law
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Destillation

                        - Exothermic reactivity                - Exothermic reactivity       - Galvanic cell                                    - Exothermic       - Cotton-effect       - Combustion            - Photosynthesis
                        - Osmosis                              - Osmosis                     - Molecular dipole                                reactivity          - Combustion          - Conductivity          - Endo-/exo-thermic
                        - Molecular-velocity                   - Co-/Adhesion                - Ionization                                       - Nuclear          - Chemochromics       - Exothermic           reactivity
                        - Sorption                             - Nuclear fission/fusion      - Fermentation                                    fission/fusion      - Chemolumin-(fluor- reactivity               - Nuclear fission/
                        - Desorption                           - Chromatography                                                                                   , phosphor-)escence - Nuclear                 fusion
                        - Muscle-effect                        - Effusion                                                                                          - Exothermic         fission/fusion           - Radiation
                        - Nuclear fission/fusion                                                                                                                  reactivity                                     - Oxidation/Reduction/
                                                                                                                                                                   - Nuclear                                    Absorption
     Chemical/                                                                                                                                                    fission/fusion                                 - Ionic transport
     Biological/                                                                                                                                                   - Dissociation                                - Bohr-effect
      Nuclear                                                                                                                                                                                                    - Di-/Association
      Energy                                                                                                                                                                                                    /(dis)solution
(Nuclear-/reaction-                                                                                                                                                                                              - Dialysis
 /oxidation-energy)                                                                                                                                                                                              - Isotopes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Enzymes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                antibodies, cells,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                microbes, living
                                                                                                                                                                                                                tissues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Miosis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Self-repair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 - Autolysis
                                                                                                                                                Characteristics
Pheno-
       Scale                                                                                         Solution Principle
menon
                                                                                           Fundamental structural        Basic engineering elements on the mocroscale primarily suppo
 torsion, buckling, fracture, cutting, inversion, extrusion, drawing, flow)




                                                                                           elements
  Elastic/inelastic deformation (tension, compression, bending, shear,




                                                                                            - Tie, cable, wire or
                                                                                           continuous fiber




                                                                                           - Struts or columns
                                                                              Macroscale




                                                                                           - Beams or archs




                                                                                           - Plates/panels, shells,
                                                                                           membranes or foils




                                                                                           - Shafts or torsion springs
            Characteristics

                                             Properties                                                Applications
eering elements on the mocroscale primarily supporting loads are referred to as fundamental structural elements.

             These structures are capable of carrying tensile loads only. The maximum energy - Single-, coaxial-, multicore-
             that can be absorbed per unit weight before tensile instability supervenes        , … cables
             depends upon the ultimate tensile strength and strain. If tension devices are for
             example used as a simple type of energy absorber, they suffer from the stroke,
             i.e., maximum displacement, or maximum strength limitation imposed by the
             ultimate strain or strength of specific material system.

             These structures are capable of carrying compressive loads only.With respect to          - Hinged-, fixed-, free-, …
             buckling and plastic collapse the specific ultimate tensile strength is an excellent    columns
             indicator of the ability of a material to absorb energy. If struts or columns are for
             example used as energy absorber, the absorbed energy per unit mass in static
             tests is minimial because of the limited zone of plastic deformation during
             buckling.

             Beam and archs (curved beams) are structural elements that carry load primarily - Cantilever-, simply-
             in bending (flexure). In general, they are characterized by their profile (the shape supported-, ... beams
             of their cross-section), their length, and their material. Beams and archs may for
             example be used for energy dissiaption or blocking and bracing, i.e., locating
             supports in contact with stronger parts of a structure, so that imparct forces are
             directed to these parts.

             Plates are initially flat structural elements, having thicknesses much smaller than      - Fixed-, simply-supported-,
             the other dimensions. Whereas shells only bear in-plane loads, plates bear              … plates and panels
             bending moments as well. Membranes are curved shells. Panels are non-                    - Multifunctional foils: load
             horizontal plates. For example, their load spreading effect (i.e., spreading the        bearing, aesthetic, ...
             forces at impact over a large area so that pressure is reduced) has been used in
             energy dissipation devices.


             Shafts or torsion springs are structural elements primarlily loaded in torsion.          - Tension-, compression-, …
             Besides tension, compression and bending, torsion of bars or tubes, featuring           spring
             relatively large deceleration strokes, has also been used in energy dissipation
             devices.
                Phenomenon           Illustration
               Inertia




               (In)elastic de-
               formation




               Friction




               Load spreading
Alternatives




               Ferromagnetism
                                            M
                                             F




                                 Q          E
                                                F
                           F



Capacitance-
effects
                  Q        E
                               F


Electrodynamic-
effects
                      M
                       F



Exothermic
reactivity
                              Remarks                                 Feasibility
        The principle of inertia is defined by Newton's 1st law
        which describes the motion of matter and how it is
        affected by applied forces. However, use of the term
        "inertia" refers to an object's amount of resistance to
        change in velocity, and sometimes its momentum. For the
        given problem context, one is interested in an object's
        resistance to change in velocity which is quantified by its
        mass. Since a large mass is required to resist velocity
        changes for blast loading, it is not feasible here.
        Deformation is a change in shape due to an applied force.
        Depending on the type of material, size and geometry of
        the object, and the forces applied, various elastic or
        inelastic types of deformation may result in strain energy
        storage or energy dissipation. (Strain) energy storage or
        dissipation may occur at high stress levels for lightweight
        structures. Hence, it is feasible for blast loading.



        Friction is a force that opposes the relative motion or
        tendency toward such motion of two surfaces in contact.
        When contacting surfaces move relative to each other,
        the friction between the two objects converts kinetic
        energy into thermal energy and hence leads to energy
        dissipation. Macroscopic energy dissipating devices
        based on friction become too heavy to fulfill the
        performance requirements in the given problem context
        and are hence not feasible here.
        Load spreading is a frequently used phenomenon in body
        armor to transform local into global impacts. Since blast
        loads are already more or less uniformly distributed, this
        feature is not of importance here. Load spreading is
        however also used to transfer loads into "crumble" zone.
        This is an interesting approach in the given problem
        context but not feasible here due to the given (weight)
        performance requirements.

        Ferromagnetism is the phenomenon by which materials in
        an external magnetic field become magnetized and
M       remain magnetized for a period after the material is no
        longer in the field, i.e., a net magnetic moment exists in
 F      the absence of an external magnetic field. If front-face
        sheet and back-face sheets are magnetic poles in
        oppossite direction, this magnetic moment could be used
        to restrict and control displacement of the front-face
        sheet. This however requires a weight intense
        configuration not feasible in the given problem context.




E
    F
F



        Having electric charges of equal sign stored on the front-
        and back-face sheet, forces in the electric field could be
E       used to restrict and control displacement of the front face
        sheet. Generation and shielding of this electric field
    F   however requires a weight intense configuration not
        feasible in the given problem context.




        Instead of generating a magnetic moment to restrict and
        control displacement of the front-face sheet using
        ferromagnetism, electrodynamic effects could be used.
        The front face sheet could then either be a magnetized
        material in the electrodynamically magnetic field, or a
        conductor moving in a stationary magnetic field. Both
        configurations however require a weight intense setup not
        feasible in the given problem context.

        Exothermic reactions are chemical reactions that are
        initiated by some outside stimulus and then release
        energy stored chemically beforehand. In an exothermic
        reaction, the total energy absorbed in bond breaking is
        less than the total energy released in bond making. In
        other words, the energy needed for the reaction to occur
        is less than the total energy provided. As a result of this,
        the extra energy is released.
From preliminary selection considered for selection = table ==> literature review ==> select most promising as justified in

                   Most promising solutions from design catalog …

                    Solution Principles Acronym                     Illustration
                   Compression of          C
                   structures




                   Tension of                         T(N)
                   structures /
                   Nanotubes




                   Torsion of                           T
                   structures




                   Bending of Plate                    BP
                   structures
    Alternatives
Alternatives
               Bending of Shell        BS
               structures




               Inversion of            I
               structures




               Splitting of            S
               structures




               Progressive             BO
               Buckling of Open-
               top tubes and frustra




               Progressive             BC
               Buckling of Closed-
               top tubes and frustra
                           Crushing of In-plane    CIH
                           Honeycombs




                           Crushing of Out-of-     COH
                           plane Honeycombs
Alternatives (continued)




                           Crushing of Open /     C(O/C)F
                           Closed-cell Foams




                           Crushing of         C(P/T/K)
                           Pyramidal /
                           Tetragonal / Kagome
                           microtruss
                           structures


                           Crushing of Textile-    CTW
                           based Weave
                           Crushing of Fibrous   CF
                           composite
                           structures




                           Crushing of Multi-    CM
                           length-scale
                           composites




                           Crushing of Auxetic   CA
                           structures
Alternatives (continued)




                           Compression of        CM
                           Microtruss
                           mechanisms




                           Stress-induced        MT
                           Martensitic
                           Transformations
review ==> select most promising as justified in literature review = summarize in table ==> concept selection charts ==> concepts ==> selec

            After literature review - summary given beforehand …

                                  Remarks                                Feasibility
            Ultimate tensile strength is an excellent indicator of the
            ability of a material to absorb energy. The uniform
            elongation parameter is unimportant provided that the
            ductility is sufficient to allow the requisite plastic
            deformation. However, compression of structures
            usually suffers form the limited zone of plastic
            deformation and the unavailability of lightweight
            materials that combine high ultimate tensile strength
            and sufficient plastic deformation in this configuration.
            The maximum energy that can be absorbed per unit
            weight before tensile instability supervenes depends
            upon the ultimate tensile strength and strain. Structures
            with incorporated carbon nanotubes could be
            substantially stronger and lighter than conventional, but,
            besides the stroke (maximum displacement limitation),
            cost and manufacturability are still major problems with
            nantobes.

            The maximum energy that can be absorbed per unit
            weight before torsional instability supervenes depends
            upon the ultimate torsional strength and strain. Besides
            the maximum stroke limitation, energy absorbers based
            on torsion suffers from the unavailability of lightweight
            materials that combine high ultimate torsional strength
            and strain.



            Kinetic energy of an incoming blast impinging on a plate
            can be dissipated by bending and stretching. The
            superior performance of sandwich plates relative to
            solid plates of equal mass for shock loading is due (i)
            the substantial bending strength of a sandwich plate as
            described above, and (ii) energy absorption by the
            sandwich core.
The failure mode of laterally loaded shell structures
starts as local denting followed by global bending
collapse. For shell structures such as tubes, the axial
buckling mode has a specific energy absorption
capacity which is approximately 10 times that of the
same tube in lateral bending. Moreover, in the bending
of shell structures, usually not all material participates in
the absorption of energy by plastic work.

Inversion of structures involves for example the turning
inside or outside in of a thin circular tube made of
ductile material. Another example is the inversion of
spherical shells where material passes into the central
dimple region through a circular knuckle whose radius
increases with deformation. In general, practical
shortcomings, such as difficulties in securing axial
loading, did not yet proove inversion to be a feasible
energy dissipation mechanism.
Tube splitting is a special case of tube inversion where
the die radius is large enough to cause splitting instead
of inversion. Again, practical shortcomings, such as
difficulties in securing axial loading, did not yet prove
inversion to be a feasible energy dissipation
mechanism.




Circular tubes under axial compression provide one of
the best energy absorption devices since they feature
"optimal" energy dissipation characteristics. They
provide a high stroke length per unit mass and a
reasonably constant operating force. Best energy
dissipation is obtained through progressive plastic
buckling via a series of ringlike folds which avoids
overall elastic buckling.

Closed-top frustra also feature "optimal" energy
dissipation characteristics. They deform by a traveling
hinge mode of deformation provided material tearing
and elastic buckling is avoided. One particular
instantiation of axially loaded closed-top tubes and
frustra is referred to as egg-box material.
Core cell axes of in-plane honeycomb cores are parallel
to the face-sheets. In-oplane honeycombs made of
elastic-plastic solids collapse plastically when the
bending moment in the cell walls reaches the fully
plastic moment, yielding a plateau both in compression
and in tension at the plastic collapse stress. Hence,
they feature "optimal" energy dissipation characteristics.



Core cell axes of out-of-plane honeycomb cores are
perpendicular to face-sheets. Out-of-plane honeycombs
give high energy absorption by the formation of a
succession of folds of each cell, with hoop stretching of
the cell wall between each fold. They feature "optimal"
energy dissipation characteristics.




Foams feature "optimal" energy dissipation
characteristics during bending-dominated collapse.
Their properties can be adjusted over a wide range.
The low densities permit the design of light and strong
components. Economies of processing and fabrication
give foams cost advantages in many applications.
Furthermore, benefits with respect to multiple use give
integrally formed metal foam cores advantages over
conventional panel structures
Microtruss structures feature stretching dominated
collapse (where struts support axial loads, tensile in
some, compressive in others when loaded). Stretching
dominated behavior offers "optimal" energy dissipation
characteristics as well as greater stiffness and strength
per unit weight than bending dominated behavior.




The crushing of textile-based weaves is based on
proven textile-based approaches to the synthesis of
periodic metal microtruss laminates consisting of wire
weaves joined using a transient liquid phase. Crushing
of textile-based weaves exhibits "optimal" energy
dissipation characteristics at relatively low weight and
high stiffness.
Fibrous core sandwich panels are thin, lightweight
structures with face-sheets separated by an irregular
arrangement of independent fibers. These core
configurations provide high bending stiffness and light
weight, together with good formability and vibration
damping. However, they do not feature "optimal" energy
dissipation characteristics.



Multi-length-scale composites are isotropic cellular
materials that attain theoretical upper bounds for the
bulk and shear moduli of a voided solid. Hence, the
stiffness to weight ratio is maximized. However, those
obtaining the theoretical bounds most promising for
energy absorption are multiscale structures and
therefore not manufacturable.



Material structures having auxetic characteristics, i.e.,
featuring a negative Poisson’s ratio behavior, include a
special subset of foams, long fiber composites,
honeycombs, etc. Honeycombs are so far preferred,
since the negative Poisson’s ratio behavior implies a
stiffening geometric effect. However, analyses and
experimental results so far do not show the plateau at a
sufficiently high stress level required for enhanced
energy dissipation.
Machine augmented composite materials are
composites formed by embedding simple microscale
machines in a matrix material. The machines may take
on many different forms and serve to modify power,
force, or motion in different ways. The use of machine
augmented composites may be beneficial in providing
new methods for energy control through their capability
of influencing forces during impacts. However, results
are still focus of current research.
Stress induced martensitic transformations refer to the
ability of a material to undergo enormous elastic or
reversible deformation (pseudo-elasticity). However, so
far pseudo-elasticity involves plateau stress-
deformation characteristics crucial for enhanced energy
dissipation only at low stress levels. Also,
implementations are still relatively expensive to
manufacture and machine compared to other materials
such as steel and aluminum.
selection charts ==> concepts ==> selection DSP
Viewpoint for interval scale attribute realizability:
 Interval                                       Description
           Low realizability - High manufacturing complexity, extremely limited
    0-3
           manufacturing flexibility, low temperature-, chemical-, …resistance
           Medium realizability - Medium manufacturing complexity, limited
    4-6
           manufacturing flexibility, limited temperature-, chemical-, …resistance
           High realizability - Low manufacturing complexity (ease of manufacturing),
   7-10
           manufacturing flexibility, high temperature-, chemical-, …resistance
Viewpoint for interval scale attribute functionality
 Interval                                     Description
            Low functionality - Functionality in one domain (such as mechanical
            (strength, stiffness, hardness, ductility, etc.), thermal, flow, electromagnetic,
    0-3
            environmental, chemical resistance, optical, aesthetic, etc.) and low potential
            for multifunctional enhancement
            Medium functionality - Functionality in a few domains (such as mechanical
            (strength, stiffness, hardness, ductility, etc.), thermal, flow, electromagnetic,
    4-6
            environmental, chemical resistance, optical, aesthetic, etc.) and medium
            potential for multifunctional enhancement

            High functionality - Functinoality in multiple domains (such as mechanical
            (strength, stiffness, hardness, ductility, etc.), thermal, flow, electromagnetic,
   7-10
            environmental, chemical resistance, optical, aesthetic, etc.) and high potential
            for multifunctional enhancement
                   Titanium alloys                                     (-? - 500 degrees Celcius useful, hard to process, difficult to machi
                   Ceramic Boron Carbide                               (Brittle, hard, easy to process, hard to machine, limited thermal sho
                   Aluminum alloys                                     (hard to process, easy to machine, good elongation)
                   Magnesium alloys                                    (hard to process, easy to machine, good mechancial damping, corr
                   Polymer Carbon Fiber Composite                      (hard to process, hard to machine, multifunctional, oxidize at high t
                   Nylon                                               (-80 - 120 degrees Celsius useful, easy to process, machine and fin
                   Manufacturability, temperature resistance, chemical resistance (not of importance for core!)
                   Ductility (failure behavior - not of importance for core!), potential for multifunctional enhancement

Front face sheet:
                                                                                       Attributes

                                                         Density      Strength      Price
                                                                 3                                  Realizability
                                                      (min. [kg/m ]) (max. [Pa]) (max. [$/kg])

                          Titanium Alloys                 4360          1.3x109           28               8
    Alternatives




                                                                              8
                      Ceramic Boron Carbide               3700           2x10             12               7
                                                                                  8
                         Aluminum Alloys                  2500          5.1x10            6                8
                         Magnesium Alloys                 1730          4.4x108           11               4
                     Polymer Carbon Fiber
                                                          1550          4.5x109           61               1
                   Composite (quasi-isotropic)
                                                  S
                                           Weight
                                      Weighted S
                                             Rank




Honeycomb core:
                                                                                       Attributes

                                                         Density      Strength      Price
                                                                 3                                  Realizability
                                                      (min. [kg/m ]) (max. [Pa]) (max. [$/kg])

                          Titanium Alloys                 4360          1.3x109           28               8
    Alternatives




                                                                                  8
                         Aluminum Alloys                  2500          5.1x10            6                7
                         Magnesium Alloys                 1730          4.4x108           11               5
                                                                              8
                             Nylon (PA)                   1000           1x10             12               4
                                                  S
                                           Weight
                                      Weighted S
                                             Rank



Closed-cell foam core:
                                                                               Attributes

                                                    Density      Strength      Price
                                                            3                               Realizability
                                                 (min. [kg/m ]) (max. [Pa]) (max. [$/kg])

                        Titanium Alloys              4360        1.3x109         28              2
   Alternatives




                                                                       8
                    Ceramic Boron Carbide            3700         2x10           12              2
                       Aluminum Alloys               2500        5.1x108          6              2
                                                                           8
                      Magnesium Alloys               1730        4.4x10          11              1
                                                                       8
                          Nylon (PA)                 1000         1x10           12              2
                                             S
                                       Weight
                                  Weighted S
                                          Rank



Back face sheet:
                                                                               Attributes

                                                    Density      Strength      Price
                                                                                            Realizability
                                                 (min. [kg/m3]) (max. [Pa]) (max. [$/kg])

                        Titanium Alloys              4360        1.3x109         28              6
                                                                       8
                    Ceramic Boron Carbide            3700         2x10           12              1
   Alternatives




                                                                           8
                       Aluminum Alloys               2500        5.1x10           6              6
                      Magnesium Alloys               1730        4.4x108         11              6
                                                                       8
                          Nylon (PA)                 1000         1x10           12              8
                    Polymer Carbon Fiber
                                                     1550        4.5x109         61              9
                  Composite (quasi-isotropic)
                                             S
                                       Weight
                                  Weighted S
                                          Rank
l, hard to process, difficult to machine, limited ductility)
 ard to machine, limited thermal shock and impact resistant, high melting point, only in compression!)
ne, good elongation)
ne, good mechancial damping, corrosion, poor resistance to acids)
ne, multifunctional, oxidize at high temperatures,)
ul, easy to process, machine and finish; poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agetns and solvents; usable for dispersion composites)

nal enhancement




              Functionality

                     4        limited ductility!
                     2
                     7        Best
                     6

                     9
                              temperature resistance!




              Functionality

                     4        Best
                     4
                     5
                     6
Functionality

      1         Best
      1
      1
      1
      2




Functionality

      4
      2
      6
      7
      8

     10
                Best
or dispersion composites)
From preliminary selection considered for selection = table ==> literature review ==> select most promising as justified in

                Most promising solutions from design catalog …

                 Solution Principles Acronym                     Illustration
                Compression of          C
                structures




                Tension of                         T(N)
                structures
                (Nanotubes)




                Torsion of                           T
                structures




                Bending of Plate-                   BP
                structures (stress-
                induced Marensitic
                transformations)
 Alternatives
Alternatives
                       Elastic Buckling of       BIH
                       In-plane
                       Honeycombs




                       Elastic Buckling of       BOH
                       Out-of-plane
                       Honeycombs




                       Elastic buckling of      B(O/C)F
                       Open / Closed-cell
                       Foams




                       Stretching of       S(P/T/K)
                       Pyramidal /
                       Tetragonal / Kagome
                       microtruss
                       structures


                       Stretching of Textile-    STW
                       based Weave
rnatives (continued)
Alternatives (continued)
                           Elastic Buckling of   BA
                           Auxetic structures




                           Compression of        CM
                           Microtruss
                           mechanisms
erature review ==> select most promising as justified in literature review = summarize in table ==> concept selection charts ==> concepts ==

             After literature review - summary given beforehand …

                                  Remarks                                Feasibility
             Stiffness and maximum elastic elongation are indicators
             of the ability of a material to store elastic energy.
             However, compression of structures usually suffers
             form the limited zone of deformation and the
             unavailability of lightweight materials with a stiffness
             and elastic elongation combination to store sufficient
             energy in this configuration.



             The maximum elastic energy that can be stored per unit
             weight depends upon the stiffness and elastic
             elongation. Structures with incorporated carbon
             nanotubes could be substantially stiffer and lighter than
             conventional, but, besides the stroke (maximum
             displacement) limitation, cost and manufacturability are
             still major problems with nantobes.Hence, this
             configuration is not feasible for the given problem
             context.
             The maximum elastic energy that can be stored per unit
             weight depends upon the torsional stiffness and elastic
             deformation. Besides the maximum stroke limitation,
             torsion of structures suffers from the unavailability of
             lightweight materials that combine sufficient torsional
             sitffness and elastic deformation. Hence, this
             configuration is not feasible for the given problem
             context.

             Kinetic energy of an incoming blast impinging on a plate
             is stored by elastic bending and stretching, the simplest
             configuration for the given problem context.
             Performance of plate structures can further be
             enhanced through stiffened or sandwich plates.
Core cell axes of in-plane honeycomb cores are parallel
to the face-sheets. Strain energy is stored through
elastic bending deformation of cell walls. Benefits with
respect to multiple use may be advantegous. Also, their
properties can be adjusted over a wide range.




Core cell axes of out-of-plane honeycomb cores are
perpendicular to face-sheets. Strain energy is stored
through elastic bending deformation of cell walls.
Benefits with respect to multiple use may be
advantegous. Also, their properties can be adjusted
over a wide range.




Foams store strain energy through elastic bending of
cell edges and wall (if present). Their properties can be
adjusted over a wide range.The low densities permit the
design of light and stiff components. Economies of
processing and fabrication give foams cost advantages
in many applications. Furthermore, benefits with
respect to multiple use give integrally formed metal
foam cores advantages over conventional panel
structures.
Microtruss structures store strain energy through elastic
stretching (where struts support axial loads, tensile in
some, compressive in others when loaded). Benefits
with respect to multiple use may be advantageous.




Textile-based weaves store strain energy through
elastic stretching. Benefits with respect to multiple use
and economies of scales may be advantegous.
Material structures having auxetic characteristics, i.e.,
featuring a negative Poisson’s ratio behavior, include a
special subset of foams, long fiber composites,
honeycombs, etc. Honeycombs are so far preferred,
since the negative Poisson’s ratio behavior implies a
stiffening geometric effect. However, analyses and
experimental results so far do not show a sufficiently
high stiffness required for enhanced strain energy
storage.
Machine augmented composite materials are
composites formed by embedding simple microscale
machines in a matrix material. The machines may take
on many different forms and serve to modify power,
force, or motion in different ways. The use of machine
augmented composites may be beneficial in providing
new methods for stiffness control through their
capability of influencing forces during impacts.
However, results are still focus of current research.
oncept selection charts ==> concepts ==> selection DSP
       From preliminary selection considered for selection = table ==> literature review ==> select most promising as justifie
       Inspired by energy dissipation results!!!
Storage:

                                                                                    Attributes
                                                         Maximum Stiffness-       Performance-
                                                         Indicator (Stiffness-       Range-      Realizability-
                                                         Indicator at rrel=0.1)     Indicator     Indicator

                 Elastic Buckling   BIH
                 of In-plane
                 Honeycombs                                0.090        0.010        0.090            0.4


                 Elastic Buckling   BOH
                 of Out-of-plane
                 Honeycombs                                1.000        1.000        1.000            0.6


                 Elastic Buckling   BOF
                 of Open-cell
                 Foams                                     0.300        0.100        0.301            0.8
  Alternatives




                 Elastic Buckling   BCF
                 of Closed-cell
                 Foams                                     0.330        0.330        0.330            0.9


                 Stretching of       ST
                 Tetragonal
                 microtruss                                0.147        0.440        0.132            0.4
                 structures

                 Stretching of      SP
                 Pyramidal
                 microtruss                                0.083        0.250        0.075            0.4
                 structures

                 Stretching of      STW
                 Textile-based
                 Weaves                                    0.500        0.500        0.485            0.3




                 Elastic Buckling
                 of Open-cell
                 Foams



                 Realizability = Ease of manufacturing, materials cost, …
elect most promising as justified in literature review = summarize in table ==> concept selection charts ==> concepts ==> selection DSP




             Functionality-
               Indicator
                                                                             Alu (r, s, E) Elow       Eupper
                                                                0.001-0.3
                                           E
                   0.6                        1r        3
                                                         rel
                                           Es
                                                                                   2500    8.80E+01       2.38E+09
                              Best                              0.001-0.3
                                          E
                   0.6                       1r        rel
                                          Es
                                                                             500000000     8.80E+07       2.64E+10
                                                                0.001-0.3
                                            E
                   0.9                         1r       2
                                                         rel
                                            Es
                                                                                8.8E+10    8.80E+04       7.92E+09
                                                                0.001-0.3
                                           E
                   0.8                         0 . 33 r rel
                                           Es
                                                                                           2.90E+07       8.71E+09
                                                                0.01-0.1
                                            E
                   0.7                          0 . 44 r rel
                                            Es
                                                                                           3.87E+08       3.87E+09
                                                                0.01-0.1
                                            E
                   0.7                          0 . 25 r rel
                                            Es
                                                                                           2.20E+08       2.20E+09
                                                                0.01-0.3
                                            E
                   0.6                          0 . 5 r rel
                                            Es
                                                                                           4.40E+08       1.32E+10




                              Viewpoint for interval scale attribute realization-cost:
                              Interval Description
                               1-3     High realization cost -
 4-6     Medium realization cost -
 7-9     Low realization cost - Ease of manufacturing, manufacturing flexibility, manufacturing cost, …
Viewpoint for interval scale attribute multifunctionality
Interval Description
 1-3     Low potential for multifunctionality -
 4-6     Medium potential for multifunctionality -
 7-9     High potential for multifunctionality - Mechanical (strength/stiffness/hardness/viscosity), thermal, flo

Realizability = Ease of manufacturing, manufacturing flexibility, manufacturing cost, …
=> concepts ==> selection DSP




            Eatr=0.1      Erange           Eupper_norm Eatr=0.1_norm     Erange_norm




               8.80E+07         2.38E+09          0.090          0.010           0.090




               8.80E+09         2.63E+10          1.000          1.000           1.000




               8.80E+08         7.92E+09          0.300          0.100           0.301




               2.90E+09         8.68E+09          0.330          0.330           0.330




               3.87E+09         3.48E+09          0.147          0.440           0.132




               2.20E+09         1.98E+09          0.083          0.250           0.075




               4.40E+09         1.28E+10          0.500          0.500           0.485
xibility, manufacturing cost, …




ess/hardness/viscosity), thermal, flow, electromagnetic (low density!), environmental (isolation of core interstices), chemical resistance, optic
interstices), chemical resistance, optical, aesthetics, … functionality
Titanium alloys                                     (-? - 500 degrees Celcius useful, hard to process, difficult to machine, limited ductility)
Ceramic Boron Carbide                               (Brittle, hard, easy to process, hard to machine, limited thermal shock and impact resistant, high melting point)
Aluminum alloys                                     (hard to process, easy to machine, good elongation)
Magnesium alloys                                    (hard to process, easy to machine, good mechancial damping, corrosion, porr resistance to acids)
Polymer Carbon Fiber Composite                      (hard to process, hard to machine, multifunctional, oxidize at high temperatures,)
Nylon                                               (-80 - 120 degrees Celsius useful, easy to process, machine and finish; poor resistance to strong acids, oxidizing agetns and solvents; usable for dispersion composites)
Machinability, temperature resistance, chemical resistance (not of importance for core!)
Ductility (failure behavior - not of importance for core!), potential for multifunctional enhancement
                                                          Energy Dissipation

                                     Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description        Functionality-
                                      Indicator            Realizability-Indicator            Indicator
               Progressive     BO                     Limited manufacturing flexibility,
               Buckling of                            medium-high manufacturing
               Open-top                   0.4         complexity, and limited resistance         0.4
               tubes and                              against environmental effects
               frustra
               Progressive     BC                     Extremely limited manufacturing
               Buckling of                            flexibility, medium manufacturing
               Closed-top                 0.3         complexity, and limited resistance         0.3
               tubes and                              against environemtal effects
               frustra
               Crushing of     CIH                    Limited manufacturing flexibility,
               In-plane                               medium manufacturing complexity,
               Honeycombs                 0.4         and low resistance against                 0.6
                                                      environmental effects.

               Crushing of     COH                    Limited manufacturing flexibility,
               Out-of-plane                           medium manufacturing complexity,
               Honeycombs                 0.6         and medium-high resistance                 0.6
                                                      agains environmental effects.
Alternatives




               Crushing of     COF                    Limited-high manufacturing
               Open-cell                              flexibility, low manufacturing
               Foams                      0.8         complexity, and high resistance            0.9
                                                      against environmental effects.

               Crushing of     CCF                    Limited-high manufacturing
               Closed-cell                            flexibility, low manufacturing com-
               Foams                      0.9         plexity, and very high resistance          0.8
                                                      against environmental effects.

               Crushing of     CP                     Limited manufacturing flexibility,
               Pyramidal                              medium manufacturing complexity,
               microtruss                 0.4         and low resistance against                 0.7
               structures                             environmental effects.

               Crushing of     CT                     Limited manufacturing flexibility,
               Tetragonal                             medium manufacturing complexity,
               microtruss                 0.4         and low resistance against                 0.7
               structures                             environmental effects.

               Crushing of     CTW                    Limited-low manufacturing
               Textile-based                          flexibility, medium manufacturing
               Weaves                     0.3         complexity, and low resistance             0.6
                                                      against environmental effects.
                                                                   Energy Storage

                                           Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                            Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                Elastic         BIH                         Limited manfuactring flexibility,
                Buckling of In-                             medium manufacturing complexity,
                plane                            0.4        and low resistance against                     0.6
                Honeycombs                                  environmental effects.

                Elastic         BOH                         Limited manufacturing flexibility,
                Buckling of                                 medium manufacturing complexity,
                Out-of-plane                     0.6        and medium-high resistance                     0.6
                Honeycombs                                  agains environmental effects.

                Elastic         BOF                         Limited-high manufacturing
                Buckling of                                 flexibility, low manufacturing
                Open-cell                        0.8        complexity, and high resistance                0.9
                Foams                                       against environmental effects.
 Alternatives




                Elastic         BCF                         Limited-high manufacturing
                Buckling of                                 flexibility, low manufacturing com-
                Closed-cell                      0.9        plexity, and very high resistance              0.8
                Foams                                       against environmental effects.

                Stretching of   ST                          Limited manufacturing flexibility,
                Tetragonal                                  medium manufacturing complexity,
                microtruss                       0.4        and low resistance against                     0.7
                structures                                  environmental effects.

                Stretching of   SP                          Limited manufacturing flexibility,
                Pyramidal                                   medium manufacturing complexity,
                microtruss                       0.4        and low resistance against                     0.7
                structures                                  environmental effects.

                Stretching of   STW                         Limited-low manufacturing
                Textile-based                               flexibility, medium manufacturing
                Weaves                           0.3        complexity, and low resistance                 0.6
                                                            against environmental effects.


Depending on how important specific material property is for its intended, ratings vary even though justification is the same!


                                                       Energy Dissipation Front Face Sheet
                                           Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                            Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                                                            Very high environmental
                                                            resistance, high manufacturing
                         Titanium Alloys          8         complexity (hard to process), low               4
                                                            manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                            machine)
  ives
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, but, limited thermal
                                                              shock and impact resistance, high
                 Ceramic Boron Carbide             7                                                          2
                                                              manufacturing complexity (hard to
                                                              process), low manufacturing
Alternatives




                                                              flexibility (hard to machine)
                                                              High environmental resistance,
                                                              medium-high manufacturing
                    Aluminum Alloys                8          complexity (hard to process), high              7
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low-medium environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                   Magnesium Alloys                4          complexity (hard to process), high              6
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                 Polymer Carbon Fiber
                                                   1          Limited ductility!                              9
               Composite (quasi-isotropic)




                                                       Energy Dissipation Honeycomb Core
                                             Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                              Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                     Titanium Alloys               8          complexity (hard to process), low               4
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                              machine)
                                                              High environmental resistance,
                                                              medium-high manufacturing
                    Aluminum Alloys                7          complexity (hard to process), high              4
Alternatives




                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low-medium environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                   Magnesium Alloys                5          complexity (hard to process), high              5
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low environmental resistance, low
                                                              manufacturing complexity (easy to
                       Nylon (PA)                  4                                                          6
                                                              process), high manufacturing
                                                              flexibility (easy to machine)




                                                       Energy Dissipation Back Face Sheet
                                             Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                              Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                     Titanium Alloys               6          complexity (hard to process), low               4
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                              machine)
                 Ceramic Boron Carbide             1          Brittleness!                                    2
                                                              High environmental resistance,
                                                              medium-high manufacturing
                    Aluminum Alloys                6          complexity (hard to process), high              6
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
Alternatives




                                                              machine)
                                                              Low-medium environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                   Magnesium Alloys                6          complexity (hard to process), high              7
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low environmental resistance, low
                                                              manufacturing complexity (easy to
                       Nylon (PA)                  8                                                          8
                                                              process), high manufacturing
                                                              flexibility (easy to machine)
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                 Polymer Carbon Fiber
                                                   9          complexity (hard to process), low              10
               Composite (quasi-isotropic)
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                              machine)




                                                         Energy Storage Front Face Sheet
                                             Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                              Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                     Titanium Alloys              0.8         complexity (hard to process), low              0.5
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, but, limited thermal
                                                              shock and impact resistance, high
                 Ceramic Boron Carbide            0.7                                                        0.6
                                                              manufacturing complexity (hard to
                                                              process), low manufacturing
Alternatives




                                                              flexibility (hard to machine)
Alternatives
                                                              High environmental resistance,
                                                              medium-high manufacturing
                    Aluminum Alloys               0.6         complexity (hard to process), high             0.7
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low-medium environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                   Magnesium Alloys               0.3         complexity (hard to process), high             0.7
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                 Polymer Carbon Fiber
                                                  0.1                                                        0.9
               Composite (quasi-isotropic)
                                                              Limited ductility!


                                                          Energy Storage Honeycomb Core
                                             Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                              Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                     Titanium Alloys              0.7         complexity (hard to process), low              0.4
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                              machine)
                                                              High environmental resistance,
                                                              medium-high manufacturing
                    Aluminum Alloys               0.7         complexity (hard to process), high             0.4
Alternatives




                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low-medium environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                   Magnesium Alloys               0.5         complexity (hard to process), high             0.5
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                              machine)
                                                              Low environmental resistance, low
                                                              manufacturing complexity (easy to
                       Nylon (PA)                 0.4                                                        0.6
                                                              process), high manufacturing
                                                              flexibility (easy to machine)




                                                        Energy Storage Back Face Sheet Core
                                             Realizability-     Attribute Rating Description            Functionality-
                                              Indicator            Realizability-Indicator                Indicator
                                                              Very high environmental
                                                              resistance, high manufacturing
                     Titanium Alloys              0.7         complexity (hard to process), low              0.3
                                                              manufacturing flexibility (difficlt to
                                                              machine)
s
                 Ceramic Boron Carbide       0.1   Brittleness!                              0.6
                                                   High environmental resistance,
                                                   medium-high manufacturing
                    Aluminum Alloys          0.7   complexity (hard to process), high        0.5
                                                   manufacturing flexibility (easy to
Alternatives




                                                   machine)
                                                   Low-medium environmental
                                                   resistance, high manufacturing
                   Magnesium Alloys          0.6   complexity (hard to process), high        0.7
                                                   manufacturing flexibility (easy to
                                                   machine)
                                                   Low environmental resistance, low
                                                   manufacturing complexity (easy to
                       Nylon (PA)            0.7                                             0.8
                                                   process), high manufacturing
                                                   flexibility (easy to machine)
                                                   Very high environmental
                                                   resistance, high manufacturing
                 Polymer Carbon Fiber
                                             0.8   complexity (hard to process), low         1
               Composite (quasi-isotropic)
                                                   manufacturing flexibility (difficult to
                                                   machine)
  Attribute Rating Description
     Functionality-Indicator
Functionality in a few domains and
medium potential for
multifunctional enhancement



Functionality in a few domains and
medium-low potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains
and low potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in a few domains and
medium-high potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains
and high potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in a few domains and
high potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in a few domains and
high potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in a few domains and
high potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in a few domains and
medium-high potential for
multifunctional enhancement
                Attribute Rating Description
                   Functionality-Indicator
              Functionality in multiple domains
              and low potential for
              multifunctional enhancement


              Functionality in a few domains and
              medium-high potential for
              multifunctional enhancement


              Functionality in multiple domains
              and high potential for
              multifunctional enhancement


              Functionality in a few domains and
              high potential for multifunctional
              enhancement


              Functionality in a few domains and
              high potential for multifunctional
              enhancement


              Functionality in a few domains and
              high potential for multifunctional
              enhancement


              Functionality in a few domains and
              medium-high potential for
              multifunctional enhancement



h justification is the same!




                Attribute Rating Description
                   Functionality-Indicator

              Functionality in a few domains
              (high strength and stiffness, but,
              limited ductility), low potential for
              multifunctional enhancement
Brittleness! But, high potential for
multifunctional enhancement




Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement

Functionality in multiple domains,
very high potential for
multifunctional enhancement




  Attribute Rating Description
     Functionality-Indicator

Functionality in a few domains
(high strength and stiffness, but,
limited ductility), low potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional       Ducility and other functionality not required
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
medium-high potential for               If front face sheet fails, then, environmental resistance comes into play
multifunctional enhancement
  Attribute Rating Description
     Functionality-Indicator

Functionality in a few domains
(high strength and stiffness, but,
limited ductility), low potential for
multifunctional enhancement
Brittleness! But, high potential for
multifunctional enhancement

Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
medium-high potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
very high potential for
multifunctional enhancement




  Attribute Rating Description
     Functionality-Indicator

Functionality in a few domains
(high strength and stiffness, but,
limited ductility), low potential for
multifunctional enhancement



Functionality in a few domains,
high potential for multifunctional
enhancement
Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement

Functionality in multiple domains,
very high potential for
multifunctional enhancement




  Attribute Rating Description
     Functionality-Indicator

Functionality in a few domains
(high strength and stiffness, but,
limited ductility), low potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
medium-high potential for
multifunctional enhancement




  Attribute Rating Description
     Functionality-Indicator

Functionality in a few domains
(high strength and stiffness, but,
limited ductility), low potential for
multifunctional enhancement
Brittleness! But, high potential for
multifunctional enhancement

Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
low potential for multifunctional
enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
medium-high potential for
multifunctional enhancement


Functionality in multiple domains,
very high potential for
multifunctional enhancement
omes into play
               From preliminary selection considered for selection = table ==> literature review ==> select most promising as

               Release:
                                                                                            Attributes
                                                                           Density Reactivity Realizability
               Reactive Material        RM
Alternatives




               Reactive Metal         RMPM
               Powder Mixtures




               Reinforced RMPM
                                              Put in microscale pictures?
=> select most promising as justified in literature review = summarize in table ==> concept selection charts ==> concepts ==> selection DSP


tributes
             Functionality
==> concepts ==> selection DSP
Morphological Chart:

                                                        Core Function
                                  A                               B
                           Dissipate Energy             Store (Strain) Energy
               1   Plate bending                  Plate bending




               2   Plate bending + Out-Of-Plane   Stiffened plate bending
 Alternative




                   Honeycomb Core




               3   Plate bending + Closed-Cell    Out-Of-Plane Honeycomb Core
                   Foam Core                      Sandwich




                                                        Core Function
                                 A                               B
                          Dissipate Energy             Store (Strain) Energy
              1   Plate bending                  Plate bending




              2   Plate bending + Out-Of-Plane   Stiffened plate bending
Alternative




                  Honeycomb Core




              3   Plate bending + Closed-Cell    Out-Of-Plane Honeycomb Core
                  Foam Core                      Sandwich
ction
                       C
              Store (Use) Energy
        Reactive materials




        Reactive Metal Powder Mixtures




                                         Selection:
                                                                             Attributes
                                                Alternatives




                                                                             Protection Reactivity
                                                                  A1+C1
                                                                  A2+C1
                                                               A3+B1+B2+C1
                                                               A3+B1+B3+C1
                                                               A3+B!+B2+C2



ction
                      C
              Store (Use) Energy
Reactive materials




Reactive Metal Powder Mixtures
Weight




         Function

				
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posted:12/4/2011
language:English
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