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					    Why are
     leading
    actors
     matched
     w. costars
     1/2 their
     age?
Best Actor/Actress 2008:
Sean Penn - 47
Kate Winslet - 32
Best Actor/Actress 2007:
Daniel Day Lewis - 49
Marion Cotillard - 31
Romantic movies:
Eternal Sunshine - 2004
Jim Carey - 41; Kate Winslet - 28
Romantic movies:
Gone with the Wind - 1939
Clark Gable - 37; Vivien Leigh - 25
Casa Blanca - 1939
Bogart - 43; Ingrid Bergman - 24
Academy Awards 1929 -- 2008
Mean age of best actress - 34
Mean age of best actor - 43
Hypothesis:
People magazine speculates:
Hollywood directors (often
older males) “trying to relive
their youth”
Implies something special about
Hollywood, but 
TROPHY WIFE SYNDROME
Phoenix Gazette:
“Growing trend among
  powerful chief
  executives
..discarding long-standing
   spouses for „trophy
   wives‟ – women
   typically younger
   …beautiful and very
   often accomplished.”
     From Fortune magazine

                                                                       Female CEO’s
                  20
                                                                       husbands
DIFFERENCE FROM


                                                            20

                                                                       4.5 yrs. older
                             Male CEO’s
    CEO'S AGE




                  10                                        10
                             wives progressively
                             younger
                  0                                          0



              -10                                          -10




              -20                                          -20
                       10s   20s   30s   40s   50s   60s         10s   20s   30s   40s   50s   60s

                             MALE'S AGE                          FEMALE'S AGE
Sociologist Arthur Neal
(quoted in Gazette):
Our cultural image of a mature
man is typically in his late 40s or
50s…successful in his career.
…ideal female - 20s or early 30s
…This should come as no surprise
at all, we live in an advertising
culture...
Hypothesis:
Phenomenon attributable to
our culture
Implies something special
about American society
How do “experts” come up
 with their opinions on topics
 like this?
What kinds of evidence do we
 need to determine whether
 those opinions are right or
 wrong?
Major Theoretical Perspectives
        Sociocultural

        Evolutionary

       Social Learning

      Social Cognitive
Sociocultural Perspective
What drives social behavior?
• Forces in larger social groups
  such as:
• norms within cultural groups
• social class differences
• nationality/ethnicity
• fads
Sociocultural theorists might ask:

• What are the differences in
  social behavior across
  cultures?
• For example, women in
  some societies marry more
  than one man (polyandry)
                 Young Tibetan Bride (on right) with
                 3 of 5 brothers she married
Norms about racism
 have varied across
 historical periods
• In parts of the
  United States during
  the 1950s, anti-black
  prejudice was
  expressed openly
  Sociocultural Perspective

Social norms: rules and expectations
 for appropriate social behavior.
Culture: beliefs, customs, habits, and
 language shared by the people living
 in a particular time and place.
 esearch

    Culture, Choice, and Intrinsic
    Motivation
American culture
 teaches children to
 cherish their own
 individual choice
 and independence
 esearch

    Culture, Choice, and Intrinsic
    Motivation
But Asian culture
 emphasizes more
 collective values –
 viewing the self as
 interdependent
 with family and
 social group.
 esearch

    Culture, Choice, and Intrinsic
    Motivation
In one study, researchers asked Anglo-
  American and Asian-American children
  to solve word puzzles that were either:
• Chosen by the child (Personal Choice)
• Chosen by the experimenter
• Chosen by the child’s mom
                                            Iyengar & Lepper, 1999
  esearch   10




Number of   5
  Word
 Puzzles
Completed
            0
                 Personal    Experimenter       Mom
                 Choice         Choice          Choice
   Anglo
    American      Personal choice     But Asian-American
                 boosted motivation    children were more
   Asian             for Anglo-          motivated when
    American     American children      their mothers had
                                         chosen the task
Cultural Norms & Romance




Japanese - 1st kiss age 20
Americans - heavy petting @ 16
Aussie women want 4 sexual partners,
 Asian women less than 2
Cultural Norms & Romance

Cultural norms can
 influence romantic
 behaviors
But do they explain
 “trophy wife
 syndrome?”
Evolutionary Perspective
What drives social behavior?
Genetic predispositions to
 respond in adaptive ways to
 particular events in the
 environment.
   Evolutionary Perspective
Such as:
Tendency to
 quickly detect an
 angry face
580 msec if it’s a
 woman, 540 msec
 if it’s a man,
• Evolutionary
 theorists
 might ask:
Are there
 similarities in
 social
 behavior
 across
 species?
Female birds
 mate
 polygynously
 when male
 territories are
 highly variable;
Only a small
 %age of males
 mate w. > than
 1 female
Evolutionary
 theorists
 might also
 ask:
What are the
 similarities
 across
 cultures?
                        Kenrick,
                        Gabrielidis, Keefe, Oldest preferred
                        & Cornelius,        Youngest preferred
DIFFERENCE FROM


                  20    Child Development        20
                        (1996).
TARGET'S AGE




                  10                                        10




                  0                                          0



              -10                                          -10




              -20                                          -20
                       10s   20s   30s   40s   50s   60s         10s   20s   30s   40s   50s   60s

                             MALE'S AGE                          FEMALE'S AGE
  Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).
• WHAT UNDERLIES “TROPHY
  WIFE” SYNDROME?
  EVOLUTIONARY LIFE
  HISTORY MODEL:
  All Men interested in women in
  years of peak fertility.
  For old men = younger.
  For young men = older.
  HOW TO DISTINGUISH
    EVOLUTIONARY vs
CULTURAL EXPLANATIONS?

IF CULTURE -- SHOULD VARY
WITH SOCIETY AND HISTORICAL
CHANGE.
IF HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE LIFE
SPAN -- CONSISTENT ACROSS
CULTURES.
Netherlands
DIFFERENCE FROM


                  20                                  20
TARGET'S AGE




                  10                                  10




                  0                                    0



              -10                                    -10




              -20                                    -20
                       10s   20s   30s   40s   >50         10s   20s   30s   40s   >50

            MALE'S AGE                FEMALE'S AGE
  Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).
(TIMES OF INDIA, BOMBAY, SUNDAY, JAN. 29,
  1989):
 WANTED: A NON-BHARADWAJ SMART
 GOOD-LOOKING PREFERABLY
 EMPLOYED KERALA IYER GIRL BELOW 25
 FOR A KERALA IYER BOY 29. CHEMICAL
 ENGINEER. CONTACT WITH HOROSCOPE.
 India
DIFFERENCE FROM


                  20                            20
TARGET'S AGE



                  10                            10




                  0                              0



              -10                              -10




              -20                              -20
                       20s   30s   40s   50s          20s   30s   40s   50s

                       MALE'S AGE                    FEMALE'S AGE
  Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).
Poro - 1913-1929
 DIFFERENCE FROM

                   20                                  20
 TARGET'S AGE



                   10                                  10




                   0                                    0



               -10                                    -10




               -20                                    -20
                        10s   20s   30s   40s   >50         10s   20s   30s   40s   >50

                              MALE'S AGE                    FEMALE'S AGE
   Kenrick & Keefe, Behavioral & Brain Sciences, (1992).
  HENRY VIII
 1st wife - Catherine
 of Aragon
Henry - 17, Catherine
 - early 20s
 Last wife, when
 Henry 51, was 20
 years younger.
 Henry b. 1492
Worlds‟s oldest father, Aug. 20, 2007




  90 yrs. old, this is his 21st, with 4th wife.
Netherlands                                          1600s               1800s
                                                     1700s               1980s ads
DIFFERENCE FROM


                  20                                         20
TARGET'S AGE




                  10                                     10




                  0                                          0

                                                                                                N=8
              -10                                       -10


                                                                                                 N=2
              -20                                       -20
                       10s   20s   30s   40s   >50                10s   20s   30s   40s   >50

            MALE'S AGE              FEMALE'S AGE
  Kenrick, Nieuweboer & Buunk (unpublished)
One possible explanation:
Widows with farms would
 marry younger men;
The women got needed
 assistance;
Men elevated their position in
 society
Tiwi of North Australia
Tiwi men actually place very high
 value on young wives
But society is polygynous
Powerful older men monopolize all
 young brides
All women must marry
Powerful men betroth young
 daughters to other patriarchs
“To get a start in life as a household head and
  thus to get his foot on the first rung of the
  prestige ladder, a Tiwi man in his thirties had
  first of all to get himself married to an elderly
  widow, preferably one with married
  daughters
…The widow did several things for him. She
 became his food provider and housekeeper.
 She served as a link to ally him with her
 sons. As her husband, he acquired some
 rights in the future remarriages of her
 daughters when they became widowed.” (Hart
  & Pillig, 1960, p. 25)
Trophy wifes in light of data:
Attraction to younger “trophy” wives
 not something unique to CEOs, ie
 to people exposed to American
 advertisements,
Not a result of cultural influences
Instead, probably linked to life span
  differences in fertility
          Natural Selection
• Animals with features suited to
  demands of environment will
  survive better than those with less
  well-adapted features.
• Those well-adapted animals will
  reproduce more successfully.
         Kin Selection
• Animals are predisposed to help
  those who share genes by common
  descent
• Nepotism
   Inclusive Fitness
• Fitness formerly
  defined by number
  of surviving
  offspring
• But some animals
  do not reproduce
  (e.g. most female
  bees & ants)
     Inclusive Fitness
• Can enhance fitness by
  contributing to survival
  of kin
• Inclusive = surviving
  genes in offspring +
                             White-fronted bee-eater
  relatives you helped
On a 100 point scale (with 100 being
  warmest), how do you feel
  towards:
• Father’s father
• Father’s mother
• Mother’s father
• Mother’s mother
                                              Latham et al., 2005
  esearch   90




 Feeling    80
Thermo-
 meter
            70
                 Paternal      Maternal


  Grandfather
                                              Researchers
                     Students felt
                                           attributed this to
                     least close to
  Grandmother                             paternal uncertainty
                    father’s father
                        Evolutionary Perspective


Parental Investment Theory
Sex contributing more resources
 to offspring (usually female) –
 more selective in mate choice.
Other sex (usually males) –
 compete amongst themselves
 for access to more selective
 partners.
                                                     Evolutionary Perspective
  What‟s minimum percentile of intelligence
   you‟d accept in considering someone for:
      DATE
      SEXUAL PARTNER
      1 NIGHT STAND
      STEADY DATING PARTNER
      MARRIAGE PARTNER

Kenrick, Sadalla, Groth, & Trost (1990) Journal of Personality

Kenrick, Groth, Trost & Sadalla (1993) J. Personality & Social Psychology
                                Evolutionary Perspective
       Minimum
       Intelligence
       Desired



50th
%ile




       DATE      SEX   STEADY        MARRIAGE
                             Evolutionary Perspective




50th
%ile




       DATE   SEX   STEADY        MARRIAGE
                             Evolutionary Perspective




50th
%ile




       DATE   SEX   STEADY        MARRIAGE
                                   Evolutionary Perspective




 “Excuse me, I’ve seen you around campus,
   and I find you attractive. Would you like to
   go out with me?”
 “Excuse me, I’ve seen you around campus,
   and I find you attractive. Would you like to
   go up to my room?”
 Excuse me, I’ve seen you around campus, and
   I find you attractive. Would you like to go
   to bed with me?”

Clark & Hatfield (1989)
                                                   SUBJECT SEX
                                                                Male
                       100                                      Female


PERCENT SAYING "YES"
                       80

                       60

                       40

                       20

                       0
                                      GO TO APT.


                                                    GO TO BED
                             GO OUT




                                                                   Clark and Hatfield
                                                                   (1989)
                        Evolutionary Perspective
        Sexual Selection
Animals with features that
  promote reproduction by
• Attracting opposite sex
• Dominating same sex
will reproduce more
  successfully.
 Males
 Females       Never              Occasionally                    Frequently




           0      10   20   30     40     50      60      70     80      90 100

                EVER CONSIDERED KILLING ANOTHER
Kenrick & Sheets (1994). Homicidal Fantasies. Ethology & Sociobiology, 14, 231-246
                                    Evolutionary Perspective




Phalarope females larger & more competitive / males. Why?
                        Evolutionary Perspective



Species like phalaropes exception
 that proves the rule:
Sex making higher investment (usu.
 but not always females)-- more
 selective
Other sex competes for mating
 opportunities.
Social Learning Perspective
What drives social behavior?
Classically conditioned
 preferences
such as
• Feeling of fear at sight of person who hit
  you
Social Learning Perspective
What drives social behavior?


 (Operant conditioning)
 Habits rewarded by other people
 such as
 • Boy who fights frequently after
   father praised him for winning fight
   w. neighborhood bully.
Social Learning Perspective
What drives social behavior?
Observation of
 models rewarded.
such as
• Buying gun after seeing
  movie in which hero gets
  girl after shooting
  several dozen people.
      Space Blaster
 Does playing
 violent video
games increase
aggressiveness?
 Doomsday Version 2.5
 esearch

      Learning Violence From
           Video Games
• One team of researchers hypothesized -
  violent video games may make
  aggression rewarding, by allowing
  person to win points for killing &
  maiming human-like opponents (Anderson
 & Dill, 2000)
 esearch

      Learning Violence From
           Video Games
• In experiment, students 1st played
  violent video game (Wulfenstein) or
  nonviolent game (Tetrix)
• They played a competitive game in
  which they could retaliate against real
  opponents by delivering unpleasantly
  loud blasts of noise
                                        Anderson & Dill, 2000
  esearch
            85




Retaliatory                             Students who
Aggression                                 played a
(unpleasant                              violent video
                                             game
noise level)
                                        demonstrated
                                         significantly
                                        higher levels of
            80
                                          retaliatory
                 Nonviolent   Violent     aggression
                 Type of Videogame
Social Cognitive Perspective

  What drives social behavior?
  • What we pay attention to
  • How we interpret and judge
    social situations
  • What we retrieve from
    memory
              50


              45


              40

Estimated
              35
 % Highly
 Attractive   30


              25




                        Control   Attention-Limited
              Male Targets

              Female Targets
            65


            60


% time      55

on attr     50
photos
            45




             0
                         Male Ps   Female Ps

          Male Targets

      Female Targets
   Recognition Memory

Participants shown single
          photos
     Male vs. Female
  Attractive vs. Average
 Later shown old photos
Plus new ones not shown
          before
Male Participants
                                  Male Targets
                                  Female Targets
                 6.0
   Recognition




                 5.5




                 5.0




                       Average   Attractive
                                  Female Participants
                                          Male Targets
                                          Female Targets
              6.0               Females did not
                              selectively remember
Recognition



                               the attractive men
              5.5




              5.0




                    Average             Attractive
Attention and Memory

 Both sexes are biased to look at
        attractive people
Women attend to, but do not seem to
     remember attractive men
Men & women attend to, remember, &
  overestimate attractive women
 Biased Interpretation
Participants shown single
          photos
     Male vs. Female
  Attractive vs. Average
     Black vs. White
All posed & pre-rated for
   neutral expressions
    Told people in photos
previously thinking emotional
           thoughts
 Task --> read face for subtle
        emotional cues
    Before seeing photos
Participants watched one of 3
             films
        Self-protection



Quic kTim e™ and a MPEG-4 Video dec ompress or are needed to see this picture.
Romance
Control
             4.0




Perceived
 Anger in
             3.0
Black Male
 Targets



             2.0




                   Control   Self-protection
                             Male Participants
                             Female Participants
             5.0




Perceived
 Sexual
 Arousal     4.0

    in
Attractive
Opposite
   Sex
 Targets     3.0




                   Control       Romantic
   SOCIAL COGNITION
Interpretation of sexual arousal biased in
     line w. parental investment theory
  Only men “project” sexual feelings, -
   specifically onto attractive women
  Female & male Ps both felt romantic
           feelings after film
   But female judgments of strangers
                unaffected
  Perspective      What Drives Social Behavior?

 Sociocultural


 Evolutionary


Social Learning


Social Cognitive
  Perspective      What Drives Social Behavior?

 Sociocultural
                     Forces in larger social
                    groups e.g.: norms, fads,
 Evolutionary      social class, ethnic identity,


Social Learning


Social Cognitive
  Perspective      What Drives Social Behavior?

 Sociocultural
                    Genetic predispositions /
                      promoted ancestors’
 Evolutionary       survival & reproduction,
                   such as: bond betw. parent
                             & child
Social Learning


Social Cognitive
  Perspective      What Drives Social Behavior?

 Sociocultural


 Evolutionary      • Classically conditioned
                          preferences
                     • Habits rewarded by
Social Learning             others;
                    • Imitation of behavior
                    we’ve seen rewarded in
Social Cognitive             others
  Perspective      What Drives Social Behavior?

 Sociocultural


 Evolutionary

                   What we pay attention to;
Social Learning    How we interpret & judge
                         social sits.;
                    What we retrieve from
Social Cognitive           memory
  Theories not independent
        alternatives
• Social behavior NOT caused
  EITHER by culture, evolved
  mechanisms, learning, OR
  cognition
• All these factors INTERACT
   Basic Principles of Social
           Behavior

• Social behavior is goal oriented.
• Continual interaction betw.
  person & situation.
Social Behavior is Goal Oriented

• At surface level, we have many
  day-to-day goals.
  – Go Shopping
  – Study for a test
  – Get a date for Saturday night.
  – Etc.

                                     
Social Behavior is Goal Oriented
At broadest level, we can categorize social
  goals into fundamental motives-
 To establish social ties
 To understand ourselves and others
 To gain and maintain status
 To defend ourselves and those we value
 To attract and retain mates
Person - Situation Interactions
 By person psychologists mean
  characteristics individuals
  carry into social situations

 By situation - environmental
   events or circumstances
   outside person
 Interaction - persons &
   situations influence one
   another in # ways
   The Interaction Between the
    Person and the Situation
1. Different persons respond differently
           to the same situation

Example: Some people perceive
 friendliness as flirtation; others
 perceive flirtation as friendliness.

                                           
    The Interaction Between the
     Person and the Situation
     2. Situations Choose the Person

Not everyone gets to enter every situation
  they would like.
Example: • West Point doesn’t admit all.
• Dominant, agreeable men more likely
  chosen for relationships over submissive,
  disagreeable ones.
                                              
   The Interaction Between the
    Person and the Situation
   3. Persons Choose Their Situations


Example: • One person would pay dearly
  to go bungee-jumping; another would
  pay dearly to avoid.
• Men, elderly, & high self-esteem people
  less likely to seek out help.
                                            
   The Interaction Between the
    Person and the Situation
 4. Different Situations Prime Different
         Parts of the same Person

Example: Around your professor, you
 may show your intellectual side;
 Around an old friend who did not go to
 college; you may suppress it.
                                           
   The Interaction Between the
    Person and the Situation
   5. Persons Change The Situation

Example: A highly extraverted person
 can change a boring party into the
 social event of the season.


                                       
    The Interaction Between the
     Person and the Situation
     6. Situations Change the Person

Example: After four years of college, any
 proclivity to get in fist fights will likely
 decrease.

				
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