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					cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6sf]
       dWofjlw d"Nof°g
             k|ltj]bg




             g]kfn ;/sf/
           cy{ dGqfno
          l;+xb/jf/, sf7df8f}+
              kmfu'g, @)^%
                                              dGtJo

d'n'sdf ePsf] !@ jif]{ P]ltxfl;s hgo'4 / hgcfGbf]ng @)^@÷^# sf] ;kmntfkl5 @)^# ;fndf ePsf]
lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tf kZrft @)^% ;fndf ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg e} u7g ePsf] /fli6«o ;+o'Qm ;/sf/n]
@)^% ;fn c;f]h # ut] Joj:yflksf–;+;bsf] a}7sdf cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6 k]z u/]sf] lyof] .
Pp6f ;fdGtL /fhtGqfTds o'usf] cGTo eP/ b]zdf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds o'usf] ;"qkft ;Fu;Fu}
cfPsf] rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6n] nf]stflGqs u0ftGqnfO{ ;+:yfut ug]{, lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfnfO{ tfls{s
lgisif{df k'¥ofpg], cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kfGt/0fsf] k|lqmof tLa| kfg]{, ;Gtl'nt, ;fdflhs Gofo Pj+ /f]huf/L
;lxtsf] pRr cfly{s j[l4 ug]{ tyf hgtfnfO{ tTsfn /fxt ;lxt cfTdlge{/ / :jtGq cy{tGq lgdf{0fsf]
hu a;fNg] h:tf p2]Zo lnPsf] 5 .
Gofok"0f{, ;d'Ggt / ;d[4 gofF g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] dxfg nIo xfl;n ug{ rfn" cfly{s jif{df ut ljut jif{df
;~rflnt dxTjk"0f{ sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?sf] lg/Gt/tfsf] ;fy;fy} gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{t
ljleGg %( j6f cfof]hgfx?fnO{ clt pRr k|fyldstfsf sfo{qmdx? cGtu{t /fvL sof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] 5 .
rfn" jif{sf] klxnf] ^ dlxgfdf rfn" ah]6 vr{df ;Gtf]ifhgs l:ylt ePtfklg k"FhLut vr{sf] l:ylt
pT;fxjw{s b]lvPsf] 5}g . rfn" cf=a= z'? ePsf] @ dlxgfkl5 dfq Joj:yflksf–;+;bdf ah]6 k]z x'g',
ah]6df ;dfj]z ePsf gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg nufotsf sltko cfof]hgfx?df sfo{qmd, lgb{]lzsf tyf
sfo{ljlw th'{df tyf kl/dfh{g ug{ / 7]Ssfk§f ;DaGwL k|f/lDes sfo{ ug{ s]xL ;do nfUg', nf]8;]l8ªsf]
;d:of Pj+ b]zsf] s]xL efudf e}/x]sf] zflGt ;'/Iff nufotsf ;d:ofx?n] k"FhLut vr{df cfzftLt k|ult
x'g g;s]tfklg sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgf ;DaGwL k|f/lDes sfo{ ;DkGg eO;s]sf] clxn]sf] l:yltdf cf=a=sf]
jfFsL cjlwdf sfof{Gjogdf tLj|tf cfO{ nlIft pknlJw xfl;n x'g] ljZjf; ul/Psf] 5 .
/fh:jtkm{ ut cf=a=sf] ;+;f]lwt cg'dfgsf] t'ngfdf rfn' cf=a=df lgs} c7f]6sf ;fy #!=&& k|ltzt j[l4
ug{] cg'dfg ul/Psf] lyof] . rfn" jif{sf] ^ dlxgf / To;kl5sf dlxgfx?sf] ljj/0f cg';f/ ah]6n] cg'dfg
u/]sf] /fh:j c;"nLsf] nIo k|fKt x'g] ;'vb cg'ej /x]sf] 5 . To:t} u/]/ xfd|f] vr{ ug{] Ifdtf j[l4 x'g
;s]df j}b]lzs ;xfotf cg'bfg / C0f /sd ah]6n] cg'dfg u/] cg';f/ g} k|fKt x'g] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 .
k"FhLut ah]6 tkm{ xfn;Ddsf] vr{sf] l:ylt Go"g g} ePtfklg cfufdL lbgx?df :ki6 sfo{of]hgf / yk
c7f]6sf ;fy sfof{Gjog :t/df cfpg] tLj|tf ;Fu;Fu} vr{ tkm{ klg j[l4 x'g] ljZjf; ug{ ;lsG5 .
;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLHo"n] Joj:yflksf–;+;bdf JoQm ug'{ ePsf] k|ltj4tf / @)^% df3 !@ ut] b]zjf;Lsf]
gfddf ug'{ ePsf] ;Daf]wgnfO{ d"t{?k lbg cfjZos kg{] /sdsf] Joj:yf, dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ljleGg lg0f{ox?af6
l;h{gf ePsf] yk bfloTj / ljleGg ljsf; lgdf{0fsf] nflu lhNnfx?af6 k|fKt ePsf u}/ ah]6/L dfux?nfO{
;+jf]wg ug{ yk ah]6sf] Joj:yf ug'{kg{] ePsf] 5 . To:tf dfux? vr{ x'g g;Sg] sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfx?af6
art /sd /sdfGt/ u/]/ / ldtJolotf ;DaGwL sfo{qmdnfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfo{Gjog u/]/ ;+jf]wg ug'{kg{]
cfjZostf b]lvPsf] 5 . o;tkm{ cy{ dGqfnon] cu'jfOsf ;fy ;xhsf/L e"ldsf v]Ng] k|ltj4tf JoQm ug{
rfxG5' .
cGTodf, b]zsf] cy{Joj:yfk|lt rf;f] /fvL ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g] ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLHo" ;lxt dlGqkl/ifb\sf
;b:oHo"x?, ;+ljwf;efsf dfggLo ;b:ox? tyf /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf kbflwsf/Lx? nufot ;a}k|lt
cfef/ k|s6 ub{5' . of] k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf] qmddf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'¥ofpg' x'g] cy{ dGqfnosf ;lrjåo,
ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvfsf k|d'v nufot cGo sd{rf/Lju{ tyf cy{ dGqfno kl/jf/nfO{ wGojfb lbg
rfxG5' . o; k|ltj]bgnfO{ e/;s j:t'k/s agfpg] k|of; ul/Ptfklg o; ;DaGwdf s]xL ;'emfj eP pknJw
u/fOlbg ;d:t kf7s ju{df xflb{s cg'/f]w ub{5' .
kmfu'g, @)^%
                                                                              8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{
                                                                                  cy{ dGqL
                                              dGtAo


ljut s]xL jif{ b]lv ah]6 sfof{Gjogsf] dWofjlw ;dLIff ug{] ul/P cg'?k rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^%.^^ sf]
k|yd ^ dlxgfdf ah]6n] cjnDjg u/]sf p2]Zo, gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf] k|ult / sfof{Gjogsf]
qmddf b]lvPsf ;d:of tyf r'gf}tL / ltgnfO{ ;dfwfg ug{ rfNg'kg{] sbdx? ;d]t ;d]l6 of] dWofjlw
;dLIff k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . of] k|ltj]bgn] ;ldIff cjlwdf p2]Zo cg'?k slt k|ult xfl;n ul/of] /
rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] afFsL cjlwdf ;fj{hlgs vr{sf] Joj:yfkg s;/L ug'{kg{] x'G5 eGg] s'/fdf :ki6 lbzfjf]w
lbG5 .
;dLIff cjlwnfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ rfn" vr{tkm{ ;Gtf]ifhgs k|ult ePklg k"FhLut vr{ tkm{ ck]Iffs[t k|ult
x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 c;f]hdf dfq kfl/t x'g', v/Lb k|lqmof nufotsf k|lqmofut
sfo{df s]lx ;do nfUg', zflGt ;'/Iff / phf{ ;+s6 nufotsf If]qdf ;'wf/ x'g g;Sg' h:tf sf/0fx?n] ubf{
k"FhLut vr{df ck]lIft vr{ x'g g;s]sf] xf] . Psftkm{ cfly{s jif{sf] afFsL cjlwdf nIo cg'?k k"FhLut vr{
ug'{ Pp6f r'gf}lt /x]sf] 5 eg] csf{]tkm{ u}/ ah]6/L dfudf ePsf] cTolws j[l4sf] Joj:yfkg csf{] r'gf}tL
/x]sf] 5 . vr{ Joj:yfkgdf s]lx r'gf}tL /x]klg /fh:j c;"nL nIo cg'?k g} ;+sng eO/xg' / j}b]lzs
;xof]u lg/Gt/ /xg'nfO{ pT;fxk|bg} dfGg' kb{5 .
;dLIff cjlwdf ck]Iff cg'?k k|ult xfl;n ug{ d]xgt ug'{kg]{ ePklg k|:t't k|ltj]bgn] cf}+NofPsf ljifodf
;DalGwt ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfo / kIfn] Wofg lbO cl3 a9]df afFsL cjlwdf nIo cg'?k ah]6sf] sfof{Gjog
x'g] s'/fdf ljZj:t x'g ;lsG5 .
cGTodf, o; k|ltj]bg tof/ ug{ d]xgtk"j{s vl6Psf] lgb{]zs ;ldlt / sfof{Gjog ;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx? /
ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvfsf ;Dk"0f{ sd{rf/L ldqx?nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb lbg rfxG5' .

                                                                          /fd]Zj/k|;fb vgfn
                                                                                 ;lrj
                                               dGtAo


lglZrt ;f]r tyf p2]Zoaf6 clek|]l/t eO{ th{'df ul/Psf of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdsf] nflu 5'6\ofOPsf] ah]6sf]
;kmn sfof{Gjogaf6 dfq k"j{ lgwf{l/t nIo k|fKt ug{ ;lsG5 . s'g} klg sfdsf] sfof{Gjog l:yltsf] ;xL
cf+sngsf] nflu d"NofFsg ckl/xfo{ x'G5 . o;} tYonfO{ cfTd;ft u/L k|To]s cfly{s jif{sf] 5 dlxgf Aoltt
eP kZrft jflif{s ah]6 sfof{Gjog l:yltsf] dWofjlw d"+Nofsg Pj+ ;dLIff ug]{ kl/kf6L /x]sf] 5 .
d"+Nofsgsf] tfTko{ s]jn l:yltsf] cf+sngdf l;ldt g/fvL sfof{Gjogsf] bf}/fgdf k/]sf ;d:of tyf
sl7gfO{nfO{ x6fpg s] s:tf pkfo tyf Aoj:yfkg ug'{ kb{5 eGg] tYo klxNofO{ sfof{Gjogdf ;xhtf
Nofpg' klg xf] . nfdf] åGåaf6 :yflkt zflGt;+u} cfd hgtfdf 5fPsf] ljsf; k|ltsf] clenfiff, si6s/
hLjg ofkgaf6 s]xL dfqfdf eP klg pGd'lQm kfpg]] rfxgfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ k|of; :j?k cfly{s jif{
@)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6n] cjnDjg u/]sf]] gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx? cg'?k s] slt vr{ e} s] slt sfd ;Dkfbg
ul/of], sfof{Gjogsf] l;nl;nfdf s], s:tf Aojwfg tyf sl7gfO{ k¥of] / nIo cg'?k s], slt ;|f]t h'6fpg
;lsof] eGg] ;dLIff ug'{sf] ;fy} sfof{Gjogdf ;xhtf Nofpg cjnDg ug'{kg]{ pkfo ;d]t ;dfj]z u/L of]
dWofjlw d'Nof+sg k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 .
cflZjg dlxgfdf dfq ah]6 th'{Dff x'g', ah]6n] ;d]l6Psf sfo{qmd tyf of]hgfsf] nflu tof/ ug'{ kg]{
sfo{ljlw, lgb]{lzsf tyf lgodfjnLsf] nflu ;do nfUg hfg', t/fO{ If]qdf jGb, x8tfn h:tf c;xh
kl/l:ylt /x]klg d"Nof+sg cjlwsf] k|ultnfO{ ;Gtf]ifhgs g} dfGg' kb{5 . rfn' tyf ;fFjf lkmtf{ tkm{sf] vr{
ut cfly{s jif{;+u t'ngf ubf{ ;sf/fTds g} b]lvP klg k"Flhut vr{tkm{ ck]lIft pknJwL xfl;n ug{ lgs}
d]xgt ug'{kg]{ dxz"; ePsf] 5 . o; cnfjf h'g sfo{qmdsf] nflu ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] xf] tt\
sfo{qmddf sd vr{ x'g' / gofF gofF sfo{qmdsf] nflu u}/ ah]6tkm{ 7"nf] /sd dfu x'g cfpg' csf]{ r'gf}tL
ePsf] 5 .
cGTodf d"Nof+sgaf6 b]lvPsf ;d:ofx?nfO{ ;dfwfg ug{sf nflu k|:t't ul/Psf ;'emfjx?nfO{ ;sf/fTds
;f]rsf ;fy sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg ;lsPdf lgwf{l/t nIo k|fKt ug{ ;xhtf x'g] ljZjf; ln+b} k|ltj]bg
tof/Lsf] nflu cys d]xgtsf ;fy ;+nUg ;a} sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ xflb{s wGojfb lbg rfxG5' .

                                                                               s[i0fxl/ jf:sf]6f
                                                                      sf=d'= ;lrj -/fh:j_ Pj+ ;+of]hs
                                          dGtAo


ljleGg sfo{qmdsf] th'{dfaf6 lglZrt nIo xfl;n ug]{ vfsfsf]/L ;fj{hlgs ;|f]t k|of]hg ug]{
dg;'jfsf ;fy tof/ ul/Psf] ah]6sf] sfof{Gjogsf] l:ylt jf/] cfd hgtf ;dIf ;';"'lrt ug'{ xfdL
;a}sf] bfloTj xf] . ah]6n] cjnDjg u/]sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] ;fy
;fy} sfof{Gjog kZrft ck]lIft k|ltkmnsf] n]vfhf]vfaf6 dfq ck]Iff / af:tljstf JfLrsf] b'/Lsf]
dfkg ug{ ;lsG5 . oxL dfkgsf] dfWodaf6 Psftkm{ ah]6 sfof{Gjogsf] ;dli6ut l:yltaf/] ;a}sf]
;fd' lrq0f ug{ d2t k'U5 eg] csf]{tkm{ ck]Iff cg';f/ k|efasf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu sxfF s], s:tf
sbdx? rfNg' kg]{ xf] To;sf] nflu cfaZos k[i7kf]if0f ;d]t k|fKt x'G5 . oxL jf:tljstfnfO{
cfTd;ft u/L cfly{s aif{ @)^%.^^ sf] ah]6 sfof{Gjog dWofjlw d"Nof+sg ul/Psf] 5 .
cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] nflu /fhg}lts l:y/tf / zflGt cfaZos k"jf{wf/ xf] . ;+lawfg
;efsf] r'gfj ;kmntfk"j{s ;DkGg eO{ jt{dfg ;+o'Qm ;/sf/ u7g kZrft ljsf;sf] sfddf ca s'g}
cj/f]w tyf jfwf gcfpg] / zflGtk"j{s ljsf;sf] sfddf k"0f{ ?kdf s]lGb|t eO{ ck]Iff u/] cg';f/
;di6Lut cfly{s pknlAw xfl;n x'g] cfzf ul/Pklg ;f]r] cg';f/ sfof{Gjog k|lqmof cl3 a9\g
;s]g . tyflk ah]6 sfof{Gojgsf] yfngL u/]b]lv Aoltt ;do / kl/l:yltsf]] s;Ldf vr{sf] k|j[lQnfO{
x]bf{ ;Gtf]if dfGg} kg]{ x'G5 .
cfly{s jif{sf] lx;fan] 5 dlxgf Aoltt ePsf] b]lvPtf klg jh]6 cfPsf] ;doaf6 lx;fa ubf{ rf/
dlxgf eGbf sd dfq cjlwdf ePsf] vr{ l:ylt / lgdf{0f tyf k+'lhut vr{ h:tf ljsf; ;DjGwL
vr{sf] nflu k"/f ug'{ kg{] vl/b k|lqmofsf] nflu g} s]xL ;do nfUg] tYo ;d]t larf/ ubf{ rfn'
cfly{s jif{sf] af+sL cjlwdf nIo cg'?k g} vr{ eO{ cfly{s pknlAw xfl;n x'g] s'/fdf laZjf; ug{
;lsG5 . t/ ;do / kl/l:yltsf] cf+sng ub}{ d]xgt / nugzLntfsf ;fy k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogtkm{
cuf8L a9\g kg]{ s'/f eg] lj;{g ldNb}g .
rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6n] cjnDjg u/]sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmd;+u cfa4 u/L k|ltj]bgnfO{ oyfy{k/s,
kf/bzL{, tyf pkof]uL jgfpg] x]t'n] & kl/R5]bdf laefhg u/L ;di6Lut cfly{s l:ylt, dGqfnout
k|ult ljj/0f, gofF g]kfn cleofg cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|ult, jt{dfg vr{ l:ylt, vr{
Aoj:yfkgsf r''gf}lt, ;+zf]lwt cfo tyf Aoosf] cg'dfg / afFsL cjlwdf ckgfpg' kg]{ pkfox?
h:tf kIfx?nfO{ ;d]6L k|:t't dWofalw d'NofFsg k|ltj]bg tof/ ul/Psf] 5 .
cGTodf of] k|ltj]bg tof/ ug]{ qmddf dfggLo cy{dGqL, jl/i7 cfly{s ;Nnfxsf/Ho", cy ;lrjHo"
tyf /fh:j ;lraHo"af6 k|fKt dfu{bz{g tyf lgb]{zgsf] nflu cfef/ k|s6 ub{5' . To:t} of] k|ltj]bg
tof/ ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' ePsf lgb]{zs ;ldlt tyf sfof{Gjog ;ldltsf ;a}} kbflwsf/Lx?sf ;fy}
k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf] nflu cxf]/fq v6\g' x'g] ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvfsf ;a} sd{rf/Lx?nfO{ xflb{s
wGoafb lbg rfxG5' .

                                                                        /0faxfb'/ >]i7
                                                                           ;x;lra
                                                                  ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
                                      sfo{sf/L ;f/f+z


!= cfly{s ;"rsx?df ;'wf/ Nofpg ljz]if kxn ug'{kb{5 . o;sf nfluM–
 !=! ljZjJofkL cfly{s dGbLsf] g]kfndf kg{ ;Sg] k|efjnfO{ Go"gs/0f ug{ k|of; ug{] .
 !=@ ah]6n] nlIft cfly{s j[l4b/ xfl;n ug{ yk k|oTg ug{] .
 !=# nf]8;]l8ªsf] cj:yfnfO{ x6fpg k|of; ug{] .
 !=$= s[lif pTkfbg j[l4df yk hf]8 lbg' kg{] .
 !=% d'b|fl:kmlt lgoGq0f ug'{kg{] .
 !=^ /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/df j[l4 ug{] .


@= ah]6 jQmJodf pNn]lvt gLlt tyf sfo{qmd tyf gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{tsf
   sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{ ;j} dGqfnox? lhDd]jf/, ljz]if rgfvf] /
   lqmoflzn x'g'kb{5 . o;sf nflu M–
 @=! sfo{of]hgf kl/dfh{g u/L :ki6 lhDd]jf/L ;lxt ;doj4 sfo{tflnsf jgfpg] .
 @=@ ah]6sf] ;'lglZrttf ug{] .
 @=# cg'udg d"Nof+sg sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf cjnDjg ug{] .
 @=$ lhDd]jf/L tyf b08 k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf s8fOsf ;fy nfu" ug{] .


#= rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] jfFsL cjlwdf vr{ Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;Gt'lnt jgfpg ljz]if k|of;
    ug'{kb{5 . o;sf nflu M–
 #=!   ;/sf/L vr{df ldtJolotf sfod ug{] lgb{]lzsf, @)^% sf] k|efjsf/L kfngf ug{] .
 #=@ j}b]lzs e|d0fdf lgoGq0f ug{] .
 #=#   cfly{s ;xfotfsf] vr{ Go"g ug{] .
 #=$ vr{sf] k|ultsf] cfwf/df dfq t];|f] rf}dfl;s cg'bfg lgsf;f lbg] .
 #=% k"FhLut vr{ Joj:yfkg tk{m cTofjZos yk dfunfO{ dfq ;+jf]wg ug{] .
 #=^ kF"hLut vr{ ug{] Ifdtf j[l4 ug{] .
 #=& :yfgLo lgsfodf cGtl/d ;+oGq zL3| u7g x'g'kg{] .
 #=* cfof]hgfdf hgzlQmsf] lgjf{w cfk"lt{ Joj:yf ldnfpg] .
 #=( cfof]hgfx?jLr ah]6 Joj:yfkg ug{] .
 #=!) j}b]lzs ;f]wegf{ ;xfotf ePsf cfof]hgfx?df lgsf;fnfO{ ;f]wegf{sf] k||ult;Fu
      cfj4 ug{] .
 #=!! bf];|f] / t];|f] k|fyldstfsf cfof]hgfx?sf] lgsf;f km's'jf ug{] .
 #=!@ 7]Ssfk§f ;Demf}tf ug{] cjlwnfO{ a9fpg] .
 #=!# bfloTj ;[hgf ePsf k"FhLut vr{x? / lhNnfut k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf nflu k|fKt yk
       dfux? ;+jf]wg ug{] .


$= cfufld cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 th'{df ubf{ ckgfpg' kg{] ljz]if Joj:yfx?M–
 $=! ah]6 th'{df tyf ah]6 k]z x'g] ;do tflnsfnfO{ kl/jt{g ug{] .
 $=@ ah]6 :jLs[ltsf] ;fy ;fy} rf}dfl;s ljefhg ;lxtsf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t ug]{ .
 $=# ah]6 th"[{df ubf{ g} aflif{s vl/b of]hgf k]z ug]{ .
 $=$ lj:t[t 8«Oª, l8hfOg, ;lxt nfe÷nfut ljZn]if0f / cfly{s ;fdflhs                  tyf
     jftfj/0fLo k|efj cWoog ePsf sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfx? dfq ;dfj]z ug]{ .
 $=% sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfdf Bottom up approach cjnDag ug]{ .
 $=^ bftfx?af6 k|ltj4tf hgfO{ ;+emf}tf e};s]sf cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu dfq ah]6
     ljlgof]hg ug]{ .
 $=& Ps}] k|s[ltsf sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?nfO{ Plss[t ug]{ .
 $=* sfo{ljlw, lgb]{lzsf jf lgodfjnL kl/jt{g jf gof+ agfpg' kg]{ ePdf ah]6 vr{ ug]{
     clVtof/L ;+u;u} tof/ ul/;Sg] .
 $=( clgjfo{ bfloTj, Doflrª km08, k|ltj4 sfo{qmd h:tf Obligatory vr{x?sf] nflu
     ljlgof]hgdf k|fyldstf lbg] .
 $=!) u}/ ah]6/L dfunfO{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ .
 $=!! k|ToIf e'QmfgL / a:t'ut ;xfotfsf] /sdsf] k|ltj]bg k|0ffnLnfO{ r':t agfpg] .
 $=!@ ;f]wegf{ k|lqmofnfO{ lgsf;f ;+u cfj4 ug]{ .
 $=!# ljsf; cfof]hgf Ps} k6s ax'jlif{o vl/b k|0ffnL cjnDag ug{] .
 $=!$ If]qut gLlt / sfo{qmdx?sf] :jfldTj :yflkt ug{] .
                                 laifo ;"rL

                                      ljj/0f                      k[=;+=


                                 kl/R5]b – !
                             jt{dfg cfly{s l:ylt

1.1   ljZj l:ylt                                                    1
1.2   g]kfnsf] l:ylt                                                2
1.3   s[lif If]q                                                    3
1.4   u}/ s[lif If]q                                               4
1.5   d"No / cfk"lt{ l:ylt                                          5
1.6   df}lb|s l:ylt                                                 6
1.7   afXo If]q                                                     9
1.8   lwtf]kq ahf/                                                 10
1.9   ljQLo If]q ;'wf/ sfo{qmd                                     11
                                 kl/R5]b – @
       ah]6 jQmJodf k/]sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjog l:ylt
2.1   k[i7e"ld                                                     12
2.2   ah]6 jQmJodf plNnlvt d'Vo d'Vo gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf]         12
      dGqfnout k|ult ljj/0f
2.3   pk;+xf/                                                      41
                                 kl/R5]b – #
               gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg sfo{qmdx?sf] k|ult
3.1   k[i7e"ld                                                     42
3.2   d'Vo d'Vo cfof]hgfx?sf] k|ult                                42
                                 kl/R5]b – $
                           cw{–jflif{s vr{ ljZn]if0f

4.1   gLltut Joj:yf                                                57
4.2   c4{–jflif{s vr{                                             58
                                 kl/R5]b – %
                    ;fj{hlgs vr{ Joj:yfkgsf r'gf}ltx?
                                                                   65

                                 kl/R5]b – ^
                 ;+zf]lwt cfo Joo cg'dfg / o;sf cfwf/x?

6.1   /fh:j ;+sngsf] cg'dfg                                       74
6.2   zLif{sut /fh:j c;"nL tyf afFsL cjlwsf] cg'dflgt ljj/0f      74
6.3   j}b]lzs ;xfotf kl/rfngsf] cg'dfg                             75
6.4   j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|ltj4tfsf] l:ylt                             76
                                        ljj/0f                               k[=;+=
6.5        cfGtl/s C0f                                                        76
6.6        ;fj{hlgs vr{sf] cg'dfg                                             76


                                           kl/R5]b – &
                                             ;'emfjx?
7.1        rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] af+sL cjlwsf] nflu rfNg' kg]{ sbdx?            78
7.2        cfufdL cf= j=sf] ah]6 th'{df ;DaGwdf ckgfpg' kg]{ ljz]if          84
           Joj:yfx?

                                            cg';"rLx?

      1    ;+zf]lwt cfo Joosf] cg'dfg                                        88
      2    @)^% k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] If]qut vr{                                   89
      3    @)^% k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] zLif{sut vr{                                  90
      4    cf=j= @)^%÷^^ k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] /fh:j c;"nL ljj/0f                   91
      5    @)^%÷^^ k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] j:t'ut tyf ;f]em} e'QmfgL ah]6 ljj/0f      92
      6    dGqfnout÷lgsfout yk ah]6 dfusf] ljj/0f                             93
      7    @)^% k'; d;fGt;Dd g]kfn ;/sf/n] p7fPsf] cfGtl/s C0f jfktsf]       94
           s'n bfloTj
      8    @)^% k'; d;fGt;Dd g]kfn ;/sf/n] lnPsf] j}b]lzs C0f jfktsf]        94
           s'n bfloTj
      9    cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] bft[ lgsfout vr{ ljj/0f    95
      10   j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] cfof]hgfut k|ltj4tf                              96
      11   bft[ lgsfout j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] k|ltj4tf                            97
      12   j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|ltj4tf -If]qut_                                  98
      13   cy{ ah]6af6 yk lgsf;f ePsf] ljj/0f                                 99
      14   cfly{s tyf ljQLo l:ylt                                            100
      15   Abbreviations and Acronyms                                        101
      16   k|ltj]bg lgdf{0fsf ;Gbe{df ul7t ;ldltx? tyf ;xof]uLx?             102
                                             kl/R5]b – !
                                         jt{dfg cfly{s l:ylt
!=! ljZj l:ylt
     jt{dfg ljZj cfly{s÷ljQLo ;+s6af6 u|l;t 5 . of] ;d:ofjf6 ljZjsf ljsl;t tyf gjf]lbt /fi6«x?sf]
     ;fy} k|ToIf of k/f]If ?kdf ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx? klg k|efljt ePsf 5g\ . o; ;Gbe{df cGt/fli6«o d'b|f
     sf]ifsf] k|If]k0f cg';f/ ljZjsf ljsl;t tyf ljsf;f]Gd'v b'j} ;d"xsf b]zx?df cfly{s j[l4 b/ sd x'g]
     b]lvG5 .
                         ljj/0f                                       k|If]k0f
                                                      ;g\ @))^ @))& @))* @))(
      ljZjsf] cfly{s j[l4                                  5.1     5.2     3.4     0.5

      ef/tsf] cfly{s j[l4                                          9.3     7.3

      rLgsf] cfly{s j[l4                                          13.0     9.0

      cS6f]a/ @))*
      ljZjsf]                                                      5.0     3.7

      ljsl;t b]zx?sf]                                              2.7     1.4

      ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf                                                  1.4

      csf]{ k|If]k0f -hgj/L @))(_                                          1.1

      o"/f] b]zx?sf] -cS6f]a/ @))*_                                        1.2

      -hgj/L @))(_                                                         1.0

      hfkfg -cS6f]a/ @))*_                                                 0.5

      -hgj/L @))(_                                                        -0.3

       -hgj/L @))( sf]   outlook   cg';f/_

     dfly pNn]lvt cfly{s j[l4b/sf] cfwf/df @))^ tyf @))& sf] t'ngfdf @))* / @))( df x'g]
     j[l4b/sf] k|If]k0f ;Gtf]ifhgs b]lvb}g . ljsl;t b]zx? tyf gjf]lbt / ljsf;f]Gd'v ;a} b]zx?sf] cfly{s
     j[l4 lgs} sd x'g] b]lvPsf] 5 . ;g\ @))& df *=# k|ltzt cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n u/]sf gjf]lbt tyf
     ljsf;f]Gd'v b]zx?sf] d'b|f sf]ifsf] cS6f]a/ @))* sf] k|If]k0f cg';f/ @))* df ^=^ k|ltzt / @))( sf]
     lglDt %=! k|ltzt ePsf]df hgj/L @))( sf] k|If]k0f cg';f/ qmdzM ^=# k|ltzt / #=# k|ltztdf
     l;ldt x'g] b]lvPsf] 5 .
     shf{ t/ntf ;+s6, z]o/ d'b|fahf/df cfPsf] pQf/r9fjn] cfly{s dlGb ePsf] ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf /
     o;sf] k|efj ;?jf /f]usf] ?kdf o"/f]lkog b]zx?df klg k/]sf] :ki6 b]lvG5 .

     r'gf}ltsf kIfx? M–
             «
          k]6f]lnod kbfy{x?df b]lvPsf] d"Nosf] pQf/ r9fj,
          ljsf;f]Gd"v b]zsf] ;Gbe{df j}b]lzs k"FhL cfk|jfxdf kg{] k|efj,
          ljZjJofkL cfly{s ljwfsf ljleGg kIfdf b]lvPsf] c;Gt'ngsf] a9\bf] k|j[lt,
          3/hUuf sf/f]af/df ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfdf b]lvPsf] pFwf]kgn] (downturn) cem} lg/Gt/tf lng],
          shf{ ahf/df b]lvPsf] Jojwfgn] cem} a9L k|lts"ntf Nofpg] ljQLo ;+s6 k|uf9 x'Fb} hfg] cg'dfg
          ePsf]n] dGbLsf] cj:yf hl6n x'g],
                                                  1
         ;+o"Qm /fHo cd]l/sfn] ;]K6]Da/ ( jf6 pTkGg ;d:ofsf] lg/fs/0fsf] qmddf lnPsf] gLltut Joj:yf
         cfly{s tyf ljQLo If]q b'j}df lj:tf/sf/L lyof] . h; cg';f/ ljQLo If]qtkm{ s/sf b/x?nfO{
         36fOPsf] lyof] eg] km]8]/n l/he{n] Jofhb/ 36fPsf] lyof] . oL b'j} gLltx?jf6 lghL If]qnfO{ psf:g
         vf]h]sf] b]lvG5 .


     tL gLltx?n] ubf{ lgDg glthfx? b]lvg k'u] M
         cd]l/sL hgtfx?sf] qmozlQmdf a9f]Q/L x'g k'Uof] .
         shf{ dflysf] kx'Fr v's"nf] ljQ gLlt / lj:tf/s df}lb|s gLltn] ubf{ lj:tf/ x'g k'Uof] .
         shf{ lj:tf/sf] k|efj:j?k cy{ Joj:yfdf t/ntfdf j[l4 eof] . 36]sf] Jofhb/sf] k|efjn] ubf{ o;df
         yk ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] xf] .
         gfkmf a9fpg p2t a}sx?n] ck|Toflzt ?kdf shf{ lj:tf/ ug{k'u] .
         3/ hUufdf a}+s shf{sf] 7"nf] lx:;f k|jfx eof] . 3/ hUufsf] cfk"lt{ eGbf dfu a9\b} uPsf] cj:yfdf
         t o; k|sf/sf] shf{n] s'g} ;d:of NofPsf] b]lvPg . t/ ha dfu eGbf cfk"lt{ a9\g yfNof] tj 3/
         hUufsf] d"No klg v:sg yfNof] . km:j?k ljQLo If]qdf ;+s6 b]vfkg{ yfNof] . sd cfo ePsf]
         a}+ssf u|fxsx? a}+sjf6 k|fKt u/]sf] shf{ e'QmfgL ug{ c;dy{ eP . sd;n shf{ s"n shf{sf] lgs}
         7"nf] c+zsf] ?kdf b]vfkg{ nfUof] . hf]lvdo'Qm tyf sd;nvfn] ;'/If0f :jfldTj /x]sf z]o/ xf]N8/n]
         cfˆgf] ;+klQ lkmtf{ lng yfn] . o;df shf{sf] d"Nof+sg ug]{ lgsfox? (Credit Rating Agencies)
         sf] / shf{ ;DaGwL ljZn]if0fsf] dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf /xg k'Uof] . pgLx?sf] ljZn]if0fsf] cfwf/df
         u|fxsx?n] cfˆgf] sf/f]af/ ;+aGwdf lng' kg]{ lg0f{o lnP . o; qmddf ljZjsf w]/} Voflt k|fKt a}+s
         tyf ljQLo s+DkgLx? w/f;foL x'g k'u] . b]zdf pTkGg ljQLo ;+s6sf] lg/f]k0fsf nflu ;+o'Qm /fHo
         cd]l/sf ;/sf/n] x:tIf]k u/L ljQLo ahf/sf] lglDt cd]l/sL 8n/ &)) ca{ a]ncfp6 of]hgf
         Nofof] .
         ;?jf /f]usf] ?kdf ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sfjf6 z'? ePsf] ljQLo ;+s6sf] jt{dfg ljZjJofkLs/0fsf]
         kl/k|]Ifdf w]/} d'n'sx? s]xL g s]xL tl/sfn] k|efljt x'g] :ki6 5 . v'nfahf/ cjnDag ug]{ d'n'sx?
         cyf{t\ To:tf cy{ Joj:yf h;sf] s"n ufx{:y pTkfbgdf pNn]Vo c+z j}b]lzs Jofkf/ /xb} cfPsf] 5
         tL d'n'sx? a9L k|efljt x'g] :ki6 5 . ljsf;zLn tyf pbLodfg b]zx? klg pNn]lvt ;+s6 jf6
         c5'tf] g/xg] :ki6 5 . tL b]zx?df klg t/ntf, shf{ nufgL, z]o/ahf/, ko{6g, ljk|]if0f tyf
         j}b]lzs /f]huf/L h:tf ljleGg cfly{s kIf (economic dimensions) df k|efj kg]{ :ki6 5 .
         pbfx/0fsf] lglDt tL gjf]lbt b]zx? hxfF cd]l/sfn] kf]6{kmf]lnof] nufgL u/]sf] lyof] ToxfFjf6 cfˆgf]
         nufgL lkmtf{ Nofpg yfn]sf] 5 . o;n] ubf{ tL b]zx?sf] nufgLsf] :j?k / cGtTjf]uTjf cfly{s
         ;+/rgfdfg} gsf/fTds k|efj kg]{ cg'dfg ug{ ;lsG5 . j}b]lzs nufgL / j}b]lzs ljlgdo ;+lrlt
         Ps csf{df ;+alGwt x'G5g\ . j}b]lzs nufgL s'l07t x'g k'u]kl5 j}b]lzs ljlgdo ;+lrltsf] :t/
         v:sG5 . pbfx/0fsf] ?kdf ;g\ @))* df /x]sf] / hgj/L @))( df /x]sf] ef/tsf] ljb]zL ljlgdo
         ;+lrltsf] :t/ qmdz 36\b} uPsf] 5 . ;fy} SENSE index klg pQf/ r9fj x'g] qmddf /x]sf] 5 .
         b]vf k/]sf] ;+s6 lgjf/0f ug]{ qmddf ef/tn] klg ef=?=#)) ca{ sf] a]n cfp6 of]hgf NofPsf] 5
         h;jf6 ;+s6sf] jt{dfg tyf ;+efljt ;dj]bgzLntf :ki6 ?kdf k|ltlalDat x'G5 .


!=@ g]kfnsf] l:ylt M
         g]kfnn] ckgfPsf] v''nf cy{gLlt, pbf/Ls/0f / ljZj cfly{s ;d'bfo ;Fu cjnDag u/]sf] ;DaGwn]
         ubf{ cfly{s tyf Jofkfl/s ;+/rgfdf xfnsf lbgx?df kl/j{tg b]vf k/]sf] 5 . kmn:j?k lgof{t
         Jofkf/ b]zut ljljlws/0f ePsf] 5 . yf]/ ax't j}b]lzs nufgL lelqPsf] / lelqg] qmd hf/L 5 .
         g]kfnL >ldsx?n] j}b]lzs /f]huf/L k|fKt u/]sf 5g\ . kmn:k?k ljk|]if0fsf] g]kfnL cy{ Joj:yfdf 7"nf]
         k|efj /x]sf] 5 . j}b]lzs nufgL ef}lts cfwf/zLnf lgdf{0fdf vf; u/L 7"nf hn ljB't
         cfof]hgfx?df klg lelqg ;Sg] u'Ghfo; b]lvPsf] 5 . To:t}, vf;u/L jt{dfg kl/jlt{t /fhg}lts
         ;fdflhs kl/j]zdf bft[ ;d'bfon] g]kfnsf] cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kfGt/0fdf a9L ;xefuL x'g] ;f]r
                                                    2
         /fv]sf] x'Fbf j}b]lzs ;xfotf klg cfk|jfx x'g] u'Ghfo; /x]sf] 5 . t/ pNn]lvt ;sf/fTds k[i7e"ld
         x'Fbfx'Fb} klg ljBdfg ljZj ljQLo÷cfly{s ;+s6n] ubf{ cfzf u/] h:tf] l:ylt /xg] sd dfq ;+efjgf
         /x]sf] 5 . tL p2]Zox? hxfF xfd|f s]xL j:t' tyf ;]jf lgof{t ePsf 5g\ ;+s6sf] sf/0fn] tL b]zdf
         To:tf j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] dfu g/xg] of 36\g] ;+efjgf 5 . of] cj:yfdf xfd|f] lgof{t Jofkf/ s'l07t
         x'g] k|jn ;+efjgf /xG5 . cf–cfˆgf] b]zdf b]lvPsf] cfly{s ;+s6n] ubf{ g]kfn cfpg OR5's ljb]zL
         ko{6sx? lst gcfpg] lst a;fO{ 5f]6\ofpg] ubf{ ko{6sjf6 k|fKt cfo Go"g x'g] / ljBdfg ko{6g
         cfwf/zLnf / hgzlQm Ifdtfsf] pkof]u sd x'g] :ki6 b]lvG5 . To:n] ubf{ k|ToIf j}b]lzs nufgL
         lj:tf/ x'g] u'Ghfo; Hofb} Go"g x'G5 . ;/;t{L{ x]bf{ jt{dfgdf lgof{t, ljk|]if0f tyf ko{6gjf6 k|fKt
         cfo g]kfnL ?k}+ofdf 36]sf] 5}g . t/ ljb]zL d'b|fsf] cfo x]g]{ xf] eg] ;Gtf]if lng ;Sg] 7fpF 5}g .
         k|ltlbg cjd"lNot x'Fb} uPsf] g]kfnL d'b|fsf] sf/0fjf6 klg j}b]lzs C0f e'QmfgLdf ;d:of cfpg]
         :ki6 5 .
         ;+efljt ljQLo ;+s6jf6 kg{ ;Sg] k|efjnfO{ Go"gLs/0f jf lgjf/0f ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/ tyf s]lGb|o
         a}sn] ljleGg gLltut Joj:yf u/L ltgsf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ tkm{ k|of; u/]sf] 5 / tL dWo]
         lgDg k|d'v 5g\ M
               cy{ Joj:yfsf] ;'Id cWoog / ;dLIff ug{ ;ldltsf] u7g,
               g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] ljQLo If]qsf] lgodg tyf ;'kl/j]If0f ;'b[9Ls/0f u/]sf],
               6«]h/L laN;\ / ljsf; C0f kqsf] lwtf]df k|bfg ul/b} cfPsf] :yfoL t/ntf ;Ldf &% jf6 ()
               k|ltzt k'¥ofPsf],
               o:tf] 6«]h/L laN;\ / ljsf; C0f kqdf jfl0fHo a}+sx?sf] clQl/Qm ljsf; a}+s tyf ljQ
               sDkgLx?nfO{ klg kxFr' lbPsf],
               g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] k|bfg ug]{ shf{sf] a}+sb/df kl/jt{g gu/]sf],
               jf;]n – @ cg'?k /xL cGt/fli6«o :t/sf] lgod tyf ;'kl/j]If0f kl/kf6L c+jnDag u/L ;'b[9 ub}{
               uPsf],
               ;d:ofu|:t a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfsf] :j:ytf sfod ug{ g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] cjnDag u/]sf]
               prompt corrective action dxTjk"0f{ /x]sf],
               6«:6 l/l;K6 laN;\ shf{ () lbgsf] ;§f !*) lbg k'¥ofOPsf],
               ljQLo ;+s6sf] ;+efljt kl/0ffd sd ug{ cWoog ul/g'sf ;fy} o; sfo{sf] l;nl;nfdf lghL
               tyf u}/ ;/sf/L If]qsf] ;+nUgtf a9fp+g]tkm{ ;xsfo{ a9fpg] ;f]r /x]sf] .


     cfly{s j[l4b/ M
     cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ df jif]{jfnL cg's"n df};dn] ubf{ ;Gtf]ifhgs /x]sf] t/ k|lts"n df};dsf] sf/0f
     lxpFb]jfnLsf] pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpg] ePsf] / phf{ ;+s6 cflbn] ubf{ nlIft k|ltztsf] cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n
     ug{ afFsL dlxgfx?df yk k|of; ug'{kg]{ b]lvG5 .

!=# s[lif If]q
    s[lif If]qsf] vfBfGg tyf gub]jfnLsf] cg'dflgt pTkfbg t]nxg tyf k+lIfsf] df;' / cG8fdf x|f; cfpg]
    afx]s, cGo afnLsf] pTkfbg oft a9\g] of ljutem} ;fwf/0f :t/d} /xg] b]lvPsf] 5 . o; qmddf wfgsf],
    pTkfbg %=@ k|ltztn], ds} @=* k|ltztn], sf]bf] )=% k|ltztn] a9\g] b]lvPsf] 5 eg] hf}, cfn', pv',
    ;gkf6 rLof, b"w, df;' h:tf j:t'x?sf] pTkfbg ;fdfGo /xg] cg'dfg 5 . cem} Joj;foLs/0f gePsf]
    s[lif If]q / t]nxg pTkfbg tyf s'v'/fkfng Joj;fodf gsf/fTds ?kdf k|efljt eP afx]s cGo
    afnLx?sf] pTkfbg oft ;fdfGo cj:yfdf /xg] of s]xL j[l4 x'g] cg'dfg 5 .



                                                   3
!=$ u}/ s[lif If]q M
    u}/ s[lif If]qtkm{ eg] vf;u/L cf}Bf]lus pTkfbg If]q aGb tyf x8\tfnsf] sf/0f, Joj:yfkg tyf dhb'/
    aLrsf] cfk;L c;dembf/L, lg/Gt/ ?kdf a9\b} uPsf] nf]8 ;]l8ª, sf]zL gbLsf] s6fgjf6 pTkGg ;d:of,
    u}/ cfly{s sf/0f jf6 ;do ;dodf k"j{ klZrd /fhdfu{df b]lvPsf] cj/f]wn] ubf{ cfjfudgdf b]lvPsf]
    sl7gfO{ h:tf sf/0fx?jf6 k|efljt ePsf] kfOPsf] 5 .

     tTsfn ;'Nemfpg ;lsg] pkfox?M
         Joj:yfkg, k"FhL tyf dhb'/ pTkfbgsf cleGg sf/sx? x'g . o;sf] cf–cfˆgf] lsl;dsf] e"ldsf
         /xG5 eGg] ljifodf b'j} kIfnfO{ cf:j:t kfg'{ kg]{ ePsf] 5 . o;sf] nflu hnljB't ljz]if nufgL
         sf]if (SPV) :yfkgf ug'{kg]{ x'G5 .
         ;f}o{zlQm, ;fgf–hnljB't ;Da4 cfof]hgf h:tf :yfgLo :t/df ;fgf] nufgLdf rnfpg ;lsg]
         a}slNks pmhf{ Joj:yfsf] klg tTsfn kxn ug'{ kg]{ ePsf] 5 .

     u}/ s[lif If]qsf] pTkfbg k|j[lQ M
         cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfsf] pknJw tYofÍ cg';f/ cf}Bf]lus If]qtkm{ s]xL
         j:t'x?sf] ;d"xut pTkfbg 36]sf] b]lvG5 eg] cGo ;d"xsf] pTkfbg a9]sf] b]lvG5 .
         pTkfbg a9]sf] ;d"xdf vfB kbfy{, k]o kbfy{, ;"lt{hGo j:t', klZdgf, k|zf]lwt 5fnf, sf7sf ;fdfg
         sfuh, kqklqsf, /;folgs kbfy{, Knfl:6ssf j:t', kmnfd]58 tyf kmnfd] klQ kb{5g\ .
         pTkfbg 36]sf] ;d"xdf Wo" tyf t]n, k|zf]lwt b"w, cGg tyf kz' bfgf nQfsk8f, tof/L kf]zfs, u}/–
         wft' hGo vlgh kbfy{, 3/]n' wft'sf ;fdfg, lah'nLsf ;fdfg cflb kb{5g\ .

     ljB't pTkfbg
     cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfdf ljB't pTkfbg Go"g b/n] a9]sf], ljB't cfof]hgfx?sf]
     Ifdtf pkof]u sd ePsf h:tf sf/0fn] ubf{ dWod:of{ËbLjf6 ykx'g cfPsf] #% d]3fjf6 ljB'tzlQm x'Fbf
     klg ljB't pTkfbg cfzfltt ?kdf x'g g;s]sf] l:ylt 5 . klxnf] qodf;kl5 klg ;'wf/ x'g g;s]sf]n]
     ljB't pTkfbg lgs} 36]sf] cg'dfg 5 . of] g} nf]8;]l8ªsf] k|d'v sf/s tTj aGg k'u]sf] 5 .
     ;]jf If]q
         cfly{s jif{ @)^%.^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf xjfO{ dfu{af6 g]kfn cfpg] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof cl3Nnf]
         jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] !*=& k|ltzt j[l4sf] t'ngfdf @=@ k|ltztn] dfq a9\g uO{ ! nfv (& xhf/
         *^( k'u]sf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf ef/tLo ko{6s cfudg cl3Nnf] jif{sf] !#=! k|ltzt x|f;sf]
         t'ngfdf !=& k|ltztsf] ;LdfGt b/n] a9]sf] 5 eg] t]>f] d'n'ssf] ko{6s cfudg cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
         #!=% k|ltztsf] pRr j[l4sf] t'ngfdf @=$ k|ltztsf] ;LdfGt b/n] dfq a9]sf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf
         ;fs{ d'n's, cf]l;og, cd]l/sf tyf cGo If]qaf6 g]kfn e|d0fdf cfpg] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof a9]sf] 5, t/
         cGo Pl;og tyf o'/f]kLog d'n'saf6 g]kfn e|d0fdf cfpg] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof 36]sf] 5 . ;d'b|kf/jf6
         g]kfn cfpg] ko{6s j[l4b/ sd x'g'df tL b]zx?df b]vf k/]sf] ljQLo÷cfly{s ;+s6 sf/stTjsf]
         ?kdf /x]sf] x'g ;Qm5 . k|fKt kfFr dlxgfsf] ko{6sLo cfo x]bf{ eg] ;Gtf]if lng] 7fpF /x]sf] 5 .
         o:tf] cfo ut jif{sf] ;dLIf cjlwdf ^& k|ltztn] xf/fxf/Ln] a9]sf]df o; jif{ klg ^! k|ltztn]
         a9]sf] 5 .
         cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfsf] cjlwdf g]kfn 6]lnsdn] ljt/0f u/]sf] 6]lnkmf]gsf]
         ;+Vof cl3Nnf] jif{sf] t'ngfdf j[l4 ePsf], To:t} oftfoftsf ;fwg tyf kf6{k"hf{sf] cfoftdf klg
         j[l4 ePsf] x'Fbf oftfoft, ;~rf/ tyf e08f/ If]qsf] j[l4b/ of] jif{ klg pRr g} /xg] cg'dfg 5 .
         ;dLIff cjlwdf k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] ;xh cfk"lt{, s[lif Pjd\ cfoft Jofkf/df ePsf] j[l4n] o;
         If]qnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 .
                                                 4
         cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% df yk #) a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfn] sfo{ k|f/De u/]sf, @)^$ k'; d;fGtdf
         jfl0fHo j}+sx?sf] zfvf ;+Vof $(@ /x]sf]df @)^% sf] k';d;fGtdf @%=$ k|ltztn] a9\g uO{ ^!&
         k'u]sf], sltko a}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx? :yfkgf tyf lj:tf/sf] qmddf /x]sf] sf/0f ljQLo dWo:ytf
         If]qsf] j[l4b/ ;Gtf]ifhgs /xg] cg'dfg 5 .
         rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfsf] cjlwdf ljk]|if0f cfk|jfx cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf]
         t'ngfdf ^%=% k|ltztsf] b/n] j[4L ePsf]] 5 .
         ;/sf/n] rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6df lzIff, :jf:Yo, k|zf;g If]qdf pNn]Vo ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf]
         tyf sd{rf/Lx?sf] tna ;d]t a9]sf]] sf/0f pk/f]Qm If]qx?sf] j[l4b/ ;Gtf]ifhgs /xg] cg'dfg 5 .
         >d tyf /f]huf/ k|j4{g ljefun] pknAw u/fPsf] ljj/0fcg';f/ rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5
         dlxgfsf] cjlwdf >d :jLs[lt lnP/ ljb]z hfg]sf] ;+Vof !)=% k|ltztn] a[l4 eO{ ! nfv @$ xhf/
         (() k'u]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] oxL cjlwdf ! nfv !# xhf/ (@ hgfnfO{ j}b]lzs /f]huf/Lsf] nflu
         >d ljefun] :jLs[lt lbPsf] lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf j}b]lzs /f]huf/L k|bfg ug]{ d'n'sx?df stf/ -
         #$=& k|ltzt_, dn]l;of -!(=& k|ltzt_, ;fpbL c/]laof -!&=) k|ltzt_ tyf o'=P=O{ -!^=# k|ltzt_
         k|d'v /x]sf 5g\ .

!=% d"No / cfk"lt{ l:ylt
         cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6 Pj+ df}lb|s gLltdf jflif{s cf}ift d'b|f:kmLlt &=% k|ltztsf]
         xf/fxf/Ldf /xg] cg'dfg /x]sf] eP tfklg cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] clGtd qodf;df vfBfGg tyf
         k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] cTolws d"No j[l4 ePsf]n] ;f]sf] k|ToIf tyf ck|ToIf cGt/fn k|efj (lagged
         effect) sf] sf/0f rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfsf] cf}ift d'b|f:kmLlt !#=( k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .
         pk/f]St adf]lhd k]6«f]lnod kbfy{df ePsf] pRr d"No j[l4 kZrft k6s–k6s u/L -% k6s_
         cGt/f{li6«o d"No cg'?k ;dfof]hg ug]{ qmddf kl5Nnf] k6s ldlt @)^%÷!)÷@) df ePsf] d"No
         ;dfof]hg kZrft rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] d'b|f:kmLltdf !=$ k|ltztn] cg's"n k|efj kg]{ b]lvG5 . ;fy},
         ;/sf/n] ;fj{hlgs ?kdf 3f]if0ff u/L cfP cg'?k M -s_ k|efjsf/L ?kdf ahf/ lg/LIf0fsf] Joj:yf
         u/L sf6]{lnª, hDdfvf]/L cflb h:tf sfo{x? pk/ lgoGq0f, -v_ ;/sf/L If]qaf6 nf]8;]l8ª 36fpg
         eO/x]sf] k|of;x?sf] k|efj:j?k ljBdfg nf]8;]l8Ësf] ;d:ofaf6 eO/x]sf] nfut clej[l4df cfpg
         ;Sg] sdLaf6 d"Nol:yltdf kg{ ;Sg] cg's'n k|efj, -u_ k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] dfl;s d"No ;dfof]hgsf]
         qmddf lg/Gt/tf cfO{ d"Nodf sdL x'g hfg] / ;f] sf] k|efj oftfoft Pj+ 9'jfgL / cGo If]qdf ;d]t
         kg{ uO{ j:t' tyf ;]jfsf] nfut 36\g] / -3_ aGb x8\tfn h:tf ;d:of / >ldssf] ;d:of ;dfwfg
         eO{ ;xh cfk"lt{sf] sf/0f nfut 36\g hfg] ck]Iffsf cfwf/df rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ;du| d'b|f:kmLlt
         cf}iftdf (=% k|ltztsf] xf/fxf/Ldf /xg] ;+zf]lwt cg'dfg 5 .
         cfly{s jif{ @)^%.^^ sf] 5}+7f}+ dlxgfdf jflif{s laGb'ut pkef]Qmf d'b|f:kmLlt !$=$ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .
         cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf o:tf] d'b|f:kmLlt %=* k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof] . cfly{s jif{
         @)^$÷^% sf] cGt;Dd cGt/f{li6«o ahf/sf] ;fy;fy} g]kfndf klg k]6«f]lnod kbfy{ / s[lifhGo
         j:t'sf] d"No nuftf/ ?kdf j[l4 ePsf] / To;sf] cfwf/ k|efj o; cfly{s jif{df ;d]t kg'{sf ;fy}
         ljBdfg aGb, x8\tfn, nf]8;]l8ª Pj+ >lds ;d:of cflb h:tf cfk"lt{hGo cj/f]wx?sf sf/0fn]
         pkef]Qmf d"Nol:yltdf rfk k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
         ;d"xut ?kdf vfB tyf k]o kbfy{ ;d"xsf] d"No ;"rsfÍsf] jflif{s j[l4b/ @)^$ k'; dlxgfdf &=#
         k|ltzt /x]sf]df @)^% k';df pNn]vgLo ?kn] j[l4 eO{ !*=# k|ltzt k'u]sf] 5 . o; ;d"x
         cGt/utsf pk;d"xx?dWo] lrgL tyf lrgLhGo j:t'sf] jflif{s laGb'ut d"No j[l4 ;a}eGbf a9L #&=#
         k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . o;}u/L vfg] £o" tyf t]nsf] jflif{s laGb'ut d"No ;"rsfÍ @%=) k|ltztn],
         bnxgsf] @%=^ k|ltztn], df5fdf;' tyf k'mnsf] @@=% k|ltztn] / vfBfGgsf] !^=% k|ltztn] j[l4
         ePsf] 5 . o;}u/L, u}/vfB tyf ;]jf ;d"xsf] ;"rsfÍsf] j[l4b/ cl3Nnf] jif{ $=@ k|ltzt /x]sf]df
         ;dLIff cjlwdf !)=# k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . o; ;d"xcGtu{t /x]sf] oftfoft tyf ;~rf/
         pk;d"xsf] d"No ;"rsfÍ cl3Nnf]jif{ )=% k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf]df ;dLIff cjlwdf ;a}eGbf a9L

                                                    5
         @)=& k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ;fy}, o; ;d"xsf ;'tL{ tyf ;'tL{hGo j:t' / 3/fo;L j:t' tyf
         ;]jfsf] d"No ;"rsfÍdf ;d]t cTolws j[l4 ePsf]n] ;du| d"No ;"rsfÍdf a9L rfk k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
         ef}uf]lns cfwf/df ljZn]if0f ubf{, ;dLIff cjlwdf sf7df8f}+ pkTosfdf !%=* k|ltzt, kxf8df !$=@
         k|ltzt / t/fO{df !#=^ k|ltztn] pkef]Qmf d"No j[l4 ePsf] 5 . cl3Nnf]jif{ o;} cjlwdf o:tf]
         j[l4b/ qmdzM %=# k|ltzt, %=^ k|ltzt / ^=) k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof] .

                                     g]kfnsf] pRr d'b|f:kmLlt / ;f]sf sf/sx¿
    zx/L If]qsf] /fli6«o pkef]Qmf d"No ;"rsfÍdf cfwfl/t d'b|f:kmLlt rfn' cfly{s jif{@)^%÷^^ sf]
    k|yd ^ dlxgfdf cf}ift !#=( k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] / @)^% k';df pQm d'b|f:kmLlt !$=$ k|ltzt
    k'u]sf] x'Fbf o; cfly{s jif{sf] z'¿b]lvg} d'b|f:kmLltdf bf]xf]/f] c+ssf] rfk k/]sf] b]lvG5 .
    g]kfnsf] ^) k|ltzteGbf j9L Jofkf/ ef/t;+u x'g] u/]sf], ef/t;+usf] ljlgdob/ l:y/ ePsf]
    kl/k]|Iodf ef/t / g]kfnsf] d'b|f:kmLltsf] cj:yfnfO{ ;d]t t'ngf ug]{ ul/Psf] 5 . ;f]xL kl/k]|Iodf
    ;g\ @))* hgj/Lb]lv @))( hgj/L;Ddsf] ef/tLo / g]kfnsf] Headline d'b|f:kmLlt dfkg ug]{
    ;"rsfÍsf] j[l4b/sf] cjnf]sg ubf{ @))* sf] cu:t;Dd ;dfg k|j[lQ / :t/df d"No j[l4 eO{/x]sf]
    kfOP tfklg tTkZrft\ ef/tLo d'b|f:kmLltsf] b/ tLj| ultdf 36\b} uPsf] / g]kfndf eg] pkef]Qmf
    d'b|f:kmLlt g36L ;LdfGt j[l4 g} ePsf] b]lvG5 . o;k|sf/ g]kfnsf] d'b|f:kmLlt 36\g g;Sg'sf k|d'v
    sf/0fx? b]xfo jdf]lhd /x]sf 5g\ M
    -!_ ef/t / g]kfnsf] d'b|f:kmLlt dfkg ug]{ ;"rsfÍ g} km/s x'g' / ef/tsf] yf]s d"No ;"rsfÍdf
            ;dfj]z ePsf sltko j:t'x¿ h:t}M l;d]06, 808Lx¿sf] cGt/fli6«o d"Nodf tLj| lu/fj6
            cfPsf] x'Fbf ef/tsf] d'b|f:kmLltdf cg's"n k|efj k/]sf] t/ g]kfnsf] pkef]Qmf d"No ;"rsfÍdf
            pQm j:t'x¿ gk/]sf] x'Fbf d'b|f:kmLltdf rfk sfod} /x]sf] b]lvG5 .
    -@_ g]kfndf pRr d'b|f:kmLlt sfod} /xg'df jfx\o Pj+ df}lb|s sf/sx? eGbf klg lgDg cfGtl/s
            Pj+ u}/ df}lb|s sf/sx¿ a9L lhDd]jf/ /x]sf] kfOG5 M
            s= cGt/f{li6«o jhf/df eO{/x]sf] k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] pRr d"No j[l4sf] kl/0ffd:j?k @)^%
                 h]i7df pRr j[l4 ePsf]df rfn' cfly{s jif{df bf]xf]/f] c+sdf psfnf] nfu]sf] d"No j[l4
                 k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] kFfr k6s;Dd d"No 36fO{ ;dfof]hg u/]kZrft\ cf+lzs ¿kdf
                 d'b|f:kmLltnfO{ ;sf/fTds k|efj k/]tfklg d"No ;dfof]hg cGt/f{li6«o ahf/df sRrf
                 t]nsf] d"Nodf cfPsf] lu/fj6sf] cg'kftdf gePsf], To;}u/L oftfoft tyf 9'jfgL ef8f /
                 ;f]sf] k|efjjf6 ck|ToIf ?kdf j[l4 ePsf] d"Nodf ;d]t ck]Iffs[t?kdf sdL cfO{g;s]sf]
                 sf/0fjf6 k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] pQm ;dfof]hgsf] k|efj d'b|f:kmLltdf kg{ g;s]sf] .
            v= ljZjJofkL ¿kdf vfB kbfy{sf] d"Nodf cTolws j[l4 / ef/t nufotsf d'n'sx¿n]
                 vfBfGg lgof{tdf jGb]h nufO{ rfdn, ds}+, ux'F, lrgL h:tf j:t'x¿sf] ;xh cfk"lt{ x'g
                 g;s]sf] / sf]6fdf cfk"lt{ ul/g] elgPsf] rfdn klg dfu cg'¿k kof{Kt cfk"lt{ x'g
                 g;s]sf] cj:yfn] g]kfndf vfB j:t'x¿sf] d"Nodf ;'wf/ cfpg g;s]sf] .
            u= pkef]Uo j:t'x¿sf] d"No a9\b} hfg] t/ jhf/ ;+oGqn] k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfo{ gug]{ cj:yf
                 cfpg'df ;Defljt d"No ldnf]dtf], hDdfvf]/L, s[lqd cefj tyf cGo cfk"lt{hGo
                 ;d:ofx¿ ljBdfg /x]sf .
            3= pTkfbgd"ns If]qdf k|ToIf c;/ kg]{ u/L x'g] u/]sf] nf]8;]l8Ësf sf/0f pTkfbg nfutdf
                 j[l4 eO{ d'b|f:kmLltdf rfk k/]sf] .
            ª= pTkfbg If]qdf b]lvPsf] aGb, x8tfn tyf >lds ;d:of, Hofnfb/df a[l4sf sf/0fjf6
                 nfutdf j[l4 eO{ d"Nodf rfk k/]sf] .


!=^ df}lb|s l:ylt
    d'b|fk|bfo
         cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf lj:t[t d'b|fk|bfo !!=) k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 .
         cl3Nnf] cfly{s jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf pQm d'b|fk|bfo !)=# k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof] . cl3Nnf] jif{sf]
                                                   6
   t'ngfdf ;dLIff cjlwdf df}lb|s If]qsf] v'b j}b]lzs ;DklQ pNn]vgLo ?kdf a9]tfklg g]kfn
   ;/sf/dflysf] bfjL 36]sf] / cdf}lb|s bfloTjsf] lj:tf/ pRr /x]sfn] v'b cfGtl/s ;DklQsf] lj:tf/
   36\g uO{ lj:t[t d'b|fk|bfosf] j[l4 cl3Nnf] jif{sf]eGbf sd /xg uPsf] xf] . ;dLIff cjlwdf ;+s'lrt
   d'b|fk|bfosf] j[l4b/ cl3Nnf] jif{s} cyf{t $=& k|ltztdf /x]sf] 5 . pRr ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxn]
   rngrNtLdf /x]sf] d'b|fsf] j[l4b/ a9]sf] ePklg dfu lgIf]k ;dLIff cjlwdf %=% k|ltztn] 36]sf]n]
   ;+s'lrt d'b|fk|bfosf] j[l4b/ cl3Nnf] jif{s} :t/df /xg uPsf] xf] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf cfjlws lgIf]k !)=( k|ltzt -¿= #& ca{ !( s/f]8_ n] a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{ pQm
   lgIf]k !!=* k|ltzt -?=#! ca{ %& s/f]8_ n] a9]sf] lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}+sx¿sf] lgIf]k
   kl/rfng ?=#$ ca{ #) s/f]8 -*=! k|ltzt_ n] a9L d+l;/ d;fGt;Dddf s'n lgIf]k kl/rfng
   ?=$%% ca{ &( s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{ jfl0fHo a}+sx¿n] ?=#@ ca{ $( s/f]8 -(=& k|ltzt_
   a/fa/sf] yk lgIf]k kl/rfng u/]sf lyP . ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxsf] j[l4b/ pRr /x]klg rngrNtLdf /x]sf]
   d'b|f a9]sf] / ;dLIff cjlwdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] vr{sf] t'ngfdf /fh:j kl/rfng pRr /xL g]kfn
   /fi6« a}+s;Fu pRr gub art sfod /xg uPsfn] s'n art kl/rfng sd b/n] a9]sf] xf] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf v'b j}b]lzs ;DklQ -ljb]zL ljlgdo d"NofÍg gfkmf gf]S;fg ;dfof]lht_ ?=@@ ca{
   && s/f]8 -!#=# k|ltzt_ n]] a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf pQm ;DklQ ?=# s/f]8 !@
   nfvn] a9]sf] lyof] . pRr ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxsf] cltl/Qm j}b]lzs ;xof]u cfk|jfxdf cfPsf] lj:tf/n]
   df}lb|s If]qsf] v'b j}b]lzs ;DklQ a9]sf] xf] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf cfGtl/s shf{sf] lj:tf/df sdL cfPsf] 5 . cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] kfFr
   dlxgfdf cfGtl/s shf{ ^=% k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{{ pQm shf{ !)=$ k|ltztn] a9]sf]
   lyof] . df}lb|s If]qsf] d'VotM g]kfn ;/sf/dflysf] bfjL 36]sf] / lghL If]qtkm{sf] shf{sf] j[l4b/ klg
   cl3Nnf] jif{sf] t'ngfdf sd /x]sf]n] s'n cfGtl/s shf{sf] lj:tf/df sdL cfPsf] xf] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf g]kfn ;/sf/dflysf] v'b bfjL &=* k|ltzt -?=^ ca{ *@ s/f]8_ n] 36]sf] 5 .
   cl3Nnf] jif{ pQm bfjL $=* k|ltzn] a9]sf] lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] pRr ;fwg
   kl/rfngsf] t'ngfdf vr{ sd /x]sf]n] g]kfn /fi6« a}+s;Fu ?=* ca{ % s/f]8 gub art sfod
   /xg'sf] ;fy} g]kfn ;/sf/n] a}lsË If]qaf6 kl/rfng u/]sf] cfGtl/s C0fdWo] ?=@ ca{ &@ s/f]8
   e'QmfgL u/]sf]n] df}lb|s If]qsf] g]kfn ;/sf/dflysf] v'b bfjL 36\g uPsf] xf] .
   cl3Nnf] jif{ lghL If]qtkm{sf] shf{ k|jfx !)=( k|ltztn] a9]sf]df ;dLIff cjlwdf !)=! k|ltztn]
   a9]sf] 5 . lghL If]qtkm{sf] shf{ k|jfxdWo] pTkfbg tyf lgdf{0f If]qtkm{sf] shf{ lj:tf/df sdL
   cfPsfn] pQm If]qtkm{sf] shf{ k|jfxdf sdL ePsf] xf] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf ljQLo ;+:yfx¿dflysf] bfjL sd b/n] a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf
   ljQLo ;+:yfx¿dflysf] bfjL ?=# ca{ ^@ s/f]8n] a9]sf]df ;dLIff cjlwdf ?=&^ s/f]8 (* nfvn]
   a9]sf] 5 . jfl0fHo a}+sx¿sf] ljsf; a}+s tyf ljQ sDkgLtkm{sf] cNksfnLg shf{ nufgLdf sdL
   cfPsf]n] pQm bfjL sd b/n] a9\g uPsf] xf] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf u}/–ljQLo ;/sf/L ;+:yfgx¿dflysf] bfjL ^=& Kf|ltzt cyf{t ?=#& s/f]8 %^
   nfvn] a9]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{ pQm bfjL %=& k|ltzt cyf{t\ ?=@* s/f]8 (( nfvn] a9]sf] lyof] .
   ;dLIff cjlwdf hgsk'/ r'/f]6 sf/vfgf lnld6]8, g]kfn cfon lgud, g]kfn jfo' ;]jf lgud, hgs
   lzIff ;fdfu|L s]Gb| lnld6]8n] a}lsË If]qaf6 yk shf{ pkof]u u/]sf]n] pQm ;+:yfx¿dflysf] bfjL
   ;dLIff cjlwdf a9]sf] xf] .


t/ntf Joj:yfkg

   cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf v'nf ahf/ sf/f]jf/dfkm{t\ ?=@) ca{ &@ s/f]8
   a/fa/sf] v'b t/ntf k|zf]rg ePsf] 5 . pQm k|zf]lrt t/ntfdWo] ?=& ca{ $^ s/f]8 t/ntf ;f]em}
   ljqmL af]nsaf]n / ?=!# ca{ @^ s/f]8 t/ntf l/e;{ l/kf] af]nsaf]ndfkm{t k|zf]rg ePsf] 5 .
   cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf k|zf]rg ePsf] s'n ?=$ ca{ *! s/f]8 t/ntf dWo] ?=! ca{ @$ s/f]8
                                              7
    ;f]em} laqmL af]nsaf]n / ?=% ca{ %& s/f]8 l/e;{ l/kf] af]nsaf]ndfkm{t k|zf]rg ePsf] lyof] .
    cl3Nnf] jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfdf jfl0fHo a}+sx¿sf] t/ntfdf s]xL sdL cfPsfn] l/kf]
    af]nsaf]ndfkm{t ?=@ ca{sf] t/ntf k|jfx ul/Psf] lyof] . t/, pRr ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxsf sf/0fn]
    jfl0fHo a}+sx¿;Fu clws t/ntfsf] l:ylt /x]sfn] rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf v'nf
    ahf/ sf/f]jf/sf pks/0fdfkm{t\ t/ntf k|jfx eg] ePsf] 5}g .
    ;dLIff cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}+sx¿af6 cd]l/sL 8n/ (^ s/f]8 #^ nfv v'b v/Lb u/L ?=&# ca{ !(
    s/f]8 a/fa/sf] v'b t/ntf k|jfx ePsf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] jfl0fHo
    a}+sx¿af6 cd]l/sL 8n/ %% s/f]8 *@ nfv v'b v/Lb u/L ?=#% ca{ ^& s/f]8 a/fa/sf] v'b
    t/ntf k|jfx u/]sf] lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxsf] j[l4 pRr /x]sf]n] ljb]zL ljlgdo
    ahf/dflysf] v/Lb x:tIf]k pRr /xg uPsf] xf] .
    rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf cd]l/sL 8n/ &@ s/f]8 laqmL u/L ef=¿= ## ca{ *^
    s/f]8 v/Lb u/]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf cd]l/sL 8n/ ^^ s/f]8 laqmL u/L ef=¿= @^ ca{
    @& s/f]8 v/Lb ePsf] lyof] . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] t'ngfdf ;dLIff cjlwdf g]kfn cfon lgudn] ef/tLo
    cfon lgudnfO{ pRr e'QmfgL u/]sf] sf/0fn] ubf{ ef/tLo d'b|f v/Lb ug{ a9L cd]l/sL 8n/ laqmL
    ul/Psf] xf] .


:yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwf / cGt/ a}+s sf/f]jf/

    cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf jfl0fHo a}+sx¿n] :yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwfcGtu{t s'n
    ?=#* ca{ @@ s/f]8 pkof]u u/]sf 5g\ . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}+sx¿n] s'n ?=$^
    ca{ (& s/f]8 a/fa/sf] :yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwf pkof]u u/]sf lyP . To:t}, ;dLIff cjlwdf jfl0fHo
    a}+sx¿aLrsf] cGt/ a}+s sf/f]jf/ s'n ?=!$^ ca{ &^ s/f]8 /x]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} cjlwdf
    s'n ?=!^* ca{ !$ s/f]8 cGt/ a}+s sf/f]jf/ ePsf] lyof] . pRr ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxsf] sf/0fn] ubf{
    jfl0fHo a}+sx¿;Fu oy]i6 t/ntf /x]sf]n] cGt/a}s sf/f]jf/ tyf :yfoL t/ntf ;'ljwfsf] pkof]udf
    s]xL sdL cfPsf] xf] .


cNksfnLg Jofhb/

    cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfsf] cfjlwdf cNksfnLg Jofhb/ cl3Nnf] jif{sf] t'ngfdf
    s]xL ldl>t k|j[lQsf] /x]sf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwsf] k'; dlxgfdf (! lbg] 6]«h/L ljN;sf] dfl;s efl/t
    cf}ift Jofhb/ $=#@ k|ltzt /Xof] . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] o;} dlxgfdf ;f] C0fkqsf] dfl;s efl/t cf}ift
    Jofhb/ #=*^ k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof] . cl3Nnf] jif{{ efl/t cf}ift dfl;s cGt/ a}+s Jofhb/ $=(#
    k|ltzt /x]sf]df ;dLIff cjlwdf #=#& k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf jfl0fHo a}+sx¿n] k|bfg
    ug]{ lgIf]ksf] Jofhb/df eg] kl/jt{g cfPsf] 5}g .


df}lb|s kl/b[Zo

    rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf d'b|f k|bfo s]xL a9]sf] 5 . lj:t[t d'b|fk|bfo !! k|ltzt /
    ;+s'lrt d'b|fk|bfo (=@ k|ltzt sfod x'g cfPsf] 5 . ljk|]if0f cfk|jfxn] v'b j}b]lzs ;DklQsf]
    lj:tf/df ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 eg] g]kfn ;/sf/dflysf] v'b bfjL 36]sf] / lghL If]qtkm{sf] shf{
    lj:tf/df sdL cfpg' / v'nf ahf/ sf/f]jf/af6 klg pRr t/ntf k|zf]rg ul/Psf]n] df}lb|s lj:tf/
    l;ldt x'g ;s]sf] xf] .
    g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;fwg kl/rfngsf] t'ngfdf k"FhLut vr{ a9\g ;s]sf] 5}g . Go"gtd Hofnf ljjfb,
    aGb, x8tfn, nf]8z]l8Ë h:tf cfGtl/s / / cd]l/sL shf{ ;Í6n] l;lh{t ljZj ljQLo ;Í6 h:tf

                                              8
        afx\o sf/0fn] Joj;fodf l;h{gf u/]sf] clglZrttfn] ubf{ lghL If]qtkm{sf] shf{ lj:tf/df sdL
        cfPsf] xf] .
        pRr ljk|]if0f cfk|jfx, 3/hUuf sf/f]jf/df cfPsf] t]hL / z]o/sf] d"Nodf cfPsf] lu/fj6n] ;du|
        dfudf ldl>t k|efj k/]sf] ePklg df}lb|s t/ntf lgolGqt cj:yfdf /x]sf]n] dfu kIfaf6 d"Nodf
        hf]lvdsf] l:ylt eg] /x]sf] 5}g . nf]8z]l8Ësf sf/0fn] pTkfbgdf s6f}tL nufot ;/sf/L Hofnf tyf
        tnjdfg / Go"gtd Hofnfdf ul/Psf] j[l4n] pTkfbg nfut d"Nodf rfk k/]sf] 5 . cfk"lt{ Joj:yfdf
        ;'wf/sf] l:ylt cfpg g;Sbf g]kfn cfon lgudn] k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] d"Nodf u/]sf] ;dfof]hgsf]
        ;sf/fTds c;/ d"No l:yltdf guGo /x]sf] 5 .
                                    df}lb|s of]ufÍsf] j[l4b/ -k|ltzt_

                ljj/0f
                                                     cf=j= @)^%÷^^
                                       klxnf] 5 dlxgf          jflif{s cg'dfg
    lj:t[t d'b|fk|bfo                       11.0                     18.0
    ;+s'lrt d'b|fk|bfo                       9.2                     15.4
    s'n cfGtl/s shf{                         5.7                     21.4
    lghL If]qtkm{ k|jflxt shf{              11.4                     23.0
    v'b j}b]lzs ;DklQ -?= ca{df_           28.53                     21.9
    cfjlws lgIf]k                           12.5                     19.2


!=& afXo If]q
        cfly{s aif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf s'n lgof{t !*=^ k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?= #% ca{ #
        s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 eg] s'n cfoft @#=^ k|ltztn] a9L ?= !#$ cj{ * s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 . kmn:j?k, s'n
        Jofkf/ 3f6f @%=% k|ltztn] a9L ?= (( cj{ % s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 eg] s'n Jofkf/ @@=% k|ltztn] a9L
        ?= !^( cj{ !! s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] aif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf s'n lgof{t #=@ k|ltztn] 36]sf] lyof]
        eg] s'n cfoft !$=@ k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof] . kmn:j?k cl3Nnf] jif{ Jofkf/ 3f6f @@=% k|ltzt /
        s'n Jofkf/ !) k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof] .
        cl3Nnf] aif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf &=$ k|ltztn] 36]sf] ef/ttk{msf] lgof{t o; aif{ )=(
        k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . To;}u/L cGo d'n'stk{msf] lgof{t cl3Nnf] aif{ &=! k|ltztn] x|f; ePsf]df
        o; aif{ %%=( k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf ef/ttk{m d'Votof tof/L kf]zfs, h'Qf tyf
        rKkn, 6'yk]i6, hL=cfO{= kfOk tyf rfprfp Pj+ cGo d'n'stk{m ljz]ifu/L bfn, pmgL un}+rf, klZdgf,
        tof/L kf]zfs / h8La'6Lsf] lgof{tdf pNn]Vo j[l4 cfPsf] sf/0f s'n lgof{t a9]sf] xf] .
        rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf ef/taf6 ePsf] cfoft !)=( k|ltztn] a9L ?= &$ cj{
        ## s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 eg] cGo d'n'saf6 ePsf] cfoft $$=@ k|ltztn] a9L ?= %( cj{ &% s/f]8
        k'u]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ef/t Pj+ cGo d'n'saf6 ePsf] cfoft qmdzM !^=^ k|ltzt
        / !)=% k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof] . ef/taf6 d'Votof k]6«f]lnod kbfy{, ;jf/L ;fwg tyf kf6{k'hf{, sf]N8
        /f]N8 zL6 OGSjfOn, cGo d]lzg/L tyf kf6k'hf{ / sk8f Pj+ cGo d'n'saf6 ljz]ifu/L ;'g, Pd=P;
        ljn]6, ljB'tLo ;fdfu|L, cGo d]lzg/L tyf kf6k'hf{ / sDKo'6/ tyf kf6{k'hf{sf] cfoftdf pNn]Vo j[l4
        cfPsf] 5 .
        rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf ?= @* cj{ %# s/f]8sf] zf]wgfGt/ art ePsf] 5 .
        cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ?= ! cj{ (% s/f]8sf] zf]wgfGt/ 3f6f ePsf] lyof] .
        ;dLIff cjlwdf rfn" vftf ?= !^ cj{ &# s/f]8n] artdf /x]sf]] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] klxnf] 5
        dlxgfdf rfn" vftf ?= !) cj{ () s/f]8n] 3f6fdf /x]sf] lyof] . ;dLIff cjlwdf ko{6g cfo ^@
        k|ltztsf] pNn]Vo b/n] j[l4 ePtfklg oftfoft Pj+ e|d0f vr{ pRr?kn] a9]sf] sf/0f v'b ;]jf cfo
        ?= ^ cj{ *( s/f]8n] C0ffTds /xg uPsf] 5 . 6«fG;km/ cfotkm{ lghLIf]qsf] ljk|]if0f o; cjlwdf
        ^%=# k|ltztn]] j[l4 eO{ ?= ($ cj{ #) s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 .
                                                  9
        k"FhLvftf cGtu{t ;dLIff cjlwdf ?= @ cj{ %# s/f]8 a/fa/ k"FhLut 6«fG;km/ k|fKt ePsf] 5 .
        cl3Nnf] jif{ k"FhLut 6«fG;km/ ?= @ cj{ &@ s/f]8 k|fKt ePsf] lyof] .
        ljQLo vftftk{m ;dLIff cjlwdf ?= @ cj{ (! s/f]8 a/fa/sf] ;/sf/L C0f cfk|jfx ePsf] 5 eg]
        ;fFjf e'QmfgL ?= $ cj{ &$ s/f]8 /x]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ?= @ cj{ #^ s/f]8
        ;/sf/L C0f cfk|jfx ePsf] lyof] .
        @)^% k'if d;fGtdf s'n ljb]zL ljlgdo ;Flrlt @)^% c;f/ d;fGtsf] t'ngfdf !(=& k|ltztn] a9L
        ?= @%$ cj{ $( s/f]8 k'u]sf]] 5 . cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf o:tf] ;Flrlt dfq )=@
        k|ltztn] 36]sf]] lyof] . cd]l/sL 8n/df eg] @)^% c;f/b]lv d+l;/ d;fGt;Dddf s'n ;F+lrlt !=*
        k|ltztn] 36L cd]l/sL 8n/ # cj{ % s/f]8df ;Lldt x'g k'u]sf] 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf
        s'n ;+lrlt cd]l/sL 8n/df u0fgf ubf{ @=& k|ltztn] a9]sf] lyof] . cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf]
        5 dlxgfsf] cfoftnfO{ cfwf/ dfGbf ljb]zL ljlgdo ;F+lrltsf] ljBdfg :t/n]] !!=$ dlxgfsf] j:t'
        cfoft / (=! dlxgfsf] j:t' tyf ;]jf cfoft wfGg kof{Kt /x]sf]] 5 .
        o;k|sf/ rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgf;Dddf zf]wgfGt/ l:ylt cg's"n /x]sf] Pj+ ljb]zL
        ljlgdo ;+lrltsf] :t/ klg a9]sf]n] afx\o If]q :yfloTj sfod 5 .
        cf}Bf]lus d'n'sx? cfly{s dGbLtk{m ws]lnPsfn] cfufdL dlxgfx?df lgof{t, ko{6g cfo Pj+ ljk|]if0f
        cfk|jfxdf k|lts"n c;/ kg]{ ;+efjgf 5 . To:t} 8n/ clwd"Nogn] ubf{ ;/sf/n] e'StfgL ug]{ j}b]lzs
        C0fsf] ;fFjf / Aofh /sd klg a9\g] lglZrt 5 . k]6«f]lnod nufot w]/} j:t'x?sf] cGt/f{li6«o
        d"Nodf Jofks lu/fj6 cfPsf]n] cfoft klxnfsf]] t'ngfdf w]/} ;:tf] ePsf] 5 . t;y{ rfn" cfly{s
        jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf lgof{t, cfoft, ko{6g Pj+ ljk|]if0fsf] j[l4b/df s]xL sdL cfpg] ck]Iff /x]sf] 5 .
        tyflk cfufdL dlxgfx?df a}b]lzs cg'bfg / ;/sf/L C0f cfk|jfxdf j[l4 cfpg] cg'dfg /x]sf]n]
        rfn" vftf Pj+ ;du| zf]wgfGt/ l:ylt artdf /xg] cg'dfg 5 .
        tof/L kf]zfs, un}+rf, klZdgf nufot lgof{thGo j:t'sf] afXo dfudf sdL cfpg] ePsfn] jif{sf]
        cGTo;Dddf s'n lgof{t cl3Nnf] jif{sf] t'ngfdf *=) k|ltztn] dfq j[l4 x'g] cg'dfg /x]sf] 5 .
        To;}u/L] jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf s'n cfoft @)=) k|ltztn]] j'l4 x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . kmn:j?k,
        rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf Jofkf/ 3f6f @$=* k|ltztn] a9\g] cg'dfg /x]sf] 5 .
        rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfdf ko{6sLo lqmofsnfkdf pNn]Vo lj:tf/ cfPtfklg afFsL
        dlxgfx?df ko{6s cfudgdf s]xL lzlyntf cfpg] cg'dfg /x]sf]n] jif{sf]] cGTo;Dddf ko{6g cfo
        @&=@ k|ltztn] a9\g] cg'dfg 5 .
        ljZjsf w]/} d'n'sx?df cfly{s ultljlwdf sdL cfpFbf tL d'n'sx?df ljb]zL >ldssf] dfu 36\g
        uPsf] 5 . dn]lzofn] sk8f tyf ;]jf If]qdf ljb]zL sfdbf/x? lng aGb u/]sf] 5 eg] o'=P=O{= n]
        klg ljb]zL sfdbf/sf] dfudf Jofks s6f}tL u/]sf] 5 . t;y{ afFsL dlxgfx?df /f]huf/Lsf nflu
        ljb]z hfg] k|j[lQdf sdL cfpg] s'/fnfO{ b[li6ut ubf{ o; jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf lghL If]qsf] ljk|]if0f
        cfo sd b/df a9\g] cg'dfg 5 .
        rfn" cfly{s jif{df k"FhLut 6«fG;km/ ?= ( cj{ /xg] cg'dfg 5 . o;k|sf/ o; jif{ ?= @! ca{ **
        s/f]8 a/fa/sf] ;du| zf]wgfGt/ jrt ;[hgf x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . kmn:j?k @)^^ c;f/
        d;fGtdf ljb]zL ljlgdo ;Flrlt ?= @#$ ca{ ^% s/f]8 k'Ug] cg'dfg /x]sf] 5 . ljb]zL ljlgdo
        ;+Flrltsf] pQm :t/ !)=^ dlxgfsf] j:t' cfoft / *=$ dlxgfsf] j:t' tyf ;]jf cfoft wfGg kof{Kt
        x'g] cg'dfg /x]sf] 5 .

!=* lwtf]kq ahf/
        @)^% c;f/ d;fGtdf (^#=#^ ljGb' /x]sf] g]K;] ;"rsfÍdf lu/fj6 cfO{ @)^% k'; d;fGt;Dddf
        ^%(=*! ljGb'df em/]sf] 5 .
        @)^% k''; d;fGtdf jhf/ k"FhLs/0f ?= #^! cj{ (@ s/f]8 k'u]sf] 5 . o; cfly{s jif{sf]
        k';d;fGtdf s'n ufx{:y pTkfbg;+u jhf/ k"FhLs/0fsf] cg'kft $$=)( k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . @)^%
                                                 10
         c;f/ d;fGtdf of] cg'kft $$=^@ k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof] . ;"rLs[t sDkgLx?sf] jhf/ k"FhLs/0fdf
         ljutdf em}+ j}+s tyf ljQLo ;+:yfx?n] ;j}eGbf 7"nf] lx:;f cf]u6]sf 5g\ .
         @)^% k'; d;fGtdf g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ lnld6]8df ;"lrs[t ePsf sDkgLx?sf] ;+Vof
         !$( k'u]sf] 5 . @)^% c;f/ d;fGtdf of] ;+Vof !$@ /x]sf] lyof] . xfn ;"rLs[t sDkgLx? dWo]
         !!* j6f ljQLo ;+:yf, !* j6f pTkfbg / k|zf]wg ug]{ pBf]u, $ j6f xf]6n, $ j6f Jofkf/Ls ;+:yf,
         # j6f hnljB't sDkgL / @ j6f cGo ;d"xsf sDkgLx? /x]sf] 5g\ .
         k|fylds lgisfzg tkm{ cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfdf g]kfn lwtf]kq jf]8{n] Pp6f
         sDkgLnfO{ #) s/f]8 j/fj/sf] ;fwf/0f z]o/ / cGo !$ j6f sDkgLx?nfO{ # cj{ %% s/f]8 !! nfv
         j/fj/sf] xsk|b z]o/ tyf @ j6f sDkgLnfO{ &% s/f]8 j/fj/sf] C0fkq lgisfzgsf] nflu :jLs[tL
         k|bfg u/]sf] 5 .
         g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ lnld6]8df @)^% c;f/ d;fGt;Dddf !# cj{ !% s/f]8 j/fj/sf]
         ;/sf/L C0fkqx? ;"rLs[t ePsf]df rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] 5 dlxgfdf s'g} klg ;/sf/L
         C0fkqx? ;"rLs[t ePsf] 5}g . o; cjlwdf g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo jhf/ lnld68df ;/sf/L
         C0fkqsf] bf];|f] jhf/ sf/f]jf/ eg] ePg .

!=( ljQLo If]q ;'wf/ sfo{qmd
         ljQLo If]q ;'wf/ sfo{qmd ljZj a}+s / l8=Pkm=cfO=8L=sf] C0f tyf cg'bfg / g]kfn ;/sf/sf]
         ;+nUgtfdf ;+rfng eO/x]sf] 5 . ljQLo If]q ;'wf/ sfo{qmdcGtu{t g]kfn a}+s lnld6]8 / /fli6«o
         jfl0fHo a}+ssf] k'g/;+/rgf, g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] k'g;{+/rgf / ljQLo If]qsf] ;Ifdtf clej[l4
         sfo{qmdx?nfO{ rfn" cfly{s jif{df ;d]t lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 .

     g]kfnsf] cfly{s tyf ljlQo l:yltsf] ljj/0f cg';"rL !$ df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .




                                                11
                                           kl/R5]b – @
                    ah]6 jQmJodf k/]sf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjog l:ylt

@=!      k[i7e"ld
         ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq g]kfnsf] 3f]if0ff ePkl5sf] klxnf] ah]6sf] ?kdf cfPsf] rfn" jif{sf] ah]6n]
         /fli6«otf / /fli6«o lxtsf] k|j4{g, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqsf] ;+:yfut ljsf; / /fHosf] k'g;{/rgf,
         bLuf] zflGt / zflGt ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"lt, tfTsflns /fxt / k'glg{df{0f, cfly{s ;fdflhs ?kfGt/0f, åGå
         k|efljtnfO{ /fxt / Ifltk"lt{, ;fdflhs ljt/0f k|0ffnL, ;fdflhs ;'/Iff, ;fgf ls;fg / ;fgf 3/]n'
         pBdLnfO{ C0f ldGxf, Ifltu|:t ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] k'glg{df{0f, u|fld0f k'glgdf{0f tyf k'g:yfkgf,
         hg;xeflutfdf >dd"ns ljsf; sfo{qmd, s[lif Jofj;flos/0f / ofGqLs/0f, ls;fgx?sf] hLjg:t/df
         ?kfGt/0f, l;+rfO{ lj:tf/, s[ifssf] hLjg:t/df ;'wf/, ;fdGtL e':jfldTj / pTkfbg ;DjGwsf] cGTo,
         xlnofdf]rg / d'Qm sd}of k'g:yf{kgf, cf}Bf]lus k'g?Tyfg tyf ljsf;, cfly{s kl/jt{gsf] nflu ko{6g
         k|j4{g, ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, hn ljB't ljsf;, u|fld0f k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, j}slNks phf{ k|j4{g,
         lgz'Ns k|fylds tyf dfWolds lzIff, /fli6«o ;fIf/tf cleofg, Jofj;flos / k|fljlws lzIff, vfg]kfgL
         tyf ;/;kmfO{, o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd, ul/jL lgjf/0f / ;dfj]zL sfo{qmd, dlxnf ;zlQms/0f,
         hLjg:t/df ?kfGt/0f, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts ;Dj4{g, ljQLo ;]jfdf ;j{;fwf/0f u|fdL0f hgtfsf]
         kx'Fr, ;'zf;g ;]jf k|jfxdf ;'wf/ / ;fj{hlgs pQ/bfloTj, zflGtsf]ifsf] k|efjsfl/tf / kf/blz{tf,
         j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] pkof]u ug{] nufotsf ljljw ljifox?nfO{ k|d'v gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] ?kdf
         cjnDjg u/]sf] 5 .
         plNnlvt gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;j} lgsfon] jflif{s sfo{of]hgf
         c;f]h dlxgf leq ;fj{hlgs ug{], c;f]h !% ut] leq /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]uaf6 sfo{qmd :jLs[t u/fO
         clVtof/L lbg' kg{] Joj:yf / :yfgLo lgsfodf hfg] cg'bfgsf] clVtof/L c;f]h !) ut] leq cy{
         dGqfnoaf6 l;w} k7fOg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] lyof] .
         rfn" cfly{s jif{ ah]6sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu dGqfno:t/df ;DalGwt ljefuLo dGqLsf]
         cWoIftfdf k|To]s dlxgfsf] & ut] leq clgjfo{ ?kdf k|ult ;dLIff ug{] / k|To]s @ dlxgfsf] !) ut]
         ;dLIff ug{] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofgdf k/]sf sfo{qmdx?sf] xsdf k|To]s $÷$
         dlxgfdf k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf u7g x'g] ljz]if ;ldltn] lgoldt ;dLIff ug{] ;+oGq jgfOPsf] 5 .
@=@      ah]6 jQmJodf plNnlvt d'Vo d'Vo gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] dGqfnout k|ult ljj/0fM
         rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 jQmJodf pNn]lvt gLlt tyf sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf] lhDd]jf/L tyf sfo{If]q
         ljleGg dGqfno cGtu{t kg{] x'Fbf dGqfnout d'Vo d'Vo gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf]
         sfof{Gjog l:ylt lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf] b]lvG5 .

!= k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl/ifb\sf] sfof{no M
      !=! pRr:t/Lo cfly{s kl/ifb u7g -j"Fbf g==!^_
              nufgL jf]8{ ;DaGwL ljw]os tof/ ePsf] .
      !=@ ul/jL lgjf/0f sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+=$) / @@@_
              ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lgsf hgtfnfO{ kl/ro kq pknAw u/fpg u/LjL lgjf/0f sf]ifnfO{ lhDd]jf/L
              tf]s]sf]df sf]ifn] sfo{qmd ;+rfng u/]sf ;d'bfox?df u/Lj 3/ klxrfg u/L sf]ifsf] sfo{qmd
              ;+rfng u/]sf] jf ;+rfng ug{ ;d"xdf cfj4 eO{ sf]ifdf btf{ ePsf 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ r/0fj4
              ?kdf kl/ro kq lbg nut /fVg] sfd z'? ul/Psf] .
              :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno / lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no;Fu ;dGjo u/L kl/ro kqsf] vfsf lgdf{0f
              ug{] sfd z'? ul/Psf] .



                                                    12
         ul/aL lgjf/0f sf]ifsf] nflu hDdf ?=@ ca{ (& s/f]8 ** nfv ^% xhf/ ljlgof]hg ePsf]df
         @)^% k'; d;fGt;Dddf rfn"tkm{ ?=@ s/f]8 &% nfv $! xhf/ / k"FhLuttkm{ ?=%@ s/f]8 ^(
         nfv ^% xhf/ vr{ ePsf] .
          !!*! j6f cfod"ns cfof]hgf, ;fgf k"jf{wf/ ;DaGwL @#) j6f cfof]hgf, $& j6f gljgtd
          cfof]hgf ;Demf}tf u/L ;+rfng ul/Psf] h;af6 $()^* 3/w'/L nfeflGjt ePsf] .
  !=# e|i6frf/ lj/f]wL sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+ @%!_
          e|i6frf/ lj?4sf] /0fgLlt tyf sfo{of]hgf, @)^% tof/ eO{ :jLs[ltsf] r/0fdf /x]sf] .

@ cy{ dGqfno
  @=! ;fgf ls;fg tyf 3/]n' pBdL C0f ldgfxf sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+ $(_
            ;fgf ls;fg tyf 3/]n' pBdL C0f ldgfxf sfo{ljlw ldlt @)^%.&.@) df dlGqkl/ifb\af6 kfl/t
            ePsf] .
            s[lif ljsf; j}+s, ;fgf s[lif ljsf; j}+s, g]kfn j}+s / /fli6«o jfl0fHo j}+saf6 ?= $ ca{ @ s/f]8
            C0f ldgfxf e};s]sf]n] pQm /sd ;f]wegf{ dfu x'g] qmddf /x]sf] . ldgfxf bfjL ug{ kfpg] cjlw
            @)^% kmfu'g d;fGt;Dd /x]sf] / s]xL 7fpFaf6 ljj/0f k|fKt x'g afFsL /x]sfn] of] /sd a9\g
            ;Sg] cg'dfg /x]sf] .
            sfo{ljlwdf gofF k|fjwfg yk u/L :jLs[t eO{ sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] .
  @=# s[lif cf}hf/ sf/vfgf / x]6f}8f 6]S;6fOn ldN;nfO{ ;+rfngdf Nofpg] sfo{qmd / lj/u+h lrgL
        sf/vfgf k|fljlws d"Nof+sg u/L k'gM;+rfngdf Nofpg] sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+ *%_
            s[lif cf}hf/ sf/vfgf ;+rfng ug{ ;+rfns ;ldlt u7g eO{ ;+rfngdf cfpg] l:yltdf
            /x]sf] .
            x]6f}8f 6]S;6fOn ldN;sf] k'gM ;+rfng ug{ gofF ul7t ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 sfo{of]hgf k]z eO{
            ah]6 lgsf;fsf] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
            lj/u+h lrgL sf/vfgfsf] ;DefJotf cWoog k|ltj]bg k]z e} ;fj{hlgs–lghL ;fem]bf/L sf
            cfwf/df pv' pTkfbsx?sf] ;xsf/L u7g u/L ;xsf/Ltfsf] cfwf/df pBf]u ;+rfng ug{ k'gM
            ;DefJotf cWoog cf/De ul/Psf] .
  @=$ xf]lN8Ë sDkgL :yfkgf -j"Fbf g+ (^_
            xf]lN8Ë sDkgL :yfkgfsf] nflu sfo{bn u7g eO{ lghLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltsf] k'g/fjnf]sg sfo{
            e}/x]sf] / xf]lN8Ë sDkgLsf] cjwf/0ff kq tof/ ePsf] / sDkgLsf] gfd btf{ ug{ lgodfjnL
            d:of}bf tof/ ug{] sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
  @=% k|lt:kwf{sf] cfwf/df Joj:yfksLo g]t[Tj rog -j"Fbf g+ (&_
            cy{ dGqfno cGtu{tsf $ j6f ljQLo ;+:yf -sd{rf/L ;+rosf]if, gful/s nufgL sf]if, lwtf]kq
            jf]8{, /fli6«o jLdf ;ldlt_ df sfo{sf/L k|d'vsf] lgo'lQm :jLs[t sfo{ljlw cg';f/ k|lt:kwf{sf]
            cfwf/df ul/Psf] .
  @=^ o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+ @)*_
            o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :j/f]huf/ lgodfjnL, @)^% ldlt @)^%.!).@ df dlGqkl/ifb\af6 kfl/t
            eO;s]sf] .
            cy{dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf lgb{]zs ;ldlt u7g ePsf] .
            C0f lng] JolQmx?sf] tfnLdsf nflu ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf] / kmf/dx? O{G6/g]6df df
            /flv;lsPsf] .
                                                  13
            j}+s, jLdf tyf ljQLo ;+:yf;Fu C0f nufgL ;DaGwdf 5nkmn e}/x]sf] .
            cy{ dGqfnodf sfof{no /xg] lg0f{o e} ;lrjfno :yfkgf ePsf] .
            ljkGg If]qdf ug'{kg{] nufgL dWo] !Ü :j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf hDdf ug{ g]kfn /fi6« a}+sn] lg0f{o
            u/]sf] .

   @=& lgotjz C0f gltg{]nfO{ sf/jfxL -j"Fbf g+ @$!_
            ?=! s/f]8 eGbf dflysf] C0f lnO{ lgotjz C0f gltg{] ##( hgfnfO{ sf/jfxL ug{] k|:tfj
            dlGqkl/ifb\af6 :jLs[t eO ;f] ;DaGwdf 5fgljg ug{ ;ef;b xl/ /f]Ssfsf] ;+of]hsTjdf 5fgljg
            ;ldlt u7g ePsf] .
   @=* ;fj{hlgs vr{ / ljQLo pQ/bfloTj ;DaGwL sfo{of]hgf sfof{Gjog -j"Fbf g+ @%@_
            ldlt @)^%.$.@# df lgb{]zs ;ldltsf] j}7s j;L dGqfno÷;+j}wflgs lgsfodf PEFA OsfO{
            u7g u/L sfo{of]hgf tof/ ePsf] .
   @=( ;DklQsf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+ @^%_
            @)^% df3 d;fGt;Dd pQm sfo{qmdaf6 ?=!) ca{ $@ s/f]8sf] ;DklQ 3f]if0ff eO{ ?=! ca{ $
            s/f]8 @@ nfv /fh:j ;+sng ePsf] .
            cfosf] :jo+ 3f]if0ff ug{] Dofb @)^% kmfu'g d;fGt ;Dd yk ul/Psf] .
   @=!) 3/ jxfn cfosf] 3f]if0ff -a"Fbf g+=@^%_
            3/ jxfn cfosf] 3f]if0ffaf6 ?=^ s/f]8 $( nfv 3/ jxfn s/ ;+sng ePsf] .
   @=!! ;Ldf ;'/Iff tyf /fh:j r'xfj6 lgoGq0f ul:t kf]i6 :yfkgf -j"Fbf g+ @&)_
            ;z:q k|x/Laf6 ;Ldf ;'/Iffsf] sfo{ z'? ePsf], 5f]6L eG;f/ sfof{nonfO{ ;'b[9Ls/0f u/L tyf
            /fh:j r'xfj6 lgoGq0fsf] nflu ul:t kf]i6 :yfkgf ug{ /sd lgsf;f k7fOPsf] . o; cg';f/
            ;z:q k|x/L anaf6 ^$ :yfgdf kf]i6 v8f ul/Psf] .

# pBf]u dGqfno
   #=! cf}Bf]lus gLlt, ljb]zL nufgL gLlt, jfl0fHo gLltdf kl/dfh{g -a"Fbf g+= *@
               cf}Bf]lus gLlt, ljb]zL nufgL gLlt, jfl0fHo gLlt kl/dfh{g ug{ d:of}bf tof/ ePsf] . ;Da4
               lgsfo, lghL If]qaf6 ;'emfjx? ;d]t ;dfj]z u/L clGtd ?k lbg] sfo{ clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] .
   #=@ t'ngfTds nfe ePsf j:t'x?sf] klxrfg k|j4{g / ljsf; -a'Fbf g+=*#_
               t'ngfTds nfe ePsf j:t'x?sf] klxrfg, k|j4{g / ljsf; ug{ xfn;Dd klxrfg ePsf s'g}
               j:t' jf kl/of]hgf eP ;f]sf] ljj/0f pknJw u/fOlbg @)^%.(.( sf] lg0f{oåf/f ;Da4 lgsfo;+u
               kqfrf/ ul/Psf] .
   #=# k]6«f]lnod tyf cGo vfgLhGo kbfy{ cGj]if0f tyf pTvgg\ -a'Fbf g+=*^_
            ufGwf/L -bfª_ r'g9'+uf e08f/df cfwfl/t pBf]u k|j4{g sfo{ ug{ lghL nufgLstf{af6 k|:tfj
            cfJxfgsf nflu ldlt @)^%.&.@( ut]sf] lb /fOlhª g]kfndf ;"rgf k|sfz ePsf]df @ yfg 8f6f
            Kofs]h laqmL ePsf] .
            8f6f tof/ ug]{ sfd e}/x]sf] .
            af]nkqsf] cfJxfgsf] k|lqmof cl3 a9fOPsf] .



                                                14
    #=$ ljz]if cfly{s If]q;DaGwL P]g -a'Fbf g+=*&_
              SEZ ;DaGwL ljw]os th'{df ePsf] .
    #=% pbok'/, x]6f}+8f, bfª / ;'v]{tdf l;d]06 pBf]u :yfkgf tyf emfkf, wg'iff, aL/u+h, kfFrvfn, h'Dnf /
        wgu9Ldf ljz]if cfly{s If]q ljsf; -a'Fbf g+=**_
              wg'iff / h'Dnfdf SEZ :yfkgf ug{ k/fdz{bftfsf] d:of}bf ;"rL cBfjlws ug{ ;"rgf k|sflzt
              ePsf] .
              kfFrvfndf hUuf Plsg ug]{ sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
              emfkf, kfFrvfn / wgu9Ldf lj:t[t ;+efJotf cWoogsf nflu cfzokq dfu u/L ;fj{hlgs
              ;"rgf k|sflzt ul/;lsPsf] .
              aL/u+hdf SEZ :yfkgf ug{ nut Oli6d]6 ;DaGwL sfd ;DkGg eO{ 6]08/ 8s'd]06 tof/
              e}/x]sf] .
              aL/h+hdf SEZ sf] EIA cWoog ;DkGg ug{ k/fdz{bftfnfO{ cfzokq cfJxfg u/L ;"rgf
              k|sflzt ul/Psf] .
              l;d]06 pBf]usf] ;DaGwdf k|ult pknAw ePg .

$ sfg'g, Gofo tyf ;+;bLo Joj:yf dGqfno
    $=! Gofodf ;j}sf] kx'Fr k'¥ofpg Gofo l56f] 5l/tf] / ;j{;'ne jgfpg Gofokflnsfsf] ;'b[9Ls/0f
        -a"Fbf g+= @%)_
              ljleGg cbfntx?sf] ljBdfg If]qflwsf/ k|of]u u/L ;/sf/af6 gLltut lg0f{o u/L df}h'bf
              sfg'g jdf]lhd g} ;'wf/ x'g ;Sg] ljifodf ;f]xL jdf]lhd sfof{Gjog ug{ / sfg'gdf g}
              ;+;f]wg ug'{kg{] ljifodf ;'wf/sf nflu ;jf{]Rr cbfntsf df= Gofoflwzsf] ;+of]hsTjdf
              sfo{bn u7g eO{ k|fKt eO{ sfo{bnn] lbPsf] k|ltj]bg dlGqkl/ifb\df ljrf/flwgdf /x]sf] .
              ljBdfg sfg"gdf ;d;fdlos ;'wf/ ug{ u0ftGq ;'b[l9s/0f ;DaGwL s]xL g]kfn sfg'g
              ;+;f]wg ug{ jg]sf] ljw]os ;+ljwfg ;ef -Joj:yflksf ;+;b_ df k|:t't e};s]sf] .

%       s[lif tyf ;xsf/L dGqfno
    %=! ;xsf/L jf]8{sf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+=!^_
            k|f/lDes d:of}bf tof/ eO{ k'g;{/rgfsf] nflu 5nkmnsf] qmddf /x]sf] .
    %=@ ;Ktsf]zL af9Laf6 k|efljtsf] nflu ;+rflnt /fxt tyf k'g:yf{kg sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=#*_
            s[lif dGqfno cGtu{tsf] /fxt sf]ifdf /x]sf] ?=! s/f]8dWo] xfn ?=^^ nfv %) xhf/ ljleGg #@
            lhNnfx?nfO{ Ifltsf] cfwf/df jlu{s/0f u/L /sd k7fOPsf] .
            ;Ktsf]zL af9Llkl8t k'g:yf{kgf -s[lif tyf kz' ;]jf_ sfof{no la/f6gu/df :yfkgf eO{ o;
            jif{sf] nflu g]kfn ;/sf/af6 :jLs[t ?=!$ s/f]8 ^$ nfv #@ xhf/dWo] ?=% s/f]8 ( nfv #*
            xhf/ lgsf;f eO{ sfo{qmdx? ;+rfngsf] nflu /fxt sfo{qmd ;DalGwt lhNnfx?df uO;s]sf] .
            dWo] tyf ;'b"/ klZrd If]qdf ljz]if /fxt sfo{qmd :jLs[ltsf] nflu k]z ePsf] .
    %=# ;xsf/L k;n k|j4{g / ;+rfng -a"Fbf g+=#(_
            ;'ky d"Nosf ;xsf/L k;n ;+rfng ;DaGwL lgodfjnL, @)^% ldlt @)^%.!).( sf]
            dlGqkl/ifb\sf] j}7saf6 :jLs[t eO{ ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?sf] 5gf}6 ug]{ qmddf /x]sf]] .
            lhNnfl:yt ;xsf/L sfof{nox?df lgodfjnL k7fpg] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
                                                     15
         ;/f]sf/jfnf Pj+ s]lGb|o ;xsf/L ;+3x?sf] cWoIf Pj+ k|ltlglwx?nfO{ ;+nUg u/fO{ sfof{Gjog
         k|lqmof cufl8 a9fpg ldlt @)^%÷!!÷!# ut] ! lbg cGtlqm{of uf]i7L ;DkGg u/]sf] .
         ;xsf/L k;n vf]Ng O{R5's ;xsf/L ;+:yfgx?af6 k|:tfj dfu ePsf]df kof{Kt dfqfdf k|:tfjx?
         k|fKt x'g gcfPsf]n] k'gM !% lbgsf] Dofb lbO{ ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sfzg ePsf] .
%=$ vfBfGgsf] k/lge{/tf sd ug{ s[lif cg';Gwfg / k|ljlw k|;f/sf] sfo{ -a"Fbf g+=$@_
         vfB k|ljlw tyf u'0f:t/ lgoGq0f ljefu / g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg kl/ifb\af6 ljleGg sfo{qmd
         ;+Rffngsf nflu ?= ( nfv !) xhf/ /sd pknJw eO{ sfo{qmd ;+Rffng eO/x]sf] .
         sf]bf] tyf kmfk/sf] lj:s'6, kfp/f]6L / rfprfp agfpg] Recipe af/] g]kfn s[lif cg';Gwfg
         kl/ifb\n] cWoog ul//x]sf] .
         vfB k|ljlw tyf u'0f lgoGq0f ljefuaf6 jg tyf s[lifhGo vfB j:t'x?sf] klxrfg Pj+ kf}li6s
         tTj d"Nof+sg ug]{ p2]Zo lnO{ c3f{vfFrL, d':TfË, ;Nofg, b}n]v / h'Dnf lhNnf 5gf}6 u/L sfu'gf]
         / lrgf]sf] % lsl;dsf gd'gfx? ;+sng u/L kf}li6s tTj ljZn]if0f ug]{ sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
%=% b'u{dsf @^ lhNnfdf /f;folgs dn / jLpm 9'jfgLdf tyf dnsf] d"Nodf cg'bfg -a"Fbf g+=%$_
         @^ lhNnfdf #)##=^* d]=6g /f;folgs dn 9'jfgL cg'bfgsf] nflu ?=# s/f]8 $^ nfv %#
         xhf/ % ;o / !!^ d]=6g pGgt jLpm 9'jfgLsf nflu ?=## nfv *& xhf/ % ;o /sd
         ljlgof]hg eO{ dn jLpm cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] .
         jLp 9'jfgL #%=$ d]=6g / /f;folgs dn $#&=*& d]=6g= 9'jfgL ePsf] .
         t]x|y'ddf sfof{b]z eO{ /f;folgs dn 9'jfgL x'g afFsL /x]sf] / cf]vn9+'ufdf 6]08/ e};s]sf] .
         uf]/vfdf @ k6s 6]08/ cfAxfg x'Fbf klg 6]08/ gk/]sf] .
%=^ vfB ;+s6 ;dfwfg ljz]if cfof]hgf -a"Fbf g+=%%_
         cfof]hgfsf] ;Demf}tf ldlt @)^%.&.!& ut] ;DkGg ePsf] .
         b/jGbL :jLs[t e};s]sf] .
         sfo{qmd th'{df eO{ :jLs[ltsf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]udf k7fOPsf] .
         hgj/L #!, @))( af6 Loan Effective ePsf] .
%=& ;xsf/L v]tL sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=%^_
         ;xsf/L v]tL lgb{]lzsf, @)^% ljefuLo dlGq:t/af6 ldlt @)^%.!).& df :jLs[t eO{
         sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;DalGwt sfof{nodf k7fOPsf] .
         alb{of, bfË, s}nfnL, afFs], ;Kt/L u/L % lhNnfdf ;xsf/Ldf cfwfl/t a+u'/ / s'v'/f sfo{qmd
         ;+rfngsf] nflu ?=# s/f]8 $# nfv $# xhf/sf] sfo{qmd tyf clVtof/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu
         ;DalGwt lgsfo k7fOPsf] .
         ;xsf/L v]tL tk{m lgj]bg ;+sng !*%, 5gf}6 ePsf] ;+Vof !#^, ;+emf}tf eO{ sfo{ z'? !#, 5gf}6
         k|lqmofdf /x]sf !# lhNnfx? -:ofËhf, tgx'F, ndh'Ë, uf]/vf, DofUbL, kj{t, afun'Ë, kfNkf, u'NdL,
         c3f{vfFrL, gjnk/f;L, slknj:t' / ?kGb]xL_ .
%=* hLg j}+ssf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+=%&_
         ejg lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ ;DkGg x'g] qmddf /x]sf] .
         rfn' cf=j=sf] sfo{qmd cg';f/ ug'{kg]{ sfo{sf nflu $% lbgsf] Dofb lbP/ uf]/vfkqdf ldlt
         @)^%÷!)÷@) / @! ut] $% lbg] ;"rgf k|sflzt u/L 6]08/ cfAxfg ul/Psf] .




                                               16
%=( ljz]if kz'kfng sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=%*_
           gofF Kofs]h sfo{qmd cGtu{t @)) s[ifs ;ldlt u7g eO{ !) xhf/ ! ;o ^) s[ifs kl/jf/
           k|ToIf ;+nUg eO{ kz'kfng sfo{qmd ;+rfng eO{/x]sf] .
           %#! s[ifs ;ldltdf Follow Up sfo{qmd ;+rfngaf6 k|ToIf ?kdf @^$!@ s[ifs kl/jf/
           nfeflGjt ePsf] .
           ;d'bfo ljsf; tyf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ clws[t !*, h]l6÷h]l6P !)!, l;=Pn=P &$, u}/ ;/sf/L
           ;+:yf &, n]vfkfn !% hgfnfO{ tfnLd lbOPsf] .
           kz'kfng pTkfbsTj ;'wf/ ;DaGwL !%))) s[ifsnfO{ tfnLd k|bfg ul/Psf] .
           %@ hgf pBdLnfO{ :jR5 df;' laqmL ljt/0f ;DaGwL tfnLd k|bfg ul/Psf] .
           k|fOe]6 kf/fe]6 lSnlgs :yfkgf !@ j6f e} kz' :jf:Yo ;]jfdf lj:tf/, df;' k;n ;'wf/ ^!, 8]/L
           k;n ;'wf/ ##, b'Uw lr:ofg s]Gb| @& / ;fgf 8]/L k|j4{g & j6f ePsf] .
           pRr kxf8L ;d'bfosf] hLljsf]kfh{g sfo{qmd cGtu{t !##( s[ifsnfO{ k|ToIf nfe k'¥ofPsf] .
           *!) x]S6/df ul/Psf] lxpFb] 3fF; v]tLaf6 !%)) s[ifs kl/jf/ nfeflGjt ePsf] .
%=!) ;fgf l;+rfO{ cfof]hgf -a"Fbf g+=%(_
           ;fgf l;+rfO{ cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu &% j6} lhNnfdf dfu ;+sng eO{ %( lhNnfdf cfof]hgf
           5gf}6 ul/Psf] .
           ;fgf l;+rfO{ cfof]hgf tk{m lgj]bg ;+sng #%&%, 5gf}6 ePsf] ;+Vof %*^, ;+emf}tf eO{ sfo{
           z'? $@(, 5gf}6 k|lqmofdf /x]sf !# lhNnfx? -:ofËhf,, tgx'F, ndh'Ë, uf]/vf, DofUbL, kj{t,
           afun'Ë, kfNkf, u'NdL, c3f{vfFrL, gjnk/f;L, slknj:t' / ?kGb]xL_
           ef]hk'/df k|f/lDes ;e]{If0f e}/x]sf], vf]6fËdf sfof{b]z lbg afFsL / pbok'/df ;e]{If0f eO/x]sf]
           5.
%=!! lrof k|zf]wg sf/vfgf :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+=^)_
           lrof tyf skmL ljsf; jf]8{af6 ul7t pk–;ldltn] :ynut cg'udg u/L cfwf/–kq tof/ u/]
           cg';f/ ;xsf/L:t/df k|zf]wg sf/vfgf :yfkgfsf] nflu cfj]bg u/L 5gf}6df k/]sf ^ j6f
           cyf]{8S; / # j6f l;=l6=;L=sf] k|zf]wg sf/vfgf :yfkgfsf] nflu k|fljlws k|ltj]bg ;d]t tof/
           kf/L :jLs[ltsf] nflu k]z ePsf] .
%=!@ w'nf] b'w sf/vfgfsf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+=^!_
           ut cfly{s jif{df l;kmfl/; ul/Psf] s]lGb|o b'Uw pTkfbs ;xsf/L ;+3;Fu ;dGjofTds ?kdf
           cufl8 a9\g /fli6«o b'Uw ljsf; jf]8{nfO{ lgb{]zg ul/Psf] .
%=!# cfw'lgs ljp uf]bfd 3/ !) 7fpFdf lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+=^@_
           vfB ;'/Iff ;Djf]wg sfo{qmd cGtu{t ;fd'bflos jLp 3/sf] Joj:yf ePsf]n] b'u{d @^ lhNnfdf
           ;fd'bflos jLpm 3/ lgdf{0f ug{] ;DaGwdf sfo{ljlw tof/ eO/x]sf] .
%=!$ Kofh pTkfbg cleofg tyf ljz]if ks]6 If]q sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=^#_
           Kofh
           – ;Kt/L, l;/fxf, wg'iff, ;nf{xL, af/f / ?kGb]xLdf yk @$)) x]S6/ If]qkmnsf nflu cleofgd'vL
              Kofh sfo{qmd ;+rfng eO/x]sf] .
           – @!*$ x]S6/ If]qkmndf Kofh v]tL lj:tf/, @)#%^=@% s]=hL= jLp ljt/0f, %@@ s[ifs ;d"x
              u7g tyf s[ifsx?sf] ;d"xdf ;b:of ;+Vof !),))) /x]sf] .
           – ;]jf s]Gb|:t/Lo $*) j6f tfnLd ;+rfng ePsf] / cg'udg lg/LIf0f @* k6s e};s]sf] .


                                                17
l;6«;
– ju}+rf Joj:yfkg kf]i6 xfe{]:6 tfnLd ;DkGg ePsf] .
– kf]i6 xfe{]; cWoog ;DkGg ePsf] .
– ef]hk'/ / t]x|y'ddf k]m/f]dg 6\ofk ljt/0f tyf sfutL au}+rfsf] ;d:of lgbfg cleofg
   ;+rfng ul/Psf] .
– Knfli6s kf]v/L lgdf{0f, kf]lnlyg 6\of+s tyf kfOk cg'bfg sfo{qmd cGtu{t % j6f gd'gf
   If]qdf ePsf] .
– s[ifs ;d"x u7g ;'b[9Ls/0f ^ k6s tyf :ynut tflnd * k6s ;DkGg e};s]sf] .
– g;{/L wgLx?nfO{ k|fljlws ;]jf @ k6s cg'udg sfo{qmd # k6s -t]x|y'd, ef]hk'/ / wgs'6f_
   df ;DkGg e};s]sf] .
– dfp af]6 Ans :yfkgf / Joj:yfkg tyf sfutLsf] ;e]{ tyf hd{KnfHd ;+sng # k6s
   e};s]sf] .
– ahf/ pTkfbg / ahf/ ;DaGwL cGt/lqmof uf]i7L ! k6s tyf cGt/ lhNnf s[lif e|d0f ! k6s
   ;DkGg ePsf] .
– cleofgd'vL sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ;ldltsf] a}7s @ k6s tyf lhNnf s[lif ljsf; sfof{no
   ;ldltaf6 cg'udg lg/LIf0f ! k6s ePsf] .
h'gf/
– /fd]5fkdf æPÆ u|]8sf] h'gf/ ahf/sf] cfjZos k"jf{wf/ tof/L ePsf] .
– @) x]S6/df /f]u Pj+ ls6gfzs cf}iflw 5l/Psf] .
– ju}+rf Joj:yfkg kf]i6 xfe{]; tfnLd ;DkGg ePsf] .
– kf]i6xfe]{i6 cWoog ;DkGg ePsf] .
– /fd]5fkM h'gf/ laqmL ljt/0f -P / la u|]8_ !@ d]=6g= .
– $) x]= If]qdf sfF65f6 ;+rfng / af]8f]{k]i6 nufpg] tyf ldS;r/ 5g]{ sfo{ ePsf] .
– @ j6f g;{/Lx?df % xhf/ lj?jf pTkfbg e}/x]sf] .
– @ xhf/ sf6'{g tyf n]jn v/Lb ePsf] .
– l;Gw'nLM vlgof vr{df h'gf/ ;+sng s]Gb|sf] nflu hUuf 5gf}6 ePsf] tyf ;d:of lgbfg
   sfo{qmd cg';f/ @) x]= If]qkmndf af]8f]{k]i6 nufpg] tyf ldS;r/ 5g]{ sfd ePsf] .
– /f]u sL/f lgoGq0f, sfF65fF6 / dlNrË sfo{ ;+rfng eO{ cg'udg tyf lg/LIf0f @ k6s ;DkGg
   eO;s]sf] .
– @% x]=hUufdf dnvfb k|of]u k|bz{g ePsf] .
6«fp6
– 6«fp6 Xofr/Lsf] nflu $ hgf s[ifsnfO{ ;xof]u u/]sf] .
– gofF /]; j] lgdf{0f sfo{ hf/L -g'jfsf]6_ .
– /]gaf] 6«fp6 df5fkfng If]q lj:tf/sf] nflu OR5's s[ifsx?sf] :yn lg/LIf0f Pj+ k|fljlws ;]jf
   k|bfg ! k6s ;DkGg eO{ /;'jf / g'jfsf]6df lgoldt cg'udg ! k6s ;DkGg eO;s]sf] .
– xfn;Dd 6«fp6sf] s[ifs ;+Vof @*, kf]v/L ;+Vof !() dWo] $$ j6f gofF kf]v/L If]qkmn
   %^(=@ ju{ ld6/, e'/f ;+Vof $$^!)), g;{/L ;+Vof @& / vfg] df5f pTkfbg $($%) s]=hL=,
   vfg]df5f tyf k|hgg\ sfo{df ;+nUg 6«fp6 s[ifsx?nfO{ s[ifss} dfu cg';f/ k|fljlws tyf
   gofF 6«fp6 Xofr/LnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofOPsf] .
– k|fljlwssf] nflu cfjZos cf}hf/ pks/0f vl/b tyf 6«fp6 df5f ;DaGwL k|rf/ k|;f/ /
   lel8of] lgdf{0f sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
nK;L
– $) j6f s[ifs ;d"xdf If]q lj:tf/ / ahf/ k|j4{gsf] nflu k|rf/ k|;f/ lqmofsnfk hf/L
   /x]sf] .
                                    18
             – !^ k6s ;]jf s]Gb|:t/Lo s[lif tfnLd lbOPsf] , ^ j6f sDkf]i6 dn k|bz{g ePsf] .
             – lgoldt cg'udg ! k6s, nK;L If]q cGt/ lhNnf e|d0f @ lbg, nK;L au}+rf Joj:yfkg
                tflned ! lbg -@) hgf_ nfO{ ;dkGg e};s]sf] .
             – eQmk'/df nK;Lsf] lj?jf ljt/0f $ xhf/, cf}hf/ ljt/0f @@ ;]6 tyf k|fljlws lg/LIf0f %
                k6s .
             – cfsl:ds afnL ;+/If0f ;]jf ! k6s / nK;L k|zf]wg s]Gb| :yfkgfsf] nflu 5nkmn e}/x]sf] .
             cls{8
             – !) j6f ;]8 xfp; lgdf{0f ePsf] .
             – dn Joj:yfkg tfnLd ;DkGg tyf k|rf/ k|;f/ ePsf] .
             – cGt/ hftsf] Tisssue Cultured lj?jf vl/b ug]{ sfo{ ePsf] .
             – ahf/ lj:tf/sf] nflu ljleGg sDkgL, Ph]06 tyf cGo pkef]Qmfx?;Fu ;Dks{ :yfkgf u/L
                æa's] d]lsËÆ tflnd lbOPsf] .
%=!%   df5f pTkfbg cleofg sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= ^%_
             gofF kf]v/L lgdf{0fsf] nflu :yn 5gf}6 ug{] sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
             ! lbg] 3'DtL tfnLd !$ k6s ;+rfng ul/Psf] .
             !@ j6f ;d"x u7g ePsf] .
             @ j6f ;xsf/Ls/0f / /lhi6]«zg ePsf] .
             lhNnf:t/Lo # lbg] tfnLd $ k6s ;DkGg ePsf] .
             kf]v/L lgdf{0f % x]S6/, Xofr/L lgdf{0f ;'b[9Ls/0f ! k6s, cg'udg d"Nof+sg % k6s tyf a}7s
             ;+rfng @ k6s ;DkGg ePsf] .
%=!^   Jofj;flos ds} v]tL sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= ^^_
             sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] nflu If]q klxrfg eO{ s[ifs 5gf}6 ePsf] / 5gf}6 ePsf ls;fgnfO{ ! lbg]
             tfnLd lbOPsf] .
             ds} pTkfbg / ahf/ Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL tYof+s cBfjlws ! k6s, cg'udg lg/LIf0f ! k6s
             xfOa|L8 tyf pGgt aLp ljt/0f !=# d]=6g=, ds} aLp 9'jfgL #%=% d]=6g=, afnL ;+/If0fdf
             ;xof]u -k|lt x]S6/ @)) ;Dd_ #&% d]=6g .
             cGt/jfnL k|bz{g !) k6s . ds} /f]Kg] cf}hf/ -!))Ü cg'bfgdf _ ^ j6f . cled'lvs/0f uf]li7
             !$ k6s tyf s[ifs k|fljlwsnfO{ ! lbg] tflnd ^* hgf .
             lhNnf:t/Lo uf]i7L $ k6s tyf qmk s6 ;e]{ #) j6f ;DkGg ePsf] .
%=!&   s[ifssf] ;d:of tTsfn ;dfwfg ug{ lgz'Ns 6]lnkmf]g ;'ljwf -a"Fbf g+= ^*_
             lgz'Ns 6]lnkmf]g gDj/ !^^))!(%))) df z'qmjf/ k|fljlws ;Fu k|ToIf s'/fsfgL ug{] Joj:yf
             ldnfOPsf] .
%=!*   k|To]s gu/kflnsfdf Jojl:yt t/sf/L ahf/, kz' jw:yn / kz' jwzfnf lgdf{0f sfo{qmd
       -a"Fbf g+= ^(_
             #( lhNnfsf *( j6f s[lif jhf/ s]Gb|df ahf/ k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f tyf ;'b[9Ls/0f sfo{qmd :jLs[t
             eO{ ahf/ :yn 5gf}6 eO/x]sf] .
             kz' ;]jf tkm{ jwzfnf, jw:yn / xf6jhf/ lgdf{0f ;'wf/sf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t ePsf] .
             :yfgLo lgsfonfO{ z;t{ cg'bfgaf6 ahf/ k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ubf{ cfjZos kg]{ sfo{ljlwnfO{
             clGtd ?k lbg s[lif ljefu / kz' ;]jf ljefu ;d]tsf] ;xeflutfdf s[lif k|;f/ lgb]{zgfnodf
             5nkmn eO{ ;f] sfo{ljlw dGqfnoaf6 :jLs[lt x'gsf] nflu clGtd cj:yfdf /x]sf] .

                                               19
^ u[x dGqfno
   ^=! ;'/IffsdL{sf] cfrf/ ;+lxtf -j"Fbf g+= @(_
           cfrf/ ;+lxtfsf] d:of}bf tof/ ePsf] .
   ^=@ af9L lk8Lt /fxt tyf k'g:yf{kgf sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= #*_
           elTsPsf] ;Ktsf]zLsf] t6jGw lgdf{0f eO{ gbL k'/fg} cj:yfdf kmsf{OPsf] .
           /fxt ljt/0f, k'g:yf{kgf, k"jf{wf/x?sf] dd{t, gi6 ePsf] v]ltof]Uo hldgsf] ;'wf/ ug{] sfo{
           eO{/x]sf] .

& hn;|f]t dGqfno
   &=! ;Ktsf]zL af9Laf6 t6jGw elTsP/ Iflt ePsf ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] dd{t, ;'wf/ / t6jGw lgdf{0f tyf
       af9Laf6 gi6 ePsf] v]ltof]Uo hldgsf] ;'wf/ ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= #*_
             :k/ g+= !! / !@ sf] Strengthening sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
             @# g+= :k/sf] *$ ld= nDjfO{ dWo] $$ ld= ;DkGg ePsf] .
             skm/ 8\ofd lgdf{0f u/L @)^% df3 !# b]lv sf]zL gbLsf] wf/nfO{ kmsf{OPsf] .
             k'gM:yfkgf ug{ ;lsg] Ifltu|:t l;+rfO{ k|0ffnLsf] nfut cg'dfg tof/ ePsf] tyf /fli6«o of]hgf
             cfof]uaf6 sfo{qmd l:js[t ePsf] .
             % j6f 6fj/ dWo] # j6fsf] Erection ;DkGg, @ j6fsf] Erection x'Fb} u/]sf] .
   &=@ åGbsf] ;dodf ljh'nLsf] ljn e'QmfgL ug{ g;s]sfnfO{ hl/jfgf, Jofh / xhf{gf ldgfxf
       -a"Fbf g+= %)_
            g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0f ;+rfns ;ldltsf] $%# cf}+ j}7saf6 æåGbsf sf/0f s'g} u|fxssf]
            ld6/ l/l8Ë x'g g;sL ljn k|fKt gePsf]n] ljB't dxz'n j'emfpg g;s]sf] egL :yfgLo
            lgsfoaf6 ;j{blno lg0f{o u/fO l;kmfl/; eO{ cfPdf To:tf u|fxsx?nfO{ ;DalGwt
            ljt/0f s]Gb| tyf zfvf k|d'vn] ljB't dxz'nsf] yk b:t'/ ldgfxf ug{]ÆeGg] lg0f{ofg';f/
            sfof{Gjog eO/x]sf] .
   &=# l;S6f l;+rfO{ cfof]hgf -a"Fbf g+= &@_
             x]8jS;{ lgdf{0f sfo{ k|ult *^Ü ePsf] . d"n gx/ lgdf{0fsf] nflu :yfgLo 7]s]bf/x?af6 lgdf{0f
             sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
             r]g]h 0+614 b]lv r]g]h 12+036 ls=ld= ;Ddsf] d"n gx/ lgdf{0fsf] cfO=l;=aL= 7]Ssf ;Demf}tf
             ;DkGg ePsf] .
   &=$ kxf8 tyf leqL dw]zdf qmdfut /x]sf (% / t/fOsf ^ j6f ;d]t !)! cfof]hgf ;DkGg ul/g] tyf
         t/fOdf #@ j6f gofF l8k 6\o'j]n, &^)) :ofnf] 6\oj]n h8fg u/L yk #) xhf/ x]S6/df l;+rfO{
         ;'ljwf lj:tf/ ul/g] -a"Fbf g++ &#_
             demf}nf l;+rfO{ tkm{ qmdfut of]hgf dWo] &! lgdf{0f sfo{ rfn' /x]sf], cGo qmdfut s]xL
             of]hgfx?df 7]s]bf/x? ;fO6df df]ljnfOh e};s]sf] / ^ j6f of]hgf :jLs[ltsf] nflu ljefudf
             k|fKt ePsf] .
             APP sfo{qmd cGtu{t ##) j6f :ofnf] 6\oj]n Sni6/x?sf] of]hgf l:js[t ePsf], !@ Sni6/sf]
             ;xof]uL sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{ 7]Ssf Joj:yf / pkef]Qmfaf6 !$ ;o j6f :ofnf] 6\o'j]n lgdf{0f
             sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
             ( j6f Sni6/df ;xof]uL sfo{qmd ;DkGg eO{ $%) x]S6/df l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf pknJw ePsf] .
             #) j6f l8k 6\o'j]nsf] of]hgf tyf lj:t[t nfut tof/ ePsf] .
                                                 20
          !! j6f l8k 6\o'j]n lgdf{0fsf] nflu af]nkq k|lqmof ;DkGg tyf @ j6f l8k 6\o'j]ndf kDk tyf
          ljt/0f k|0ffnLsf] nflu jf]nkq cfJxfg ePsf] .
          # j6f l8k 6\o'j]n cdfgtaf6 lgdf{0f ePsf] .
          /fxt sfo{qmd tkm{sf] !) l8k 6\o'j]nsf] cw'/f] l;i6d tyf @ j6f gofF af]l/Ë ;d]t ;Dk"0f{ sfo{
          ;DkGg eO{ l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf pknJw ePsf] .
          !*@ j6f :ofnf] 6\o'j]nx? lgdf{0f ePsf] .
&=% klZrdf~rn, dWoklZrdf~rn / ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn If]qsf %# j6f l;+rfO{ of]hgf tyf # j6f l8k
     6\o'jj]n Sn:6/x?sf] k'g:yf{kgf tyf lgdf{0f tyf sGsfO{, ;'g;/L–df]/Ë / gf/fo0fL l;+rfO{
     of]hgfx?n] ;d]6\g] @! xhf/ x]S6/ hldgsf] Joj:yf ;DalGwt pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ x:tfGt/0f ul/g] -a"Fbf
     g+= &$_
          Project Steering Committee af6 Project Implementation Mannual / hnpkef]Qmf
          ;ldltsf] ;xeflutf !) k|ltzt x'g'kg{] lg0f{o ePsf] .
          PICC af6 ^ j6f pkcfof]hgf :jLs[t ePsf] .
          @% j6f pkcfof]hgfx?sf] SEMP ljZj j}+saf6 :jLs[t ePsf] .
          sGsfO{, ;'g;/L, df]/+u, gf/fo0fL / dxfsfnL l;+rfO{ of]hgfx?sf] Joj:yfkg x:tfGt/0f ;DaGwL
          pkef]Qmfx?nfO{ Project Orientation Workshop ;DkGg ul/Psf] .
&=^ gofF k|ljlwdf cfwfl/t l;+rfO{ of]hgf -a"Fbf g+=&%_
          qmdfut &@ j6f of]hgfx? dWo] ^& j6fdf lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ePsf] / * j6f gofF of]hgfx?df
          lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ul/Psf] .
&=& e]/L–aaO{ 8fOe;{g, ;'gsf]zL–sdnf 8fOe;{g / df8L–bfË 8fOe;{g cfof]hgfaf6 l;+rfO{ /
     hnljB'tsf] PsLs[t ljsf; sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= &^_
          e]/L aaO 8fOe;{g l;+rfO cfof]hgfsf] sfo{qmd l:js[lt tyf ah]6 lgsf;f ePsf] . Irrigation
          Component cWoogsf] nflu RFP Document / Letter of Intent dfu ug{] :jLs[ltsf] nflu
          sfo{jfxL z'? ePsf] .
          ;'gsf]zL sdnf 8fOe;{gM g]kfn ef/t ;+o'Qm k|fljlws 6f]nLåf/f cWoog eO/x]sf] ;Ktsf]zL
          pRr jfFw tyf ;'gsf]zL :6f]/]h sd 8fOe;{g cfof]hgfdf ;dfj]z ePsf] / ;f] cfof]hgfsf]
          sfo{qmd cg';f/ sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
          df8L bfË 8fOe;{gsf] k"j{ ;DefJotf cWoog ug{] sfo{sf] TOR tof/ ug{] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] /
          Water Assesment sf] nflu k/fdz{bftf lgo'Qm u/L ;s]sf] .
&=* uf]/vf b/f}+bL gbL lgoGq0f / kfn'Ë6f/–ufOv'/6f/df l;+RffO{ ;'ljwf ;d]t k'Ug] u/L gbL lgoGq0f tyf
     l;+rfO{ sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= &&_
          If]qLo lgb{]zssf] 6f]nLaf6 of]hgf :ynsf] lg/LIf0f u/L cjwf/0ffkq tof/ u/]sf] .
          k/fdz{bftf lgo'lQmsf] nflu # j6f TOR tof/L sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
          # 7fpFdf gbL lgoGq0f ug{ pkef]Qmf ;ldlt u7g ug{] sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
&=( ;fj{hlgs lghL cjwf/0ff cGtu{t yd{nKnfG6 :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+=(#_
          uf]li7 ;DkGg eO{ d:of}bf k|ltj]bg tof/ ePsf] .
&=!) u}/ hnfzoo'Qm dflyNnf] tfdfsf]zL $%^ d]=jf=, dflyNnf] lqz'nL ^) d]=jf, /fx'3f6 #) d]=jf,
     gf}d'/] @$% Ifdtfsf ljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+= !@(_



                                              21
dflyNnf] tfdfsf]zL
            cfof]hgfsf] nfut k'g/fjnf]sg ug{] sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
            k|j]zdfu{ lgdf{0f sfo{ -l;+u6L nfdfju/_ sf] k|yd v08 ^ ls=ld= 6\ofs lgdf{0f sfo{ %@ k|ltzt
            ;DkGg ePsf] .
            bf]nvf–l;+u6L k|j]zdfu{sf] ## ls=ld ;8s ;'b[9Ls/0f ug{] sfo{sf nflu v/Lb ;Demf}tf ;DkGg
            eO{ df]ljnfOh]zg ePsf] .
            lj:t[t Ol~hlgol/Ë l8hfOgsf] k/fdz{bftfaf6 clGtd k|ltj]bg k|fKt ePsf] .
            lj:t[t Ol~hlgol/Ë l8hfOgsf] %)) ld6/ test adit tunnel vGg] / drilling sfo{ ;DkGg
            ePsf] .
            ljB'tu[x lgdf{0f:yn k|j]z ug{] Access tunnel lgdf{0fsf nflu 7]Ssf ;Demf}tf ;DkGg
            ePsf] .
            l;len sfo{sf] PQ sf] d"Nof+sg sfo{ ;DkGg eO{ k"j{of]Uotf lgwf{/0f ePsf] .
            ljQLo ;|f]t h'6fpg lxdfno j}+s;Fu ;dembf/Lkqdf x:tfIf/, gful/s nufgL sf]if;Fu ?= @ ca{
            C0f nufgL ug{] ;xdlt ePsf] .
dflyNnf]=lqz'nL–#-P_
            EPC Contract document sf] tof/L sfo{ ;DkGg eO{ af]nkq cfXjfg u/L af]nkq ljqmL sfo{
            eO /x]sf] .
            hUuf clwu|x0fsf nflu k|f/lDes sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
            k|zf/0f nfOgsf] af]nkqsf] 8«fˆ6 tof/ ePsf] .
            EIA sfo{ cGtu{t lkmN8 ;e{]sf] sfo{ ePsf] .
/fx'3f6 hnljB't cfof]hgf
            Geological Drilling %)=( k|ltzt ;DkGg ePsf] .
            Hydrological tYof+s ;+sng ;DkGg ePsf] .
            Detailed Project Report tof/L ;DkGg ePsf] .
            cfof]hgf If]qsf] access road sf] detailed geographical mapping sfo{ ;DkGg
            ePsf] .
            jftfj/0fLo cWoog sfo{sf] scoping and ToR tof/ eO/x]sf] 5 . Design, ;e{] sfo{ k'/f eO{
            l8hfOg / 6]08/ tof/ ug{] sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
            /f3'3f6–df]bL !#@ s]=le= k|;f/0f nfOgsf] detailed survey ;DkGg ePsf] .
            l;len lgdf{0f sfo{sf] k"j{ of]Uotf lgwf{/0f sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
       gf}d'/] hnljB't cfof]hgf
            k|ult pknAw ePg .

&=!! dWod:of{ËL &) d]=jf, d]3fjf6 rd]lnof #) d]=jf, s'n]vfgL !$ d]3fjf6 cfof]hgfnfO{ ltj|tfsf ;fy
     lgdf{0f ul/g] tyf nf]8 ;]l8Ëaf6 /fxt lbg ljB't dfu Joj:yfkg ul/g]
     -a"Fbf g+= !#)_
dWod:of{ªbL
           diversion tunnel plugging sfo{ ;DkGg . xfn b'j} o'lg6af6 $@ d]ufjf6 pTkfbg eO/x]sf] .



                                               22
rd]lnof
          d'Vo l;len lgdf{0f sfo{ @% k|ltzt ;DkGg ePsf] .
          ## s]=le k|zf/0f nfOgsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ *) k|ltzt ;DkGg ePsf] .
          k|j]zdfu{df kg{] k'nx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ (^=^ k|ltzt ;DkGg ePsf] .
s'n]vfgL t];|f]
          d'Vo l;len ;+/rgf lgdf{0f sfo{ cGtu{t ljB'tu[x jGg] :yndf hu vGg] sfo{ @ nfv %) xhf/
          3=ld= ;DkGg ePsf] tyf d'Vo ;'?ªsf] Adit IA df @%) ld=;'?ª vGg] sfo{ ;DkGg .
          k/fdz{bftfåf/f electromechanical sfo{sf] af]nkq k'g/fjnf]sg u/L cfof]hgfnfO{ j'emfPsf] .
ljB't dfu Joj:yfkg
          dlGqkl/ifb\n] #% a"+b] sfo{qmd :jLs[t u/L nfu" u/]sf] .
          l;PkmPn sfo{qmdsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] ljleGg If]qsf k|ltlglw ;lDdlnt ;ldlt u7g
          u/]sf] . pQm ;ldltn] ljZj j}+ssf] ;Nnfxsf/n] tof/ kf/]sf] Concept dfly 5nkmn u/L
          clGtd draft document tof/ u/]sf] . l;PkmPn ;DaGwL Buy one get one free sfo{qmdsf]
          ;"rgf hf/L ul/Psf] . /]l8of] g]kfn, g]kfn 6]lnlehgåf/f k|fOd 6fOddf k|zf/0f ul/Psf] .
&=!@ u|fld0f ljB'tLs/0f -a"Fbf g+= !#!_
           $( lhNnfx?sf] ljB'tLs/0fsf] af]nkqx?sf] ;Demf}tf eO ;fdfg cfk"lt{sf] qmddf /x]sf] .
;fd'bflos u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0fM
           xfn;Dd @)% j6f ;+:yfx?;Fu ;Demf}tf ePsf] .
           *% j6f ;+:yfx?nfO{ ljB't ljt/0f k|0ffnL x:tfGt/0f ul/;lsPsf] .
           ;d'bfo / g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0faLrsf] ;DaGw dha"t agfpgsf nflu ;+rfns ;ldltaf6 u7g
           ul/Psf] sfo{bnn] ;d'bfo;Fu 5nkmn u/L agfPsf] ljlgodfjnL :jLs[ltsf] nflu af]8{df k]z
           ul/Psf] .
&=!# hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] cg'dlt lnO{ ljB't vl/b ;Demf}tf u/L cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog z'? gug{] k|j[lQdf
      lgoGq0f ;DaGwL sfo{of]hgf -a"Fbf g+= !#@_
           !)) d]3fjf6 eGbf a9L Ifdtfsf] hnljB't cfof]hgfx?sf] ;e{]If0f cg'dlt kq k|bfg ubf{
           cg'dlt kq cf]u6L /fVg g;lsg] u/L gLltut lg0f{o ePsf] .
           ;j{]If0f cg'dlt k|fKt u/L ;Gtf]ifhgs k|ult gu/]sf] k|j4{sx?sf] cg'dlt kqsf] Dofb yk
           gul/Psf] .
&=!$ hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] nflu ! d]3fjf6 ;Ddsf] cg'dlt lng gkg{] xfnsf] sfg'gL Joj:yfnfO{ #
      d]3fjf6 ;Dd k'¥ofOg] -a"Fbf g+= !##_
           k|:tfljt ljB't P]g Joj:yflksf ;+;bdf k]z ug{] u/L @)^%.!).$ df dlGqkl/ifb\af6 lg0f{o
           ePsf] .
&=!% lvlDt–9Ns]j/ @@) s]le, x]6f}+8f–jb{3f6 @@) s]=le=,d:of{ËbL–sf7df08f}+ @@) s]=le
      /fli6«o k|zf/0f nfO{g lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+=!#$_
           lvlDt–9Ns]j/ @@) s]le cGtu{t ^% j6f 6fj/sf] hu, !) j6f 6fj/ h8fg ;DkGg /
           /fd]5fkdf hUuf clwu|x0fsf] nflu ;"rgf k|sflzt ul/Psf] .
           x]6f}+8f–ab{3f6 @@) s]=le cGtu{t x]6f}+8f e/tk'/ v08sf] k|;f/0f nfOg lgdf{0fsf] 7]s]bf/ rog
           eO ;Demf}tfsf] nflu kqfrf/ ul/Psf], e/tk'/ jb{3f6 v08sf] k|;f/0f nfOg lgdf{0fsf] nfut
           cg'dfg :jLs[ltsf] nflu sfo{sf/L lbg{]zsdf k]z ul/Psf] .

                                               23
              d:of{ËbL–sf7df08f}+ @@) s]=le cGtu{t ?6 ;j{]If0f sfo{sf nflu g]kfn ljB't k|flws/0f /
              ljefu;Fu ;Demf}tf ePsf] .
   &=!^ j'6jn–;'gf}nL $)) s]le, b'xjL–hf]ujgL $)), 9Ns]jf/–leQfdf]8 $)) s]le k|;f/0f nfOg lgdf{0f -
        a"Fbf g+= !#%_
              jftfj/0fLo cWoog sfo{ hf/L .

* ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno
   *=!= u0ftGq k|ltd"lt{sf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= @@_
            l8hfOgsf] k|f?k tof/ ug{ !$ j6f proposal k|fKt ePsf] .
   *=@ dWokxf8L nf]sdfu{ -k'iknfn nf]sdfu{_sf] klxnf] r/0fdf !*) ls=ld= ;8s lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+= !)&_
            b}n]v hfh/sf]6 v08sf] @ ls=ld= 6«ofs vf]lnPsf] .
            3'dL{ v'sf]{6 v08sf] @& ls=dL= af6f] lgdf{0fsf] nflu 6]08/ :jLs[t eO{ af6f] vGg] sfd z'?
            ePsf] .
            Rofªyfk' -kfFry/_–uf]k]6f/ @& ls=dL= af6f] lgdf{0fsf] nflu 6]08/ :jLs[t eO{ af6f] vGg] sfd
            z'? ePsf] .
   *=# sf7df08f}+–t/fO kmfi6 6«ofs BOOT cGtu{t z'? ug{] -a"Fbf g+= !)*_
            sfof{nosf] :yfkgf ePsf] .
   *=$ yk # lhNnfdf df]6/ jf6f] k'¥ofOg] -a"Fbf g+= !)(_
            ;fkm]ju/–dft{8Lsf] $# ls=ld= 6«ofs v'nf ePsf] / jfFsL ;8ssf] af]nkq d"Nof+sg e}/x]sf] .
            dgfË ;b/d'sfd hf]8\g] af6f]sf] lgdf{0f g]kfnL ;]gf dfkm{t lg/Gt/ rfn" /x]sf] .
   *=% k"j{–klZrd / pQ/–blIf0f /]ndfu lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+= !!)_
            & j6f d'n'sx?af6 ;DefJotf cWoogsf] nflu letter of Intent k|fKt ePsf] .
   *=^ pQ/–blIf0f nf]sdfu{ -s0ff{nL, sfnLu08sL / sf]zL_ sf] lgdf{0f lj:tf/ sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !!!_
            sflnsf]6–h'Dnf–x'Dnf ;8ssf] sfof{no :yfkgf ePsf] .
            sfnLu08sL nf]sdfu{ / sf]zL nf]sdfu{sf] ;j{]If0f e}/x]sf] .
   *=& x'nfsL ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt -a"Fbf g+= !!@_
            ef/t ;/sf/af6 MOU df ;xdlt x'g jfFsL /x]sf] .
            bf];|f] r/0fsf] !^ ;8s dWo] # ;8ssf] IEE sf] d:of}bf k|fKt ePsf] .
   *=* ljleGg kxf8L ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt -a"Fbf g+= !!#_
            j}t8L–uf]s'n]Zj/, ;'v{]t–sflnsf]6, vf]8\k]–jemfË, tNnf] 8'u]+Zj/–b}n]v dWo] !$ j6fsf] 7]Ssf e}
            lgdf{0f e}/x]sf] . ^ j6fsf] k'gM jf]nkq cfJxfg ePsf] .
            hgsk'/–9Ns]jf/, uN5L–:ofk|m'j];L, tfdfsf]zL–v'sf{]6, rfFu'gf/fo0f–eQmk'/ ;8ssf] 7]Ssf
            ;Demf}tf ePsf] .
            e}/xjf–tf}lnxjfsf] ;j{] l8hfOg ;DkGg ePsf] / lkmlbd–tfKn]h'Ësf] 7]Ssf d"Nof+sg e}/x]sf] .
   *=( sflGt nf]skysf] :t/f]Gglt -a"Fbf g+= !!$_
            sfof{no :yfkgf ePsf] .
            lgdf{0f sfo{sf] nflu af]nkq cfJxfg .


                                                  24
*=!) zlxb dfu{ -ltnf–3lt{ufpF–yjfË–?s'dsf]6_ lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+= !!%_
           7]Ssf ug{] ;Demf}tf e};s]sf] .
           !=^ ls=ld= 6«ofs lgdf{0f e};s]sf] .
*=!! j]lg3f6–nfs{] ;8ssf] lgdf{0f z'? ug{] -a"Fbf g+= !!^_
           7]Ssfsf] sfo{ cl3 a9fOPsf] .
*=!@ ljleGg ;b/d'sfd hf]8\g] ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= !!&_
           bfr'{nf–;taf+em–uf]s'n]Zj/, vf]8\k]–aemfË, ;'v]{t–b}n]v, ;'v]{t–dfGdf, t'N;Lk'/–;Nofg,
           rGb|lgufxfk'/–uf}/, rsrs]–lnjfË ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt ug]{ sfo{ ePsf] .
*=!# r'/] If]qsf] $) ls=ld= 6«ofs vf]lng] -a"Fbf g+= !!(_
           w/fg–rt/f–ufO3f6–l;Gw'nL–x6f}+8f ;8ssf] 7]Ssf d"Nof+sg e}/x]sf] .
*=!$ :ofk|m'j];L–/;'jfu9L sf] !^ ls=ld=;8s / * j6f k'nsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= !@)_
           !%=& ls=ld= v08 dWo] /;'jfu9Laf6 @=! ls=ld= / :ofk|m'j];Laf6 ! ls=ld= 6«ofs v'n]sf] .
*=!% sf7df08f}+–eQmk'/ ;8s ^ n]gsf] jgfOg] -a"Fbf g+= !@!_
           lgdf{0f sfo{ b'|t ultdf e}/x]sf] .
*=!^ ;f]N6Ldf]8–gfu9'+uf ;8s lj:tf/ / jfudlt, wf]aLvf]nf, lji0f'dlt sf]l/8f]/ ;8s sfnf]kq] ul/g] -
     a"Fbf g+= !@@_
           ;f]lN6 df]8sf] sl/a ! ls=dL= a];sf]if{sf] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
           lji0f'dlt lnË/f]8 sfnf]kq u/L :tf]GgtL ug]{ ldlt @)^%÷$÷!% df ;Demf}tf eO{ xfn sl/a
           @)Ü sfd ;DkGg ePsf] .
           jfudtL sf]l/8f]/df !=^ ls=ld= sfnf]kq] / &)) ld6/ j];sf];{sf] sfd ePsf] .
*=!& k'nsf] lgdf{0f ;DkGg / !!* j6f k'nsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ hf/L /fVg] -a"Fbf g+= !@$_
           lgdf{0fflwg %^ j6f k'n sf] sfd rfn" /x]sf] .
           tdf]/, c?0f, b'wsf]zL, lqz'nL / sfnLu08sLsf] k'gM jf]nkq cfJxfg ePsf] .
           d]rL / sf]zLsf] rt/f k'nnfO{ ah]6 gk'u /x]sf] .
*=!* ;b/d'sfd hf]8\g] ;8sdf kg{] k'ndf j]lnj[h h8fg ug{] -a"Fbf g+= !@%_
           j]lnlj|hsf] ;§f RCC / l:6n k'nsf] sfo{qmd l:js[t eO{ sfo{qmd cufl8 a9fOPsf] .
*=!( kyn}of–lj/u+hsf] cf}Bf]lus sf]l/8f]/ / ;'gf}lt–k/f;L v08sf] lg/Gt/tf lbOg] -a"Fbf g+= !!*_
           kyn}of–jL/u+hsf] & ls=ld= df6] ;8s lgdf{0f, @( j6f sNe6{ lgdf{0f e};s]sf] .
           e}/xjf–k/f;L v08sf] !% ls=ld= df6] ;8s / %% j6f sNe6{sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
*=@) 7"nf zx/ u'?of]hgf tyf k'jf{wf/ lgdf{0f tyf gu/kflnsf gePsf !) lhNnf ;b/d'sfd k"jf{wf/ Pj+
     rf/ :yfgsf] ef}lts ljsf;f of]hgf -a"Fbf g+= !%*_
           s}nfnLsf] cQl/of–wgu9L, sf:sLsf] kf]v/f–n]vgfy–b'n]u}8f, ;'g;/Lsf] Og?jf–b'xaL–w/fg,
           sfe|]sf] w'lnv]n–ag]kfsf] sf/]l/8f]/sf] af]nkq ;"rgf k|sfzg .
           ;'g;/Lsf] O6x/Lsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ ug{ pkef]Qmf ;ldlt;Fu ;Demf}tf ;DkGg .
           sfe|sf] kgf}tL–kfFrvfn / ;'v]{tsf] jL/]Gb|gu/–l5Gr'–bz/yk'/sf] af]nkq cfAxfgsf] nflu tof/L
           eO/x]sf] .
           % sf]l/8f]/sf] u'?of]hgf th'{df sfo{sf] nflu k|fljlws tyf cfly{s k|:tfj dfu u/L ;"rgf
           k|sfzg ePsf]
                                              25
           wflbËj]zL, d+un;]g, km'ËlnË / a]gLsf] af]nkqsf ;"rgf k|sfzg . vnËf, lnjfË, ef]hk'/,
           cf]vn9'+uf, rf}tf/f / lbSt]nsf] of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ vl/b k|lqmof z'? ePsf] .
           d+un;]g, efh]k'/, cf]vn9'+|uf / rf}tf/fsf] ef}lts ljsf; of]hgf th'{dfsf] nflu cfly{s tyf
           k|fljlws k|:tfj cfJxfgsf] nflu ;"rgf k|sfzg .
*=@! 3Gfj:tL k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{ lg/Gt/tf ty PsLs[t j:tL ljsf; ug{ k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f sfo{ z'?
     ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= !%(_
           sfnLsf]6sf] ljhok'/, x'Dnfsf] >Lgu/, Ko"7fgsf] leª\u|L ufpF / DofUbLsf] tfsd ufpFsf] k"jf{wf/
           ljsf;sf] of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ vl/b k|lqmof z'? / /;'jfsf] uf]Nh'Ë ufpFsf] pkef]Qmf;Fu
           ;Demf}tf .
           ;Nofgsf] yf/df/], afUn'Ësf] cu{nsf] pkef]Qmf ;ldlt;Fu ;Demf}tf . slknj:t'sf] lqltlvsf]
           ;"rgf k|sflzt .
           tfKn]h'Ësf] v]lhlgd / ;nf{xLsf] xhfl/of, c5fdsf] /fdf/f];g / 88]Nw'/fsf] hfua'9f uf=lj=;,
           ef]hk'/sf] jf]of uf=lj=;=of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ vl/b k|lqmof z'? . ;f]n'v'Da'sf] uf]nL, sfe|]sf]
           cg]sf]6, uf]/vfsf] u'Dbf / lrtjgsf] sNof0fk'/ -afFb/d'9]_ uf=lj=;=df ljleGg sf/0fn] of]hgf
           5gf}6 x'g g;s]sf] .
           8f]6L sn]gf ufpF, gjnk/f;L cQx§L ufpF, /f}tx6 a8]/jf ufpF, ;'g;/L htk'\/ ufpFsf] k|ltj]bg
           sfof{Gjog ug{ vl/b k|lqmof z'? ePsf] .
*=@@ gd'gf j:tL ljsf; tyf ;du| alnbfgL If]q ljsf; -a"Fbf g+= !^)_
           of]hgf 5gf}6 u/L pkef]Qmf;Fu ;Demf}tf u/L lgdf{0f sfo{ k|f/De ePsf] .
*=@# gbL lsgf/fsf] hUuf cltqmd0f u/L agfOPsf 3/6x/f qmdz x6fOg] -a"Fbf g+= !^@ _
           ;'s'Daf;L e"ldlxg ÷Go"g cfo ePsfx?sf] lgldQ cfjf;sf] Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLlt, lgod, P]g -
           d:of}bf @)^%, bzf}+ k~rjlif{o of]hgf, ltg jlif{o cGtl/d of]hgf / cf=j= @)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6
           jQmJo_ Compile u/L sfo{gLlt th'{df ug]{ sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
           ;'s'Djf;L e"ldlxg÷Go"g cfo ePsf ju{x?sf] lgldQ pknJw u/fOg] cfjf;sf] k|f/lDes Design
           tof/ ug]{ sfo{ eO/x]sf] .
           ;/f]sf/jfnf JolQm, ;'s'Djf;L ;DaGwL sfd ug]{ ;+3 ;+:yfx?;+u 5nkmn Pj+ cGt/lqmof
           eO/x]sf] .
           Onsite upgrade ug{ Pilot Project sf] ?kdf z+vd'n If]qsf] k|f/lDes tYofÍ ;+sng ug]{ sfo{
           eO/x]sf] .
           c;'/lIft kl/jf/x?sf] nflu k'gM :yfkgf ug{ j}slNks of]hgf :ynaf/] a'‰g pkTosfleqsf gu/
           ljsf; ;ldltx?;+u kqfrf/ ePsf] .
*=@$ e"sDkLo b[li6n] ;'/lIft ejg lgdf{0f ug{ ljBdfg sfg"g nfu" ug]{ -a"Fbf g+= !^$_
         ejg P]g @)^$ sfof{Gjog ug{ ejg lgodfjnL tof/L u/L :jLs[tLsf] qmddf ef}lts of]hgf
         tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno dfkm{t sfg"g dGqfnodf /x]sf] . ejg ;+lxtf kl/dfh{g ug]{ sfo{ ljefu /
         ERRRP (Earthquake Risk Reduction and Recovery Preparedness) sf] ;+o'Qm k|of;af6
         eO/x]sf] . Society of Structure Engineers af6 ;'emfj dfu ePsf] .
*=@% qmdfg'ut vfg]kfgL cfof]hgf $@& dWo] !)) j6f ;DkGg ug{] / #@& j6f cfof]hgfsf] lgdf{0f ug{] -
     a"Fbf g+= !($_
           6f]yfsf]9f8 vfg]kfgL of]hgf -u'NdL_ / efn'jfª vfg]kfgL of]hgf -bfË_ ;DkGg eO{ !@(*$ hgf
           nfeflGjt ePsf] .

                                                26
   *=@^ vfg]kfgL u'0f:t/ ;'wf/sf] nflu lgdf{0ffwLg !) j6f kfgL k|zf]wg k|0ffnLdWo] & j6f ;DkGg -a"Fbf g+=
        !(%_
            n]6fË, /+u]nL, ljb'/, tf]kuf5L, Onfd vfg]kfgL cof]hgf ;+rfng e}/x]sf] .
            efbufpF / h'n's] vfg]kfgL cfof]hgf ;DkGg eO;s]sf] eO{ !#**$ hg;+Vof nfeflGjt ePsf] .
   *=@& lhNnfsf] !)^ j6f ;fd'bflos vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO cfof]hgf ;DkGg ug{] -a"Fbf g+= !((_
            (@ j6f cfof]hgfsf] lgdf{0f sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
            88]nw'/fsf] @ cfof]hgf ;DkGg eO{ !%^$ hgf nfeflGjt ePsf] / slknj:t'sf] **! j6f
            x}08kDk ;DkGg eO{ ^##$% hgf nfeflGjt ePsf] s]lx Kn]6kmd{ lgdf{0f x'g] sfo{ eO/x]sf] .
            Ko"7fgdf ! j6f pk cfo]hgf ;DkGg eO{ ^)) hgf nfeflGjt tyf a}t8Ldf ! j6f pk cfo]hgf
            ;DkGg eO{ #&#) hgf nfeflGjt ePsf] .

( ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og dGqfno
   (=! gofF ko{6g gLlt Nofpg] / k|ltjif{ !) nfv ko{6s leq\ofpg ;g\ @)!! nfO{ æko{6g jif{ @)!!Æ sf]
       ?kdf dgfpg] sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !))_
            g]kfn ko{6g jif{ @)!! nfO{ /fli6«o sfo{qmdsf] ?kdf dgfpg ko{6g tyf gful/s p88\og
            dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf d"n cfof]hs ;ldlt u7g eO{ ljleGg sfo{ pk;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] .
            ko{6g jf]8{df ko{6g jif{ ;+rfng ug{ ;lrjfno :yfkgf ePsf] .
            gofF ko{6g gLlt dlGqkl/ifb\df k]z ePsf] .
   (=@ gofF kbofqf dfu{ vf]Ng] tyf s[lif ko{6g tfnLd / ahf/Ls/0fsf] PsLs[t sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g++ !)!_
            b'j} sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu tf/f ufpF ljsf; ;ldltaf6 k|ltj4tfkq k|fKt u/L cfjZos
            ToR tof/ u/L dGqfno / ;ldltaLr ;Demf}tf ePsf] .
   (=# g]kfn jfo';]jf lgudsf] cGt/f{li6«o l;6 Ifdtf a9fO{ ;]jfnfO{ lgoldt / e/kbf]{ agfpg] clek|foaf6
       pQm lgudnfO{ @ 7"nf hxfh v/Lbsf] nflu ljQLo ;|f]t h'6fpg g]kfn ;/sf/ hdfgL al;lbg] -a"Fbf
       g++ !)@_
            ljdfg lgdf{tf af]Oª / Po/a; b'j} sDkgLnfO{ sf7df8f}+df af]nfO{ Preliminary Presentation /
            Consultation u/fO{ k|f/lDes k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf] qmddf /x]sf] .
   (=$ O{nfdsf] >LcGt', vf]6fªsf] xn];L, uf]/vfsf] dgsfdgf, uf]/vgfy, Ko"7fgsf] :ju{åf/L, 8f]6Lsf] vKt8,
       c5fdsf] /fdf/f]zg If]q / af/fsf] ul9dfO{ l;d|f}gu9 If]qdf cfjZos k"jf{wf/ v8f u/L k"jf{wf/
       If]qsf] ljsf; ul/g] -a"Fbf g++ !)#_
            /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]uaf6 :jLs[t sfo{qmd k|fKt eO{ vKt8 If]q ko{6g ljsf; ;ldltdfkm{t
            ;+rfng x['g] sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu pQm ;ldltnfO{ k|yd rf}dfl;s lgsf;f k7fOPsf] .
            cGo sfo{qmdx? lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt dfkm{t ;+rfng u/fpg sfo{qmd / vr{ ug]{ clVtof/L
            ;DalGwt lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltx?df k7fO ;lsPsf] .
   (=% ;'b"/ klZrdf~rn / dWoklZrdf~rnsf lxdfnx? cf/f]x0f ug]{ 6f]nLnfO{ % jif{sf nflu /f]oN6L 5'6
       lbOg] -a"Fbf g++ !)$_
            lxdfn cf/f]x0f ug]{ 6f]nLnfO{ /f]oN6L 5'6 lbg] lg0f{o eO sfof{Gjog e}/x]sf] .
   (=^ af/fsf] lghu9df cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn, kf]v/f / e}/xjfdf If]qLo ljdfg:yn lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g++ !)#_
            bf]>f] cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf] nflu cfjZos kg]{ hUufsf] l;df+sg ug{ :yfgLo k/fdz{bft[
            lgo'Qm ug]{ ;DaGwdf sf/jfxL cl3 a9]sf] .


                                                  27
             uf}td a'4 ljdfg:yn e}/xjfsf] nflu hUuf k|fKg ug]{ sfo{ eO d'cfJhf ljt/0f ug{ cfjZos
             tof/L e}/x]sf] .
             l5g]8f+8f ljdfg:yn kf]v/fsf] cWoogsf] nflu k/fdz{bftf lgo'Qm ug{ cfjZos ToR tof/ ug]{
             sfo{ clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] .
             ;fj{hlgs lghL ;fem]bf/L cjwf/0ff cGtu{t 5'6\ofOPsf] ah]6sf] sfo{qmd k]z ug{ g]kfn
             gful/s p8\8og k|flws/0fdf n]lvPsf] .
   (=& If]lqo tyf ko{6sLo b[li6n] dxTjk"0f{ cfGtl/s ljdfG:ynsf] :t/f]Gglt tyf Ifdtf lj:tf/
       -a"Fbf g+= !)^_
             l;d/f ljdfg:ynsf] wfjg dfu{, 6\oflS; j] tyf Pk|f]g ;'b[l9s/0f sfdsf nflu ;+;f]lwt nfut
             cg'dfg tof/ eO{ lgdf{0f Jofj;foLsf] k"j{ of]Uotf 5gf}6 sfo{ clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] .
             wgu9L ljdfg:yn gofF 6ld{gn tyf 6fj/ ejgsf] gS;f, l8hfOg, nfut cg'dfg tof/ ug{
             k/fdz{bftf lgo'Qm u/L sfo{ k|f/De ul/Psf] .
             tfKn]h'Ë ljdfg:yn wfjg dfu{ lj:tf/ ug{ hUuf clws/0f ug{] sfo{sf nflu k|f/lDes clwsf/L
             tf]Sg] sfd ;DkGg ePsf] . wfjgdfu{ lj:tf/ tyf ;'wf/ sfo{sfnflu nfut cg'dfg tof/ ug{]
             sfo{ eO{ k"j{ of]Uotf 5gf}6 sfo{sf] tof/L ePsf] .
             /f/f ljdfg:yn wfjgdfu{ tyf kfls{Ë Pk|f]gsf] cf+lzs lgdf{0f tyf ;'wf/sf nflu 7]s]bf/af6
             ;fO6 df]ljnfOh];g eO{ lgdf{0f sfo{ hf/L /flv ;+Demf}tf cg';f/sf] @) k|ltzt sfo{ ;DkGg
             ePsf] .
             dgfË ljdfg:yn wfjgdfu{ lj:tf/ tyf Pk|f]g ;'wf/ sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ nfut cg'dfg tof/ eO{
             lgdf{0f Joj;foLsf] k"j{ of]Uotf 5gf}6 sfo{ clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] .
             t'lDnË6f/ ljdfGyn wfjgdfu{ ;'wf/sf nflu cfjZos ;e{]If0f tyf l8hfOg n=O{= tof/ ug{]
             sfo{ rfn' /x]sf] .
             l;n]Zj/f ljdfg:yn ;+zf]lwt nfut cg'dfg tof/ ug{] sfo{ clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] .
             l;ldrf}/ -u'NdL_ ljdfg:yn lgdf{0f sfo{sf nflu ;+zf]lwt nfut cg'dfg tof/ eO{ pkef]Qmf
             ;ldlt;Fu ;Demf}tf tof/L ePsf] .
             dl;g]rf}/ -8f]Nkf_ ljdfG:yn ;+;f]lwt nfut cg'dfg tof/ ug{] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .

!) k//fi6« dGqfno
   !)=! /fli6«o ;'/Iff, k//fi6« gLlt, hn;|f]t nufot k|fs[lts ;fwgsf] pkof]u / j}b]lzs ;xof]u kl/rfng
        x'g] u/L ljBdfg gLltx?df k'g/fjnf]sg -a"Fbf g++=!(_
            ljBdfg gLltx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sgsf] nflu k//fi6« dGqfnon] ljleGg lgsfox?;Fu k/fdz{
            lng] sfo{sf] yfngL u/]sf] .
            ljutdf ePsf] c;dfg ;GwL ;+Demf}tfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ ef/t ;/sf/;Fu pRr:t/df
            låklIfo s'/fsfgL ePsf] .
   !)=@ ljb]zl:yt s'6gLlts lgof]unfO{ clfy{s ;xof]u, ko{6g k|j4{g, lgof{t lj:tf/, j}b]lzs /f]huf/
        k|j4{g / j}b]lzs nufgL clej[l4 sfo{df nufOg] -a"Fbf g++=@)_
            lgof]ux?nfO{ cfly{s s'6gLlt ;+rfng ug{ lgb{]zg ul/P cg';f/ ;f]xL cg'?k sfo{x?
            eO{/x]sf] .



                                               28
            ljZjJofkL dGbLaf6 j}b]lz /f]huf/df ;+nUg g]kfnL sfdbf/ s6f}tL x'g;Sg] c;/nfO{
            Go"gLs/0f ug{ stf/, dn]lzof, p;bL c/]ljof, ;+o'Qm c/j Old/]6\; / /fhb"tx?;+u
            cGtlqm{of ;DkGg ul/Psf] .

!! e"ld;'wf/ tyf Joj:yf dGqfno
   !!=! pRr:t/Lo e"ld;'wf/ cfof]u u7g -a"Fbf g+= &*_
            dlGqkl/ifb\sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ e"ld;'wf/ cfof]u u7g ePsf] .
            pRr:t/Lo e"ld;'wf/ cfof]unfO{ ;lqmo t'Nofpg nlhli6s ;xof]u pknAw u/fOPsf] .
            ;'s'Daf;L ;d:of ;dfwfg ;'emfj cfof]u u7g ul/Psf] .
   !!=@ hUuf wgL k|df0fk'hf{ sDKo"6/Ls[t u/L Plss[t k|df0f k'hf{ lbg] sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=&(_
            sf7df08f}+ lhNnfl:yt %, sf:sL, s}nfnL, l6sfk'/, lj/f6gu/, a]naf/L, dsjfgk'/ ;d]t hDdf
            !! dfnkf]t sfof{noaf6 sDKo"6/dfkm{t hUufwgL btf{ k|df0fk"hf{ pknJw u/fOPsf] .
            yk @& j6f dfnkf]t sfof{noaf6 sDKo"6/ dfkm{t hUufwgL k|df0f k"hf{ pknJw u/fpg] sfdsf]
            cfly{s k|:tfjsf] nflu kqfrf/ ePsf] .
   !!=# ;fj{hlgs hUufsf] nut -a"Fbf g+= *)_
            #^ j6f dfnkf]t sfof{nosf] ;/sf/L÷;fj{hlgs hUufsf] nut k'l:tsf k|sfzg ePsf] .
            k|sflzt ljj/0f e"ld;'wf/ tyf Joj:yf ljefusf] www.landdepartment.gov.np df
            /fVg] sfo{ ePsf] .
   !!=$ xlnof, d'Qm sd}of k'g:yfkg -a"Fbf g+= *!_
            d'Qm sd}of kl/jf/nfO{ k|lt kl/jf/ % s7\7f ;Dd hUuf pknJw u/fO;s]kl5 3/ jgfpg k|lt
            kl/jf/ ?= !) xhf/sf b/n] /sd pknAw u/fpg] qmddf ^^* kl/jf/nfO{ ?= %# nfv ljt/0f
            ul/Psf] .
            &^@ d'Qm sd}of kl/jf/nfO{ hUufwgL k|df0f k'hf{ ljt/0f ul/Psf] .
            d'Qm sd}of k'g:yfkg ;d:of ;dfwfg cfof]u,@)^% u7g ePsf] .
            clwsf/ ;DkGg d'Qm sd}of k'gM:yf{kgf ;d:of ;dfwfg cfof]u @)^% u7g ePsf] .
            zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqfnoaf6 xlnofx?sf] tYofÍ ;+sng e}/x]sf] .
            8sdL{, ljB't h8fg, ;fOsn l/S;f dd{t, Rofp v]tL j}+8 jfhf k|lzIf0f, :jL6/ Jofu j'Gg]u/L
            !# j6f tfnLd ;DkGg ePsf] .
            l;nfO, s6fO, gfO ;DaGwL * j6f tfnLd / @ j6f gd"gf t/sf/L v]tL sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePsf] .
   !!=$ ;fj{hlgs tyf afFemf] hUufx? bL3{sfnLg nLhdf lbg] -a"Fbf g+= (*_
            dlGqkl/ifb\df k|:tfj n}hfg :jLs[ltsf] nflu k]z ul/Psf] .

!@ dlxnf afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno
   !@=! dlxnf ju{sf] ;zlQms/0fsf] nflu n}lËs ;dfgtf xfl;n ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug] sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= @@&_
            n}+lus ah]6 z'? eO{ !#=( -#@ ca{ (! s/f]8_ ah]6 dlxnf ju{nfO{ k|ToIf nfe x'g] sfo{qmdsf
            nflu ljlgof]hg ePsf] .
            dlxnfx?sf] ;fdflhs cfly{s z;lQms/0fsf nflu sfo{qmd ;+rfng eO/x]sf] .


                                               29
             dlxnf ljsf; sfo{qmd s]Gb|:t/÷lhNnf:t/ n}+lus ;dfgtf / ;zlQms/0f cfof]hgf, dlxnf
             ;zlQms/0f sfo{qmd ;+rfng e}/x]sf] .
   !@=@ dlxnf ljsf; sfo{qmd !*$# ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf ;+rfng tyf lj:tf/ -a"Fbf g+= @@*_
             yk ^)) uf=lj=; df lj:tf/ ug{] nIosf ;fy sfo{qmd th'{df u/L (@ j6fdf nlu;s]sf] .
   !@=# of}lgs / n}lËs cNk;+Vossf nflu ;fd'lxs cfjf; u[xsf] Joj:yf -a"Fbf g+= @#&_
             pQm If]qdf sfo{/t ;+:yf;Fusf] ;xsfo{df ;fd"lxs cfjf; u[xsf] Joj:yf ug{ ?= @% nfv
             j/fj/sf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t eO{ sfo{ k|f/De ePsf] .

!# /Iff dGqfno
   !#=! ;]gfsf] egf{, 5gf}6, tfnLd, lzIff tyf cfwf/e"t s'/fx?sf] nflu yk Jojl:yt / kf/blz{tf :yflkt
        ug{ lgod tyf k|lqmofdf ;'wf/ -a"Fbf g+=@*_
            g]kfnL ;]gfsf] egf{, 5gf}6, tfnLd nufotsf ljifox?nfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ ;}lgs P]g, @)^# sf]
            Joj:yf sfof{Gjog ug{ ;}lgs ;]jf lgodfjnL, @)^% sf] d:of}bf th'{df u/L :jLs[ltsf] clGtd
            r/0fdf /x]sf] .
            ;}lgs k|f8 ;]jf lgodfjnL, @)^% / ;}lgs ljljw ;]jf, @)^% sfg'g, Gofo tyf ;+ljwfg ;ef
            Joj:yf dGqfnodf k7fOPsf] .
            ;}lgs xjfO ;]jf lgodfjnL, @)^% th'{dfsf] qmddf /x]sf] .
   !#=@ ;]gfsf] Jofj;flos bIftf j[l4, zflGt ;'/Iff, ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfo{, b}ljs k|sf]k p4f/ / ljZj
        zflGtdf pNn]vgLo 6]jf k'Ug] sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=@*_
            g]kfnL ;]gfnfO{ ljsf; lgdf{0fsf ultljlwdf kl/rfng ug{] gLlt cg'?k * j6f ;8s
            cfof]hgfdf ;+nUg u/fOPsf] .
            ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf] cfXjfgdf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+3sf] ld;gdf zflGt :yfkgfsf] sfo{sf] nflu #!!&
            hgfsf] ;xeflutf eO/x]sf] .
            sf]zL af9L nufotsf b}ljs k|sf]kx?df tTsfn} lkl8tsf p4f/ u/L cfly{s ;xof]u Pj+ ;/fxgLo
            of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] .
   !#=# ;'/IffsdL{sf] cfrf/ ;+lxtf -j"bf g+=@(_
            ;'/IffsdL{sf] cfrf/ ;+lxtfsf] vfsf tof/ u/L To;nfO{ clGtd ?k lbg] ;DaGwdf u[xsfo{
            e}/x]sf] .

!$ jg tyf e'–;+/If0f dGqfno
   !$=! h'Dnf, jfFs] / ;Nofgdf hl8j'6L ;+sng ;xof]u ;DaGwL sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= ##_
            zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqfno;Fu ;dGjo u/L ?= ! s/f]8 %) nfv j/fj/sf] hl8j'6L ljsf;
            sfo{qmd jg:klt ljefu dfkm{t :jLs[t ePsf] .
   !$=@ jgsf] j}1flgs Joj:yfkg x'g] gLlt nfu" ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= @!#_
            jg If]q cg'udg ;ldlt,@)^% u7g eO{ sfof{Gjogsf] nflu &$ lhNnf jg sfof{nodf kl/kq
            ul/Psf] .
            dWojtL{ If]q Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd cGtu{t ! k6s hg;dGjo cGt/lqmof, @ k6s Ifdtf ljsf;
            cGtl/qmof uf]li7 ;kGg ePsf] .


                                                30
!$=#= jgsf] j}1flgs Joj:yfkgsf] nflu jg sfo{of]hgf cWofjlws ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= @!$_
           @@ j6f lhNnf jg sfof{nosf] jg sfo{of]hgf cBfjlw ePsf] .
           rSnf jg Joj:yfkgsf] nflu s}nfnL, jfFs], gjnk/f;L, jf/f / df]/Ëdf sfo{qmd /flvPsf] .
           rSnf jg tyf Jofj;flos j[If/f]k0f Joj:yfkg lgb{]lzsf, @)^% clGtd tof/Lsf] k|lqmofdf
           /x]sf] .
!$=# h+unL xfQLaf6 x'g] u/]sf] hgwgsf] Iflt Go"gLs/0f lgoGq0fsf nflu emfkf / ;'g;/Lsf] ;d:ofu|:t
      If]qdf tf/af/ lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+= @!%_
           /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefu;+u ;dGjo u/L :yfg 5gf}6 eO{ :yfgLo s[ifs;+u
           5nkmn ePsf] .
!$=# cleogfTds ?kdf ;fj{hlgs tyf lghL hUufdf j[xt\ j[If/f]k0f sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= @!^_
           xfn;Dd @* lhNnfdf pTkfbg ul/g] lj?jfx?sf] ;+Vof #,(*,$)) j6f / @& k|hfltsf
           h8Lj'6Lsf] lj?jfsf] ljj/0f k|fKt eO{ sfof{Gjogsf] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
           gbL psf; hUuf ;+/If0f sfo{qmd cGtu{t @ j6f ;d"xdf n=O{ / ;Demf}tf ;DkGg e} sfof{Gjog
           ePsf] .
           Ifltu|:t e"ld k'g?Tyfg cGtu{t @& x]S6/ If]qkmndf nut O{li6d]6 ;+emf}tf eO{ sfof{Gjog
           ePsf] .
           % nfv $) xhf/ lj?jf pTkfbgsf] nflu ;+emf}tf eO{ sfof{Gjog ePsf] .
           cg'';Gwfg / k|bz{gsf nflu ^ j6f g;{/L ;+rfng ug{ jLpsf] k|jGw / Aof8 tof/L sfo{ ;DkGg
           ePsf] .
           dsjfgk'/, s}nfnL, O{nfd, wg'iffsf] % 7fp+df g;{/L :yfkgf eO{ t]hkft, lkknf, s'l/nf], lr/fO{tf],
           l6Dd'/, nf]7;Nnf, ;k{uGwf u/L %) xhf/ lj?jf pTkfbgsf] %) k|ltzt sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
!$=$ jghGo pTkfbgdf cfwfl/t pBf]u Joj;fo Pj+ sj'lnot tyf ;fd'bflos jgdfkm{t ljkGg ju{sf
      k5fl8 k/]sf &% xhf/ kl/jf/nfO{ cfo cfh{gsf] cj;/ pknJw u/fOg] -a"Fbf g+= @!&_
           ;fd'bflos jg If]qleq ( j6f sj'lnolt jg ;d"x u7g ePsf] .
           ;fd'bflos jgleq !& j6f xft] sfuh, @ j6f cNnf] wfuf] pBd :yfkgf ePsf] .
           aflaof], cld|;f], afF;, kmfsn ;DaGwL @ j6f n3' pBf]u ljsf; ;d"x :yfkgf ePsf] .
           % j6f ;d"xdf u/La ljkGg 3/w'/Lsf nflu ;fj{hlgs hUufdf jg ljsf; ;DaGwL sfo{qmd z'?
           ePsf] .
           %^,)!& So"=lkm= uf]lnof sf7 ;+sng, ^,()& lr/fg sf7 ;+sng ePsf] .
           #=%(@ 6g ;'ulGwt t]n v]tL lj:tf/ sfo{qmd cGtu{t lghL If]qaf6 pTkfbg ePsf] .
           #=#% 6g ;'ulGwt t]n 3/]n' pBf]uaf6 v/Lb u/]sf] .
!$=% cfg'j+lzs ;|f]t;Ddsf] kx'+r / nfesf] af+8kmf+8 / h}ljs ;'/Iff;DaGwL sfg"g lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g+= @!*_
         h}ljs ;'/Iff ;DaGwL sfg"g lgdf{0fsf] nflu cfjZos sf/jfxL z'? ePsf] .
!$=^ s0ff{nL c+rndf h8Lj'6L k|zf]wg s]Gb| :yfkgf / h8Lj'\6L ljsf; sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= @!(_
          s0ff{nL c+rndf h8Lj'6L k|zf]wg s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ s0ff{nL c+rnsf dfggLo ;f+;b;+u 5nkmn
          ePsf] .
          h8Lj'6L ljsf; sfo{qmd nfu" ePsf !@ lhNnfdf pTkfbg ul/g] h8Lj'6L lj?jfsf] ;+Vof /
          k|hflt Plsg ePsf] .
          @ j6f ax'p2]ZoLo g;{/L ;+rfng e}/x]sf] .

                                                 31
             ! j6f h8Lj'6L Knf06 ;+rfng e}/x]sf] .
             %) hgfnfO{ ax'p2]ZoLo lj?jf v]tL tfnLd k|bfg ul/Psf] .
             @% hgfnfO{ 8fn]r"s ;+sng tyf h"; agfpg] ;Lk ljsf; tfnLd k|bfg ul/Psf] .
             tfdfu9L kmd{af6 &=(* 6g ;'ulGwt t]n pTkfbg ePsf] .
             * nfv *@ xhf/ xa{n s]o/ k|f]8S6 -;Grf]_ pTkfbg ePsf] .
             h8Lj'6L ljsf; sfo{qmd cGtu{t lj?jf pTkfbgsf] nflu ;Nofg l/d ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf]
             d"nkfgL g;{/Ldf %) xhf/ ;'uGw jfnsf] lj?jf pTkfbg ePsf] .
             afFs] l/dgf ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] vh'/f ;d"x u7g e} @) xhf/ cZjuGwfsf] g;{/L :yfkgf e}
             pTkfbg sfo{ e}/x]sf] .

!% jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno
   !%=! g]kfn vfB ;+:yfgsf] vfBfGg e08f/0f Ifdtf lj:tf/ tyf vfB ;'/Iffsf nflu gofF cfw'lgs uf]bfd
         lgdf{0f / vfB ;+:yfgsf] Joj:yfkg Ifdtfdf ;'wf/ -a"Fbf g+= $!_
                gofF cfw'lgs uf]bfd lgdf{0fsf] lj:t[t l8hfOg tyf nut Oli6d]6 sfo{ eO/x]sf] .
                kf}if;Dd b'u{ddf &(()! SjLG6n / ;'uddf @$*$$ SjLG6n rfdn ljqmL ePsf] tyf b'u{d
                tyf ;'ud ;d]tdf !#&@^( SjLG6n vfBfGg df}Hbftdf /x]sf] .
   !%=@ s[lqd cefj lgoGq0f sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= $$_
                sf7df08f}+, nlntk'/ / sfe|]df ahf/ cg'udg ^ k6s u/]sf] .
                k|rf/k|;f/ cGt/lqmof $ k6s ePsf] .
   !%=#= k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] sf/f]jf/df lgofds lgsfosf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= $%_
                k]6«f]lnod kbfy{ -lgodg_ cfb]z–)^% sf] d:of}bf dlGqkl/ifb\af6 :jLs[t eO{ cfPkl5 /fhkqdf
                k|sfzgfy{ k7fpg] .
   !%=$ k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] d"No ahf/ d"No;Fu :jrflnt ?kdf ;dfof]hg x'g] k|0ffnL :yfkgf
         -a"Fbf g+= $^_
                cGt/f{li6«o ahf/ d"No;Fu :jrflnt ?kdf ;+rfng x'g] k|0ffnL tof/ ul/;s]sf] .
                cfO=cf]=l;=af6 k|fKt k/nd"Nosf] cfwf/df ljqmL d"No k'g/fjnf]sg u/L ;dfof]hg x'g] u/]sf] .
   !%=% cf}Bf]lus gLlt, ljb]zL nufgL gLlt tyf jfl0fHo gLlt / ;DalGwt sfg'gsf] kl/dfh{g
         -a"Fbf g+= *@_
                jfl0fHo gLltsf] d:of}bf dlGqkl/ifb\df k]z ul/Psf] .
   !%=^= ;fj{hlgs lghL cjwf/0ff cg';f/ ;Ldf If]qaf6 cldn]vu~h;Dd k]6«f]n kfOk nfOg lgdf{0f -a"Fbf g++
         ($_
                Joint Venture sfd ug]{ ;DaGwdf dlGqkl/ifb\af6 ;}4flGts ;xdlt k|fKt ePsf] .
   !%=&= ;hLjg v]tL lj:tf/ -a"Fbf g++ !%#_
                sfo{ of]hgf cg'?k 6]08/ u/]sf]df s;}sf] klg 6]08. gk/]sf] .
   !%=* Anti dumping ljw]os th'{df -a"Fbf g+= @^(_
                ;/f]sf/jfnf;Fu 5nkmn e} k|f/lDes d:of}bf vfsf tof/ ul/Psf] .



                                                  32
!^ jftfj/0f lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno
   !^=! j}1flgs tyf k|fljlws k|ltef knfog /f]Sg] sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !$#_
               vf]hd"ns tyf pknlJwd"ns cg';Gwfg sfo{df ;+nUg x'g ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf] .
   !^=@ /fli6«:t/sf] k|of]uzfnf :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= !$$_
               klxnf] tNnf 9nfg ePsf] .
   !^=# xhf/ @ ;o j}1flgs ;xeflu x'g] % cf}+ /fli6«o lj1fg ;Dd]ng -a"Fbf g+= !$%_
               ;Dd]ngdf k|:t't k]k/ j]e;fO6df /flvPsf] .
               ;Dk"0f{ k]k/x?sf] zLif{s /fVg] tof/L ePsf] .
   !^=$ Ps ;o krxQ/ j6f yk 6]ln;]G6/ :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= !$&_
               u|fdL0f ;d'bfo tyf ljBfnodf cfjZos k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ul/;lsPsf] .
   !^=% /fli6«o ;"rgf j}+ssf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= !$^_
               l;+xb/jf/ xftfleq lgdf{0fflwg Government Intergrated Data and Training Center ejgdf
               cfjZos d]l;g/L cf}hf/ h8fg sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
   !^=^ df};d kl/jt{g cg';Gwfg s]Gb| :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= !$*_
               Himalayan Climate Change Resesarch Center :yfkgfsf] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
               gf/fo0fL gbLdf hndfkg s]Gb| af9Lsf] ;tx lgwf{/0f u/L dfls{ª ug{] sfo{sf] nflu af]nkq
               cfJxfg ePsf] .
   !^=& cfly{s jif{@)^%.^^ nfO{ j}slNks phf{ jif{sf] ?kdf dgfpg] -a"Fbf g+= !$(_
               ;/f]sf/jfnf JolQm / ;+:yfsf] pkl:yltdf /fli6«o ;Dd]ng cfof]hgf ug{ nfluPsf] .
   !^=* pkTosfdf ;fj{hlgs lghL ;fem]bf/L df]8]ndf jfo' phf{af6 @) d]ufjf6 ljB't pTkfbg ul/g] -
         a"Fbf g+= !%!_
               jfo' phf{ k|j4{gsf] nflu ;/f]sf/jfnf ;+3 ;+:yf;Fu ldnL gLlt lgdf{0f, vl/b ;Demf}tf kq tof/
               ug{ cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg ul/Psf] .
   !^=( ljB't ;]jf gk'u]sf ufpFx?df jlQsf] ;'ljwf k'¥ofpg ^% xhf/ 3/]n' / ;f}o{ ljB't k|0ffnL h8fg,
         ?s'ddf ;f}o{ 6'sL k'¥ofpg] ljz]if sfo{qmd, @% xhf/ uf]j/ UofF; KnfG6 lgdf{0f, $ ;o %) ;f]nf/
         8«fo/÷s's/, ! hf/ % ;o ;'wfl/Psf] kfgL 3§, @ xhf/ % ;o ;'wfl/Psf] kmnfd] r'Nxf]sf ;fy} %)
         xhf/ ;'wfl/Psf] df6f]sf] r'Nxf] h8fg ul/g] -a"Fbf g+= !%@_
               ^! lhNnfx?df @#$! j6f 3/]n' ;f}o{ k|0ffnL h8fg eO{ @#$! 3/ kl/jf/df ljB't ;]jf k'u]sf] .
               ;f}o{ 6'sLsf] nflu cg'bfg Joj:yf eO{ sfo{ljlw ;+zf]wgsf] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
               uf]j/UofF; k|ljlw ;DaGwL tfnLd dlxnf pkef]Qmf @^^ hgfnfO{ lbOPsf] .
               !#) hgf h]l6÷h]l6P uf]j/UofF; ;DaGwL tfnLd lbOPsf] .
               ()#) j6f uf]j/UofF; k|j4{g ;DaGwL ;fdfu|L ljt/0f u/]sf] .
               ;f]nf/ 8«fo/ s's/ ljt/0fsf] nflu k|fljlws dfkb08 tyf d"No lgwf{/0f ug{] sfo{ e}/x]sf]n] h8fg
               x'g g;s]sf] .
               !^ lhNnfdf #*# j6f ;'wfl/Psf] kfgL 3§ h8fg ul/Psf] .
               ;'wfl/Psf] kmnfd] r'Nxf] h8fg ug{ Manufacture sDkgL 5gf}6 ;DkGg eO{ sfo{ljlw tof/
               eO;s]sf] . :jLs[t eP kZrft ljt/0f ug{ z'? ul/g] .
   !^=!) ;hLjg v]tL lj:tf/ -a"Fbf g+= !%#_
             h}ljs OGwg k|j4{gsf] nflu /0fgLlt tof/ ug{] sfo{zfnf uf]li7 ;DkGg ul/Psf] .
                                                   33
!& zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqfno
   !&=! hgd'lQm ;]gfsf n8fs'x?sf] ;dfof]hg, k'g:yf{kgf / xltof/sf] Joj:yfkg -a"Fbf g+= @&_
              g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)%# sf] wf/f !$^ jdf]lhd hgd'lQm ;]gfsf n8fs'x?sf] /]vb]v,
              ;dfof]hg / k'g:yf{kgsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/af6 k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] ;+of]hsTjdf ljz]if ;ldlt
              u7g ePsf] .
   !&=@ :yfgLo zflGt ;ldlt u7g -a"Fbf g+= @(_
              :yfgLo zflGt ;ldltsf] ;+zf]lwt sfo{If]qut zt{x? :jLs[t eO{ &% lhNnf k|zf;g
              sfof{nox?df :yfgLo zflGt ;ldlt u7gsf] nflu kl/kq ePsf] .
   !&=# zflGt sf]ifsf] ah]6 tyf To;sf] ;+rfng -a"Fbf g+= @%^_
              zflGt sf]ifdf bft[ ;d'bfoaf6 cfpg] ;j} /sd ah]6df ;dfj]z ul/Psf] 5 . To:tf] /sdsf]
              lgsf;f sf]=n]=lg=sf=dfkm{t ul/g] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . vr{sf] xsdf zflGt sf]if lgodfjnLdf
              Joj:yf ul/Psf]n] ;f]xL cg';f/ x'g]5 .
   !&=$ /fli6«o zflGt tyf k'g:yf{kgf cfof]u, pRr:t/Lo ;To lg?k0f tyf d]nldnfk cfof]u, j]kQf
        kfl/PsfnfO{ vf]hL ug{] cfof]u, /fli6«o ;dfj]zLs/0f cfof]u, /fHo k'gM;+{/rgf cfof]u u7g
        -a"Fbf g+= @$_
              pRr:t/Lo zflGt cfof]usf] sfo{If]qut zt{x?df g]kfn ;/sf/ dlGqkl/ifb\af6 ;dofg's'n
              ;+zf]wg ePsf] t/ cfof]u u7g x'g g;s]sf] .
              ;To lg?k0f d]nldnfk cfof]u ljw]os ;DjGwdf $ :yfgdf uf]i7L ;DkGg u/L kfFrf} uf]i7L tof/L
              e}/x]sf] .
              JolQm j]kQf kfg{] -s;"/ / ;hfo_ P]g, @)^% g]kfn /fhkqdf k|sfzg ePsf], a]kQf
              kfl/Psfx?nfO{ vf]hL ug]{ cfof]u u7g ug]{ ;DaGwdf sf/jfxL e}/x]sf] .
              /fli6«o ;dfj]zLs/0f cfof]u u7g ug{ dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ldlt @)^%.&.( sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ 5nkmnsf]
              nflu /fhg}lts ;ldltdf k7fOPsf] .
   !&=% ;z:q åGåsf] qmddf hLjg u'dfPsf tyf j]kQf kfl/Psf k|To]s gful/snfO{ Psd'i7 cfly{s ;xfotf
        ?=! nfvsf b/n] pknJw u/fpg] tyf hLjg u'dfPsf gful/ssf ;GtltnfO k7gkf7gsf] Joj:yf -
        a"Fbf g+= #)_
              åGåsf] qmddf hLjg u'dfPsf $@)) hgfsf] kl/jf/nfO{ k|lt kl/jf/ ?= ! nfvsf] b/n] ljt/0f
              ug{ hDdf ?=$@ s/f]8 /fxt pknAw u/fpg lgsf;f e};s]sf] .
              j]kQf kfl/Psf] gful/snfO{ /fxt k|bfg ug{ lgb{]lzsf tof/ ePsf] .
              hgcfGbf]ngsf ! hgf 3fOt] / % hgf 3fOt]sf ;GtltnfO{ hDdf ?= &$ xhf/ 5fqj[lQ k|bfg
              ul/Psf] .
   !&=^ hgo'4, hgcfGbf]ndf 3fOt] eO{ pkrf/ gkfPsfx?sf] pkrf/ Joj:yf tyf c+ue+u ePsfnfO{
        Ifltk"lt{ -a"Fbf g+= #%_
              pkrf/sf nflu sfo{bnåf/f l;kmfl/; u/fO{ :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfnodf k7fpg] ul/Psf] .
              c+ue+u ePsfnfO{ Ifltk"lt{ lbOg] ;DaGwdf ckf+utfsf] k|ltzt lgwf{/0f nufot cfjZos gLlt
              lgdf{0fsf] qmddf /x]sf] .
              ;xLb ;Ddfgsf nflu lh=lj=;= dfk{mt ;xLb kfs{ lgdf{0f ug]{ sfo{qmd /x]sf] .
   !&=& zlxb kl/jf/ / åGåaf6 ckf+u ePsfnfO{ k|bfg ul/b} cfPsf] dfl;s lgjf{x eQfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf tyf
        åGbsf] ;dodf ePsf] ;jf/L ;fwg, lghL ;DklQ Iflt / n'l6Psf 3/ k;nsf] Ifltk"lt{ -j"Fbf g+= #^_
              hgcfGbf]ngsf zlxb kl/jf/nfO{ hLjg lgjf{x eQf k|ltJolQm ?= ^) xhf/sf b/n] @% hgfnfO{
              ?=!% nfv ljt/0f e};s]sf] .
                                                 34
            hgcfGbf]ng @ sf @@ hgf 3fOt]nfO{ cfly{s jif{ @)^%.^^ df dfl;s lgjf{x eQf ljt/0f ug{
            ?=^ nfv @$ xhf/ k7fO;lsPsf] .
            lghL ;DklQ Iflt jfkt ?=! s/f]8 #* nfv &^ xhf/ # ;o %& cfly{s ;xfotf k|bfg
            ul/Psf] .
   !&=* ;xhLjg j:tL ljsf; -a"Fbf g+= #@_
            ;xhLjg j:tL ljsf; sfo{qmd s~rgk'/df sfof{Gjogdf /x]sf] .
   !&=( åGbsf] qmddf gi6 ePsf ef}lts ;+/rgfsf] k'glg{df{0f sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+=%!_
            :yfgLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf; tyf s[lif ;8s ljefu dfk{mt ;+rflnt $** qmdfut of]hgfx?sf] nflu
            ?=$( s/f]8 (^ nfv %$ xhf/ / zx/L ljsf; tyf ejg lgdf{0f ljefu dfk{mt ;+rflnt !*)
            qmdfut cfof]hgfsf] nflu ?= %) s/f]8 ($ nfv tyf lh=lj=;x? dfk{mt ;+rflnt !@^ gofF
            cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu ?= ( s/f]8 $) nfv $^ xhf/ tyf åGåf]Q/ zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f
            kl/of]hgf dfk{mt ;+rflnt !$ j6f cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu ?=^ s/f]8 ^* nfv #^ xhf/ ;d]t u/L
            hDdf *)* j6f sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] nflu ?= ! ca{ !^ s/f]8 (( nfv %^ xhf/sf] clVtof/L
            ;DalGwt lgsfox?df k7fO{ b|'t ultdf sfo{ cufl8 a9fOPsf] .
            & gd'gf j:tL / ! zxLb kfs{ d"nåf/ lgdf{0fsf] sfo{qmd ;d]t :jLs[ltsf] nflu k7fOPsf] .
   !&=!) dfcf]jfbL hgd'lQm ;]gfsf n8fs'x?sf] dfl;s eQf -a"Fbf g+= #$_
            lzlj/df /x]sf dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs'x?nfO{ ljutsf] !@ dlxgf / rfn' cf=j= )^%÷^^ df3
            d;fGt;Dddf dfl;s eQf jfkt hDdf ?=(# s/f]8 )@ nfv $! xhf/ *** e'QmfgL ePsf] .
            e/0fef]if0f jfkt @)^% df3 d;fGt;Dddf ?=@( s/f]8 %! nfv #( xhf/ @)$ e'QmfgL ePsf] .

!* ;+:s[lt tyf /fHo k'gM;+/rgf dGqfno
   !*=! ;+f:s[lts gLltsf] th'{df a"Fbf g+= @##_
             ;+:s[lt gLltsf] d:of}bf tof/ eO;s]sf] .
   !*=@ efiff, ;flxTo, snf / ;+uLt gf6\o If]qdf 5'§f 5'§} k|lti7fg :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= @#%_
             k|lti7fgx? :yfkgf e};s]sf] .
             s[i0f ;]g OR5's k|lti7fg :yfkgf ug{ ;j} /sd lgsf;f ul/Psf] .

!(= lzIff dGqfno
   !(=! åGb lkl8t kl/jf/ lzIff sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= #!_
             sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{ zlxb k|li7fgnfO{ cg'dlt lbOPsf] .
             sfo{qmd :jLs[ltsf nflu /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]udf k7fOPsf] .
   !(=@ k|fylds lzIffdf (! k|ltzt eGbf a9Lsf] kx'Fr k'¥ofpg] / yk # xhf/ % ;o jfnljsf; s]Gb|sf]
        ljsf; ug'{sf ;fy} db/;f, u'Djf / u'?s'n lzIffnfO{ d"n k|jfxdf Nofpg] -a"Fbf g+= !^*_
             yk $ xhf/ & ;o %) afnljsf; s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{ clVtof/L / sfo{qmd k7fOPsf] . gofF s]Gb|
             :yfkgf ug{] qmddf /x]sf] .
             db/;f Joj:yf af]8{af6 btf{ k|lqmof, kf7\oqmd k|dfl0fs/0f / lzIfs Joj:yfkgdf k|f/lDes
             cjwf/0ffkq tof/ ePsf] .
             wfld{s k|j[lQsf z}lIfs ;+:yfx?sf] tYof+s ;+sng e}/x]sf] .


                                                   35
!(=# k|fylds b]lv pRr tx;Dd 5fqj[lQ ljt/0f -a"Fbf g+=!^(_
          sIff !! / !@ sf 5fqfnfO{ 5fqj[lQ lbg #^)) sf]6f jdf]lhd l;kmfl/; k|fKt e}/x]sf] .
          @% ljBfyL{ a/fa/ ! hgfnfO{ 5fqj[lQ ljt/0f z'? ul/Psf] .
          blnt 5fqj[lQ k|bfg ug{] ;"rgf k|sflzt e};s]sf] .
!(=$ lbjfvfhf sfo{qmd -j"Fbf g+= !&)_
          k|ltdlxgf !&)))) hgfnfO{ lbjfvfhf pknJw u/fpg] nIo /x]s]fdf !@^##& hgfnfO{ ljt/0f
          ul/Psf] .
          5fqf pTk|]/0ff sfo{qmd cGtu{t k|ltdlxgf %) xhf/nfO{ vfg]t]n pknJw u/fpg] nIo /x]sf]df
          $)*() nfO{ pknJw u/fOPsf] .
          Go"6«LldS; #!))) ue{jtL / # jif{ d'lgsfnfO{ ljt/0f ug{] nIo /x]sf]df #@$^( nfO{ ljt/0f
          ul/Psf] .
!(=% ljBfyL{ ;+Vofsf] cfwf/ ljBfno cg'bfg -a"Fbf g+= !&!_
          ljBfyL{ ;+Vofsf] cfwf/df cg'bfg lhNnfdf k7fO;lsPsf] .
!(=^ ljBfnox?sf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/df ;'wf/ -a"Fbf g+= !&@_
          s/Lj ^) k|ltzt sfo{qmd sfof{GjognfO{ lhNnf lzIff sfof{no / ljBfno jLr ;Demf}tf
          eO;s]sf] .
!(=& kf7\ok':ts ;j{;'ne / ;dodf pknJw u/fpg] -a"Fbf g+= !&#_
          gLlhIf]qsf ( d'b|s ;"lrs[t ePsf] .
          sIff $ sf] kf7\ok':ts 5kfO ug{ k7fOPsf]

!(=* lgMz'Ns lzIff -a"Fbf g+= !&$_
          cg'bfg ljt/0fsf] nflu ^* lhNnfaf6 ljj/0f k|fKt eO{ ljBfno ;'wf/ of]hgf cg'bfg /sd /
          kf7\ok':ts cg'bfg /sd lhNnf lzIff sfof{nodf lgsf;f k7fOPsf] .
!(=( ljBfnox? ;d'bfodf x:tfGt/0f -a"Fbf g+= !&%_
          rfn" cfly{s jif{df k|f=lj=%^&, lgdflj #%( / dflj @!# u/L !!#( ljBfno ;d'bfodf
          x:tfGt/0f ePsf] .
!(!) lzIffsf] u'0f:t/ clej[l4sf] nflu tfnLd sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !&^_
          k|f=lj= txsf #&((, lgdflj / dflj txsf %!^$ hgf u/L hDdf *(^# hgfn] tfnLd
          lnO;s]sf] .
!(=!! yk #) ljBfnodf k|fljlws lzIff Pg]S; sfo{qmdsf] ;+rfng -a"Fbf g+= !&&_
          ah]6 ck'u ePsfn] sfd cl3 ga9]sf] .
!(=!@ /fli6«o ;fIf/tf cleofg -a"Fbf g+= !&*_
         #,)!^ ;fIf/tf s]Gb|x? ;+rflnt .
         !! nfv !& xhf/ %#) hgfn] ;fIf/tf sfo{qmddf ;xefuLtf hgfPsf] .
         #*,)!^ ;fIf/tf :jod\;]js / $,)!# lg/LIfs sfo{/t .
!(=!# pRr lzIff k|bfg ug{] lgsfonfO{ :jfoQtf -a"Fbf g+= !&(_
        cfGtl/s 5nkmn cl3 al9 @$ j6f SofDk;n] ;Demf}tf u/L sfd cl3 a9fOPsf] .


                                            36
   !(=!$ /fdk'/df s[lif, jg tyf kz'lj1fg ljZjljBfno / dWoklZrdf~rndf k|f}Bf]lus ljZjljBfnosf]
        :yfkgf / ;'b'/ klZrdf~rndf d]l8sn sn]hsf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+=!*)_
             ljZjljBfnosf] P]gsf] d:of}bf tof/ ePsf] .
             /fdk'/df s[lif tyf jg / dWoklZrdf~rn ljZjljBfno :yfkgfsf nflu dlGqkl/ifb\af6 :jLs[lt
             k|fKt ePsf] .
   !(=!% cf+lus SofDk;sf] :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= !*!_
             * lhNnfsf] nflu sfo{of]hgf tof/ ug{] qmddf /x]sf] .
             jfFsL lhNnfsf] xsdf ;'emfj lbg Ps sfo{bnsf] u7g ePsf] .
   !(=!^ v'nf ljBfno / ljZjljBfnosf] cjwf/0ffsf] sfof{Gjog -a"Fbf g+= !*@_
             ljZjljBfno cg'bfg cfof]u;Fu 5nkmnsf] qmddf /x]sf] .

@) ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno
   @)=! k|zf;g k'g;{/rgf cfof]u u7g -a"Fbf g+= @$%_
            dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ldlt )^%.*.$ sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf cfof]usf]
            u7g ePsf] .
            cfof]usf] sfo{If]q tf]ls sfo{ljlw lgdf{0f ePsf] .
            cfof]usf] nflu c:yfoL b/jGbL :jLs[t ePsf] .
            tTsfn k|zf;g ;'wf/ ;DaGwL cfjZos sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
   @)=@ lghfdtL ;]jfaf6 k|jfx x'g] ;]jfsf] k|efjsfl/tf j[l4 ug{] sfo{ -a"Fbf g+=@$*_
            ;/sf/L lg0f{o k|lqmof ;/nLs/0f lgb{]lzsf, @)^% dlGqkl/ifb\n] :jLs[t u/L sfof{Gjogdf
            NofO;lsPsf] .
            ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnosf] a8fkq kl/dfh{g u/L Jojxfl/s jgfpg] sfo{ eO/x]sf] .
            ljleGg dGqfno, cfof]u, ;lrjfnodf cfrf/ ;+lxtfsf] 8«fˆ6 k7fOPsf]df /fo ;'emfj k|fKt
            eO/x]sf] .
            ;fj{hlgs ;]jfdf ;]jfu|flxsf] ;Gt'li6 ;DaGwL cjwf/0ffkq :jLs[t ePsf] .
            sf7df08f}+ lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf ;]jfu|fxL ;Gt'i6L ;e{]If0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
            kfl/jfl/s lgj[lQe/0f clwsf/kqnfO{ lhNnf sf]=n]=lg=sf=af6 ljt/0f ug{] sfo{ljlw @)^%.%.* df
            :jLs[t ePsf] .
   @)=# lghfdtL c:ktfn ;+rfng -a"Fbf g+= @$(_
            lghfdtL c:ktfn ljsf; ;ldlt u7g cfb]z, @)^$ hf/L ul/Psf] .
            sfo{sf/L lgb{]zs / ;+rfns ;ldltsf kbflwsf/Lx?sf] lgo'lQm ul/Psf] .
            c:ktfnsf] nflu cfjZos kg{] OSjLkd]G6 vl/b ug{ l;njGbL vf]Ng] sfo{ ;DkGg eO{ jf]nkq
            d"Nof+sg ;ldlt u7g u/L d"Nof+sg ug{] qmddf /x]sf] .
            ;]jf ;+rfngsf] cfjZos b/jGbL :jLs[t ePsf] .
            c:ktfnsf] cf]=lk=l8 / 8fOUgf]li6s ;]jf ;+rfng ug{ cfjZos kg{] $! sd{rf/L 5gf}6 eO{
            lj1fkg k|sflzt u/L sd{rf/L 5gf}6 ug{] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
            c:ktfnsf] nflu cf}iflw vl/bsf] nflu cfjZos k|lqmof k'/f ePsf] .
            c:ktfnsf] rf}dfl;s ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd tof/ u/L :jLs[ltsf] nflu /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]udf
            k7fOPsf] .
                                                37
@! ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/ dGqfno
   @!=! ;"rgfsf] xs ;DaGwL lgodfjnL -a"Fbf g+= !%$_
            dlGqkl/ifb\af6 ;"rgfsf] xs ;DaGwL lgodfjnL, @)^% ldlt @)^%.(.@! df :jLs[t ePsf] .
   @!=@ >dhLjL kqsf/ ;DaGwL lgodfjnL -a"Fbf g+= !%%_
            dlGqkl/ifb\af6 >dlhjL kqsf/ ;DaGwL lgodfjnL, @)^% ldlt @)^%.!).@ df :jLs[t ePsf] .
   @!=# ljleGg hfthfltsf efiff eflifsfdf ljleGg If]qaf6 ;dfj]zL k|sfzg -a"Fbf g+= !%&_
            ljleGg efiffdf uf]/vfkqdf k|sfzgsf] nflu 5'§} ljefu u7g ul/Psf] .
            ljleGg @^ efiffdf uf]/vfkqdf gofF g]kfn c+s k|sfzg e}/x]sf] .

@@ :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno
   @@=! :yfgLo lgsfo kl/rfng ug{ cGtl/d ;+oGq lgdf{0f tyf ;'qsf] cfwf/df uf=lj=; cg'bfg ljt/0f
        sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= @^_
            ;+ljwfg ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug{] @% bnsf] ;j{bnLo k/fdz{ j}7ssf] ;'emfj cg';f/ cGtl/d
            ;+oGq lgdf{0fsf] nflu sfo{bn u7g ug{ dlGqkl/ifb\df k|:tfj k]z ul/Psf] .
            cg'bfg ;+rfng sfo{ljlw, @)^% :jLs[lt eO{ sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] .
            cg'bfgdf ztk|ltzt j[l4 eO{ ;"qsf cfwf/df ljt/0f ePsf] .
   @@=@ ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] eQf ljt/0fdf kf/blz{tf -a"Fbf g++ $&_
            sfo{ljlw / dfkb08 :jLs[t ePsf] .
            kl/rokq ljt/0fsf nflu tYof+s ;+sng eO eQf ljt/0f k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
   @@=# cfGtl/s åGå jf hgo'4sf] qmddf Ifltu|:t u|fld0f tyf gu/If]qsf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] k'g lgdf{0f
        tyf k'g:yfkgf sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= %@_
            u|fld0f k'glg{df{0f tyf k'g:yfkgf cfof]hgfsf nflu !) ldlnog kf}08 cg'bfgsf] nflu j]nfot
            ;/sf/af6 Co-Financing ug{] ;DaGwL MOU df g]kfn ;/sf/ / DFID g]kfn;Fu x:tfIf/
            ePsf] .
   @@=$ hgkl/rfngdf cfwfl/t >dd"ns ljsf; sfo{qmd &% lhNnfdf nfu" ug]{ -a"Fbf g+= !#^_
            hg;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t >dd"ns ljsf; sfo{qmd ;+rfng sfo{ljlw dlGqkl/ifb\af6 ldlt
            @)^%.!).@ df kfl/t ePsf] .
   @@=% sfdsf] nflu vfBfGg sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !#&_
            u|fld0f ;8s % ls=ld= lgdf{0f ;DkGg .
            sfdbf/nfO{ $^(=!% d]=6g vfBfGg ljt/0f .
   @@=^ :yfgLo ;8s lgdf{0f tyf u|fld0f kx'Fr ;'wf/ sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !#*_
            RAID af6 $)=% ls=ld= ;8sdf Otta seal/sand seal ug{] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
            & ls=ld= df};dL ;8s lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] .
            emf]n'Ë] k'n $ j6f ;DkGg ePsf] .
            DRILP af6 ()=% lsnf]ld6/ gofF ;8s lgdf{0f tyf lhNnfdf ;8s lgdf{0fsf nflu af]nkq
            cfJxfg ul/Psf]df s]xL lhNnfdf 7]Ssf ;+emf}tf e} sfo{ ;+rfngdf /x]sf] .




                                               38
@@=& lhNnf oftfoft u'? of]hgf -a"Fbf g+= !$@_
            clVtof/L ;fy zt{x? tof/ kf/L k7fO;lsPsf] / ;8s clen]vLs/0fsf] sfo{ lhNnfaf6 bf];|f]
            rf}dfl;sdf ;DkGg ug{] sfo{ /x]sf] Pj+ ah]6 Joj:yf u/L k7fOPsf] .
@@=* vfg]kfgLsf] gf/f ufpF ufpFdf wf/f cleofgsf u|fld0f tyf zx/L If]qdf vfg]kfgL ;DaGwL sfo{qmd
      -a"Fbf g+= !($_
            lhNnfdf sfo{qmd sfo{of]hgf tof/ eO{ lgdf{0f r/0fdf /x]sf] .
            @) hgf vfg]kfgL ;xfos 6]lSgl;ogx?nfO{ Ifdtf clej[l4 tfnLd ;DkGg ePsf] .
            Consultant dfkm{t Approach Manage sf] Draft Report tof/ ePsf] .
            RRRSDP sf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t eO{ clVtof/L k7fOPsf] .
@@=( kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg -a"Fbf g+= !(*_
            kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkg d:of}bf P]g kl/dfh{g eO dGqfnodf k|fKt ePsf] .
            cf]v/kf}jf cfn]6f/df lgdf{0fflwg :oflg6/L Nof08 lkmN8 ;fO6sf] *%Ü lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg .
            sf7df08f}+ pkTosfsf] kmf]xf]/d}nf Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;fj{hlgs lghL ;fem]bf/Lsf] cjwf/0ff cGtu{t
            n}hfg cWoog e}/x]sf] .
            lj/f6gu/ pkdxfgu/kflnsf leq Nof08 lkmn ;fO6 sf] hUuf vl/bsf] nflu ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf
            k|sflzt ul/Psf] .
@@=!)æPs kl/jf/ Ps /f]huf/Æ sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= @!!_
            sfo{qmd ;+rfng e}/x]sf] .
            cfly{s jif{ )^$.^% sf] jflif{s ;dLIff ePsf] .
@@=!! ;–;fgf k"jf{wf/ ljsf;, sj'lnotL jg, hl8j'6L v]tL, s[lif tyf jfv|fkfng, n3'ljQ tyf
      ahf/Ls/0f sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= @@#_
            sfo{of]hgf ;DaGwL sfo{zfnf uf]li7 ;DkGg ePsf] .
            :ofpsf] rfgf jgfpg] @ j6f d]l;g ljt/0f ePsf] .
            sj'lnotL jg ;DaGwL cled'lvs/0f uf]li7 tyf ;]jf s]Gb| :t/Lo jflif{s k|ult ;dLIff uf]li7
            ;DkGg ePsf] .
            ;d"xsf @) hgf cWoIfx?sf] ;xeflutfdf ;d"x Joj:yfkg / g]t[Tj ljsf; tfnLd ;DkGg
            ePsf] .
@@=!@ cflbjf;L hghflt tyf lk5l8Psf] ju{sf] pTyfg / ;zlQms/0fsf nflu ljz]if sfo{qmd
      -a"Fbf g+= @@^_
            sfo{of]hgf d:of}bf tof/ eO{ clGtd ?k lbg] sfo{ ePsf] .
            &) hgfnfO hghflt efiff lzIfs tfnLd, !)) hgfnfO{ nf]s;]jf tof/L sIff ;+rfng, #)
            hgfnfO{ /f]huf/d"ns tfnLd ;DkGg ePsf] .
            pk]lIft, plTkl8t / blnt ju{ pTyfg ljsf; ;ldltaf6 tgx'F, df]/ª / sf7df08f}+sf] blnt
            jl:tdf lgz'Ns :jf:Yo lzlj/ ;+rfng u/L #%)) hgf nfeflGjt ePsf] .
            @^ j6f /]l8of] sfo{qmd ;+rfng ePsf] .
            %@ j6f ;fj{hlgs ljBfnox?sf] SjLh k|ltof]lutfdf pTs[i6 c+s Nofpg] 5fq5fqfnfO{ gub
            k'/:sf/ / ;Ddfg kq ;lxt k'/:s[t ul/Psf] .
            ;Kt/L, wgs'6f, pbok'/ / /fd]5fk lhNnfsf @)) hgf hghflt o'jfnfO{ Jofj;flos ;Lkd"ns
            tfnLd k|bfg ul/Psf] .

                                              39
            xfF8Lvf]nf gjnk/f;Ldf j7fsl/ofsf] nflu cltly u[x lgdf{0f e} ;d'bfonfO{ x:tfGt/0f
            ul/Psf] .
            s';'08f hfltnfO{ j;f]jf;sf] nflu Jof; gu/kflnsfdf cfwf /f]kgL hUuf vl/b ul/Psf] .

@# :jf:Yo tyf hg;FVof dGqfno
   @#=! lgz'Ns cf}iflw sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !*^_
             pk:jf:Yo rf}sL / :jf:Yo rf}sLaf6 @$,&#,%** hgfn] lgz'Ns ;]jf k|fKt u/]sf] .
   @#=@ lgz'Ns k|;"lt ;]jf -a"Fbf g+= !*&_
             k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] nflu gfdfjnL ;+sng sfo{ e}/x]sf] .
             lhNnf c:ktfndf lbOg] lgz'Ns k|;"lt ;]jfsf] ah]6 sfo{qmd / lgb{]lzsf l:js[t u/L
             k7fOPsf] .
             lhNnfsf sfo{qmd kmf]sn k;{gx?nfO{ cfdf ;'/Iff sfo{qmdsf] ;+lIfKt hfgsf/L u/fpg z'?
             ul/Psf] .
             cfdf ;'/Iff sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf] nflu &% j6} lhNnf / @) j6f c:ktfnnfO{ kq k7fOPsf] .
   @#=# d'6' /f]uL tyf d[uf}nfsf] 8fOnf]l;; lgz'Ns pkrf/ sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !*(_
              !% jif{ d'lgsf @(& hgf jfnjflnsf, &% jif{ dflysf $$ hgf h]i7 gful/snfO{ pkrf/
             ul/Psf] .
             &% jif{ gf3]sf !# hgf h]i7 gful/sx?sf] 8fOnf]l;; ul/Psf] .
   @#=$ pk:jf:Yo rf}sLsf] :t/f]Gglt -a"Fbf g+= !()_
             % ;o j6f pk:jf:Yo rf}sLnfO{ :jf:Yo rf}sLdf :t/f]Gglt u/L ;]jf k|jfx ug{ :jf:Yo ;]jf
             ljefusf dxflgb{]zssf] ;+of]hsTj O & M Survey 6f]nL u7g u/L Survey sfo{ k|f/De
             ePsf] .
   @#=% :6«]r/ / l/S;f PDj'n]G; ljt/0f sfo{qmd -a"Fbf g+= !(!_
             t/fOsf @) lhNnfdf ##) j6f l/S;f PDj'n]G; tyf lxdfnL kxf8L u/L %% lhNnfdf @ xhf/
             j6f :6«]r/ sfo{qmd l:js[t tyf lhNnfut ah]6 jfF8kmfF8 u/L k7fOPsf] .
             l/S;f PDj'n]G; / specification vl/b k|lqmof lhNnfdf k7fO{ cf]l/oG6];g ;d]t ug{ z'?
             ul/Psf] .
             lhNnfx?af6 l/S;f PDj'n]G; tyf :6«]r/ vl/bsf] k|lqmof e}/x]sf] .

@$ >d tyf oftfoft Joj:yf dGqfno
   @$=! /fli6«o >d cfof]u u7g/ /f]huf/ ;"rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf -a"Fbf g+= @)!_
             >d cfof]u u7g k|lqmofdf /x]sf] .
             !$ j6f /f]huf/ ;"rgf s]Gb|x?sf] sfo{qmd Pj+ ah]6 :jLs[t eO sfof{/De ePsf] .
   @$=@ dhb'/x?sf] Go"gtd Hofnfdf k'g/fjnf]sg -a"Fbf g+= @)&_
             s[lif >ldsx?sf] kfl/>lds / lrof jufgsf k|lti7fg jfx]s ;j} k|lti7fgdf sfd ug{] sfdbf/
             jf sd{rf/Lsf nflu Gog"gd kfl/>lds tyf dx+uL eQf tf]lsPsf] .
   @$=# /f]huf/Lsf nflu ;Lk ljsf; tfnLd -a"Fbf g+= @)(_
             ljleGg !% j6f ljifosf cfwf/e"t ^ dlxg] tfnLd @)^% kf}if ;Dddf @&)) hgfnfO{
             lbOPsf] .
                                              40
           cfjf;Lo dlxnf ;Lkd"ns tfnLd #% hgfnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] .
           cNksfnLg ! xKt] ;Lkd"ns tfnLd ^#&& hgfnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] .
           cNksfnLg j}b]lzs /f]huf/d"ns -$ xKt], ^ xKt]_ &$@ hgfnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] .
           ljz]if ;Lk ljsf; tfnLd @%! hgfnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] .
           pBdlzntf ljsf; ;DaGwL tfnLd *% hgfnfO{ k|bfg ul/Psf] .

@=#   pk;+xf/
      ah]6df pNn]lvt k|d'v gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjog l:ylt cWoog ubf{ s]xL dGqfnox?sf]
      jfx]s cGo dGqfnox?sf] k|ult dfkg ug{ ;lsg] vfnsf] glthfd"ns eGbf klg a9L k|lqmofTds /x]sf]
      b]lvG5 . k|fKt k|ult ljj/0fdf cem} klg sfo{ e}/x]sf], k|lqmofdf /x]sf], kqfrf/ ul/Psf], lgb{]zg
      lbOPsf] clVtof/L k7fOPsf] h:tf s'/fx?nfO{ g} k|ultsf] ?kdf lng] kl/kf6LnfO{ s;/L gtLhfpGd'v
      jgfpg] eGg] r'gf}tL b]lvPsf] 5 . clfy{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] cjlwdf sltko gofF gLlt tyf
      sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug'{kg{] ePsf] sf/0fn] k|lqmofut j}wtfsf] nflu sfo{ljlw tyf lgodfjnL jgfP/
      dfq ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf hfg' kg{] cj:yfn] klg ck]lIft ?kdf sfof{Gjog x'g g;s]sf] b]lvG5 .
      dWofjlw d"NofÍg k|ltj]bg k|sfzg x'Fbf;Dd yk sfd e};s]sf] x'g] s'/f kl5Nnf] ;dLIff a}7sdf
      ;DalGwt dGqfnosf ;lrjx?n] atfpg' ePsf] 5 . tfklg jfFsL cjlwdf k|lqmofdf eGbf klg gtLhfdf
      Wofg hfg ;s]df ah]6sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog eO{ ck]lIft pknJwL k|fKt x'g] cfzf ug{ ;lsG5 .




                                               41
                                          kl/R5]b – #
                        gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg sfo{qmdx?sf] k|ult

#=! k[i7e"ld
     rfn" cfly{s jif{b]lv ah]6sf gLlt of]hgf / sfo{qmdx?nfO{ PsLs[t ?kdf cleofgfTds 9+uaf6 ;+rfng
     ug]{ nIo /flvPsf] 5 . pRr:t/Lo of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjog / cg'udgsf] nflu 5'§} ;ldlt
     agfP/ sfo{qmdsf] k|ltkmnnfO{ ;dLIff ug]{ gLlt /x]sf] 5 . pRr:t/Lo ;+oGqaf6 cg'udg ug]{ kl/kf6Lsf]
     cefjdf ljutdf ;+rfng u/]sf cfof]hgfx?sf] h:t} wLdf ultdf k|ltkmn k|fKt x'g] s'/fnfO{ gsfg{
     ;lsb}g . To;sf/0f o; jif{b]lv ljleGg If]qsf s]Gb|Lo dxTjsf %( j6f cfof]hgfx? / sfo{qmdx? ægofF
     g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofgÆ cGtu{t ljz]if k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;+rfng ul/g] egL :ki6 ?kdf lsl6Psf 5g\ .
     o; efudf ægofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofgÆ cGtu{t ;+rfng x'g] cfof]hgfx?dWo] s]xL cfof]hgfx? ljutsf
     jif{x?df ;+rfngdf cfPsf cfof]hgfx?sf] lg/Gt/ sfo{qmdsf] ?kdf /xL ;+rfngdf cfPsf 5g\ eg] s]xL
     cfof]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx? laz'4 ?kdf gofF /x]sf 5g\ . ;du| cfof]hgfx?nfO{ eg] g]kfn ;/sf/n] clt
     pRr k|fyldstfdf /fvL ;+rfng ug]{ k|ltj4tf JoQm u/]sf] 5 eg] tL sfo{qmdx?sf] ;dLIff k|To]s $÷$
     dlxgfdf ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] cWoIftfdf u7g x'g] ljz]if ;ldltn] ug]{ u/L tf]lsPsf] 5 . ctM
     o; efudf /x]sf cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog cj:yfsf] ljZn]if0f ul/bf ljut jif{df ;+rfng ePsf
     cfof]hgfx? bf]xf]l/g ;d]t uPsf 5g\ . ;Dk"0f{ cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;dLIff ug]{ k|of]hgfy{ ;do
     cefjsf sf/0fn] ubf{ o; dGqfnon] tYofÍ ;+sng, ljZn]if0f h:tf sfo{x?nfO{ Secondary Data sf]
     ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf] 5 . ;DalGwt dGqfnox?af6 k|fKt ePsf k|ult ljj/0fx?nfO{ ;+sng u/L oyfy{k/s
     9+uaf6 cw{ jflif{s -dWofjlw_ k|ult ljj/0fsf] ?kdf k|:t't ul/Psf] 5 .
     ægofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofgÆ sfo{qmdnfO{ g]kfn ;/sf/n] tof/ kf/]sf] lq–jlif{o cGtl/d of]hgfn]
     c+lusf/ u/]sf] nIo, p2]Zo / /0fgLltnfO{ ;d]t k|d'v cfwf/ agfPsf] 5 . ;+j[4 cfly{s j[l4 b/, cfly{s
     ;fdflhs ?kfGt/0fnfO{ k|fylstfsf ;fy ;d]l6Psf] 5 . h;sf /0fgLltx?df cfly{s j[l4, /fxt
     k'glg{df{0f, k'g:yf{kgf, /f]huf/d"ns / ul/af]Gd'v sfo{qmd kl/rfng, ef}lts k'jf{wf/df nufgL j[l4 ug]{,
     ;dfj]zL / nlIft sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug]{ / ;'zf;g tyf ;]jf k|jfxdf k|efjsfl/tf a9fpg] /x]sf]5 .
     ægofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofgÆ cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx?sf nflu rfn" cfly{s jif{df ?=#) ca{ (@ s/f]8 $#
     nfv ^) xhf/ /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} ;f] cleofg cGtu{t ;+rflnt cfof]hgfx?nfO{ !$ j6f
     sfo{qmddf cfj4 agfO{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . h:t} M ægofF g]kfn :j:Yo g]kfnÆ sfo{qmd,
     æpTkfbgzLn /f]huf/, ;a}sf] df}lns clwsf/Æ sfo{qmd cflb .
     ægofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofgÆ cGtu{t ;+rfng x'g] cfof]hgfx? s]xL gofF :j?ksf ePsf sf/0fn] ubf{
     To;sf] ;+rfng ug{ sfo{ljlw lgb]{lzsf tyf dfkb08 tof/ kfg{ s]xL ;do vlr{g uPsf]n] sfof{Gjgdf
     Nofpg l9nf eP klg cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf cfzfltt nIo xfl;n x'g ;Sg] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
     ;du| cfof]hgfx?sf] k|ult ljj/0fsf] 9fFrfnfO{ Ps?ktf k|bfg u/L ljZn]if0f ug]{ p2]Zo /fvL ljj/0f dfu
     u/L ;DalGwt dGqfnox?nfO{ cg'/f]w ul/Psf]df km/s km/s 9+uaf6 ljj/0f k|fKt x'g cfp+bf Ps?ktf
     sfod ug{ ;lsPg . ;du| dGqfnox?af6 k|]lift ljj/0fx?nfO{ k[ys k[ys ?kdf ljZn]if0f u/L ;Dk|]if0f
     ul/Psf] 5 . rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df oL sfo{qmdsf k|ult ljj/0fx?nfO{ cfufdL jif{x?df
     yk kl/dfh{g ub{} nUg'kg{] b]lvPsf] 5 .


#=@ d'Vo d'Vo cfof]hgfx?sf] k|ult
     gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg;Fu ;DalGwt d'Vo d'Vo cfof]hgfx?sf] k|ult ljj/0f lgDgfg';f/ k|:t't
     ul/Psf] 5 M
                                                  42
                           != gofF g]kfnsf] cfwf/ M 7"nf ef}lts k"jf{wf/
-s|_ t/fO{ dw]z x'nfsL ;8s -$*–#÷$–@($_
     x'nfsL ;8s tyf k"j{ klZrd /fhdfu{af6 ef/tLo ;Ldf;Dd hf]l8g] sl/a !%)) ls=dL= ;8s ef/tLo
     ;/sf/sf] ;xof]udf ljleGg r/0fdf kfFr jif{leq ?=* ca{sf] nfutdf ;DkGg ug]{ sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 .
     rfn" cfly{s jif{df ?=&& s/f]8 %$ nfv &@ xhf/ ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/L k"j{b]lv klZrd;Dd k}mlnP/
     /x]sf &)) ls=dL= x'nfs|L ;8sx?sf] dd{t tyf ;+ef/ ug]{ / @@ j6f ;8s ^)) ls=dL=sf] :t/f]Gglt
     sfo{ h; cGtu{t lqe'jg /fhky–jL/u+h cd'7f 7f]/L, df]/Ë, ;'g;/L / ;Kt/L lhNnfsf la/f6gu/
     s]zlnof, b]jfgu+h, lj/f6rf]s–lwgf3f6, xg'dfgu/ nf]xhf/f dfx'nL ;8sx?sf] :t/f]Ggltsf] sfo{ k|f/De
     ug{] nIo /flvPsf] 5 .
     k|ulttkm{ x]bf{ xfn;Dddf k|yd r/0fdf k/]sf ^%) ls=dL= ;8sx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{sf] nflu ef/t
     ;/sf/;Fu Draft MOU df ;xdtL x'g] qmddf /x]sf] 5 . !^ j6f ;8ssf] IEE sfo{ e}/x]sf] 5 / cGo
     ;8ssf] ;"rgf pknAw x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . xfn;Dd MOU ;d]t ge};s]sf] o; cfof]hgfsf] MOU
     tTsfn} :jLs[t u/L af]nkq ;DaGwL sfd cl3 a9]sf] cj:yfdf lgwf{l/t nIo k"/f x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
-v_ k'iknfn nf]s dfu{ -dWo kxf8L nf]sdfu{_ -$*–#÷$–$)#_
     k"j{df kfFry/ lhNnfsf] RofËyfk', lrof eHofËb]lv ;'b"/ klZrd a}t8L lhNnfsf] em'nf3f6;Dd sl/a
     !&&$ ls=dL= ;8sdWo] !)*# ls=dL= ;8s ;DkGg eO{ oftfoft rfn" /x]sf] 5 .
     rfn" cfly{s jif{df o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=#% s/f]8 ljlgof]hg e} %) ls=dL= 6«ofs vf]Ng], @) ls=dL=
     :t/f]Gglt / dd{t ;+ef/ ug]{ / !)) ls=dL= ;8ssf] lj:t[t ;j]{If0f ug]{ d'Vo sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 . nlIft
     sfo{qmddWo] xfn;Dd b}n]v hfh/sf]6 ;8s v08sf] @ ls=dL= 6«ofs vf]lnPsf] / cGo ;8ssf] af]nkq
     cfAxfg ePsf]df ljjfbsf sf/0f af]nkqsf] Dofb yk e} lgdf{0f sfo{df cj/f]w pTkGg ePsf] cj:yf 5 .
     ;dod} lj:t[t ;j]{If0f e} 7]Ssfk§f x'g ;s]df nIo k"/f x'g] b]lvG5 . xfn;Ddsf] k|ult eg] pT;fxhgs
     g} 5 .
-u_ sf7df8f}+ t/fO{ kmf:6 6«ofs cfof]hgf -$*–#÷$–$)^_
     o; cfof]hgfsf]] nflu ?= !& s/f]8 !& nfv @$ xhf/ ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . xfn;Dd cfof]hgf
     sfof{no :yfkgf eO;s]sf] 5 . hUuf clwu|x0f ubf{ lbg'kg]{ d'cfJhfsf] nfuL lsQf Plsg ug]{ sfo{
     e}/x]sf] 5 . kmf:6 6«ofs lgdf{0fsf] nflu l/nfoG; OlG08of sDkgL / Nof08dfs{; jN8{jfO8 sf]l/of k"j{
     ;"rLs[t ePsf] 5 / Request for Proposal sf] Form Design x'Fb} u/]sf] 5 . rfn" jif{df nufgLstf{sf]
     ;l6{Ë lnli6Ë ug]{, EIA ug]{, hUUff clwu|x0f ug]{, d'cfAhf ljt/0f ug]{, ADB af6 RFP dfly 5nkmn
     ug]{, lghL nufgLstf{af6 k|:tfj k]z ug]{, cfof]hgf sfof{Gjog ;Demf}tf ug]{ sfo{of]hgf tof/ eO;s]sf]
     5 . jftfj/0fLo cWoogdf kmfu'g;Dddf ^ :yfgdf ;fj{hlgs ;'g'jfO{ ul/g]5 . ADB sf] k|fljlws
     cg'bfg ;xfotfaf6 hUuf clwu|x0f k'g:yf{kg sfo{sf] l/kf]6{ k|fKt eP kZrft hUuf clwu|x0f sfo{ z'?
     ul/g]5 .
-3_ pQ/ blIf0f nf]s dfu{ -s0ff{nL, sfnLu08sL / sf]zL_ -$*–#÷$–$!!_
     pQ/df rLg / blIf0fdf ef/t hf]8\g] # j6f ;8sx?| s0ff{nL, sfnLu08sL / sf]zL nf]sdfu{sf] lgdf{0f
     ug]{ nIo /x]sf] o; cfof]hgfsf] nflu rfn" cfly{s jif{df ?=!@ s/f]8 %) nfv ljlgof]hg ul/Psf]
     5.
     s0ff{nL nf]sdfu{ cGtu{t s0ff{nL s/L8f]/ ;8s lgdf{0f ug{sf] nflu sflnsf]6–h'Dnf–x'Dnf of]hgf
     sfof{no :yfkgf ePsf] 5 . 7]Ssfsf] nflu cfAxfg ePsf] 5 . cfufdL ^ dlxgfdf &)) dL= 6«ofs v'Ng]
     cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .



                                                 43
      sfnLu08sL nf]sdfu{ cGtu{t s'Zdf–kmn]jf;–;]tL–j]gL–lddL{ ;8s lgdf{0f ;e]{If0f e}/x]sf] 5 . ;dLIff
      cjlwdf 7]Ssf Joj:yfkg eO{ df]ljnfOh ePsf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdaf6 !) ls=dL= ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt x'g]
      / !% ls=dL= 6«ofs v'Ng] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .
      sf]zL nf]sdfu{ cGtu{t a;Gtk'/–vfFbjf/L–lsdfyf+sf ;8s lgdf{0f ;e]{If0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf]     -
      a]lnj[h lgdf{0f sl/j !,#)) dL6/_ 5 . ;fy} 7]Ssf Joj:yfkg sfo{ z'? e}/x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdaf6
      @%=% ls=dL= ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt @@ ls=dL= lj:t[t ;e]{If0f / #% ls=dL= dd{t tyf ;f]lnª sfo{ x'g]
      ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
-ª_   k"n lgdf{0f sfo{qmd -$*–$–^%)_
      rfn" cfly{s jif{df #) j6f k'nx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg e} !@% j6f k'nx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ rfn" /fvL
      lhNnf ;b/d'sfddf af6f] k'u]sf] t/ k'n gePsf sf/0f oftfoft ;+rfng x'g g;s]sf 7fpFx?df a]lna[h
      lgdf{0f u/L oftfoft ;+rfng u/fpg] sfdnfO{ k|fyldstf lbOPsf] o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=$) s/f]8
      /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 .
      j]lnlj|h v/Lbtkm{ 5'§} ah]6 Joj:yf gePaf6 ;f] sfo{qmd z'? ug{ g;lsPsf] . cf/=l;=;L= / l:6n
      k'nx?sf] lgdf{0f sfo{ rfn" /x]sf] 5 . rfn" cf=j=df % j6f k'nsf] lgdf{0f ;DkGg x'g] / $( j6f k'nsf]
      lgdf{0f rfn" /xg]5 .


                         @= ælgd{n hn g]kfnsf] jnÆ M hn;|f]t ljsf; sfo{qmd
-s_ l;+rfO{ ;+efJotf cWoog -df8L bfª l;+rfO{ of]hgf_ -$&–#÷$–#!(_
      l;+rfO{ cfof]hgfx?sf] ;+efJotf cWoog @)^%÷^^ df ;DkGg ug]{ nIo /fvL cfly{s jif{ @)%(÷^) b]lv
      ?=* s/f]8 &! nfv $) xhf/sf] s'n nfut /x]sf] o; sfo{qmddf rfn" cfly{s jif{ bfËsf] df8L l;+rfO{
      of]hgfsf] ;+efJotf cWoog ;d]tsf] nflu ?=!@ s/f]8 %% nfv @$ xhf/ ah]6 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 .
      xfn;Dd ;fO6 lg/LIf0f sfo{ ;DkGg e} k"j{ ;+efJotf cWoog sfo{sf] TOR tof/ ePsf] . Water
      Assessment sf] nflu k/fdz{bft[ lgo'Qm ug]{ tof/L;Dd ePsf] . cfof]hgfsf] nflu kfgLsf] pknAwtfdf
      sd x'g] / k|fljlws ?kn] ;d]t hl6n b]lvPsf]n] ;do / nfut a9\g] ;+efjgf /x]sf]
      5.
-v_ e"ldut :ofnf] 6\o"jj]n l;+rfO{ cfof]hgf -$&–#÷$–#^@_
      ;tx l;+rfO{sf] ;+efjgf gePsf 7fpFdf e"ldut :ofnf] 6\o"jj]nsf] dfWodaf6 l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf pknAw
      u/fpg] p2]Zo cg'?k @)%(÷^) b]lv o; cfof]hgfsf] z'?jft ePsf] xf] . rfn" cfly{s jif{df ?=#%
      s/f]8 !# nfv !^ xhf/ ljlgof]hg e} ^^)) j6f 6\o"jj]n lgdf{0f u/L yk !^%))) x]S6/ hldgdf
      l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] nIo o; sfo{qmdsf] /x]sf] 5 . nlIft sfo{qmddWo] ;dLIff cjlw;Dd
      #@% j6f :ofnf] 6\o"jj]n Sni6/x?sf] of]hgf :jLs[t ePsf] 5 . ^ j6f Sni6/sf] 7]Ssf Joj:yf / !)
      j6f Sni6/x?df :ofnf] 6\o"jj]n lgdf{0f ;DkGg ePsf 5g\ . dfu cg';f/ ljlgof]lht ah]6 sd ePsf
      sf/0f 6\o"jj]n 5gf}6df ;d:of b]lvPsf]n] yk ah]6 dfu eO/x]sf] 5 .
-u_ e"ldut l8k 6\o"jj]n l;+rfO cfof]hgf -$&–#÷$–#^@_
      t/fO{ lhNnfdf l8k af]l/Ë, u/L l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg] o; cfof]hgfsf] p2]Zo /x]sf] 5 . rfn"
      cfly{s jif{sf] nflu ?= ( s/f]8 $^ nfv &% xhf/ /sd ljlgof]hg e} #) j6f 8Lk 6\o"jj]n af]l/Ë ug]{
      / % j6fsf] ;Dk"0f{ lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg u/L @)) x]S6/ hldgdf yk l;+rfO{ pknAw u/fpg] nIo /fv]sf]
      5 . o; sfo{qmdaf6 s[ifsnfO{ cWoog e|d0f / tfnLd lbg] sfo{qmd ;d]t /x]sf] 5 . nlIft sfo{qmddWo]
      ;dLIff cjlwdf ! j6f l8k 6\o"jj]nsf] cWoog sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . ;fy} !* j6f l8k 6\o"j]nx?sf]
      of]hgf :jLs[t eO{ lgdf{0f rfn" eO{ /x]sf] 5 . xfn;Dd rfn" tkm{ @@ nfv / k"FhLut tkm{ ?=! s/f]8 @)

                                                  44
      nfv ;d]t u/L s"n ?= ! s/f]8 $@ nfv vr{ ePsf] b]lvG5 . cfof]hgfsf] nflu ljlgof]lht ePsf] ah]6
      kof{Kt gePsf]n] 6\o"jj]n 5gf}6df ;d:of b]vf k/]sf] 5 .
-3_ b/f}bL kfn'ª6f/ l;+rfO{ -gbL lgoGq0f cfof]hgf $&–#÷$–$#!_
      uf]/vf lhNnfsf] b/f}bL gbL lgoGq0f kfn'Ë6f/÷ufOv'/6f/df l;+rfO{ ;'ljwf k'¥ofpg] nIo /x]sf] o;
      cfof]hgfsf] s"n nfut ?=!) s/f]8 %) nfv /x]sf] 5 eg] rfn" jif{sf] nflu ?= @ s/f]8 /sd
      ljlgof]hg u/L cfof]hgfsf] ;+efJotf cWoog sfo{ ;DkGg u/L lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ug]{ nIo /x]sf] 5 .
      xfn;Dd If]qLo lgb{]zssf] 6f]nLaf6 of]hgf :ynsf] lgl/If0f u/L Concept Paper tof/ kfl/ ;lsPsf]
      5 . k/fdz{ bftf lgo'lQmsf] nflu @ j6f TOR tof/L sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf 5g\ .
-ª_   OGb|fjtL ju/ sf]l/8f]/ cfof]hgf -$&–#÷$–$#$_
      o; cfof]hgfnfO{ gofF cfof]hgfsf] ?kdf /flvPsf] 5 . k|:tfljt cfof]hgfsf] cWoog sfo{ ;DkGg u/L
      lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ug]{ nIo /fvL ?=! s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . o; cfof]hgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf
      vfsf tof/ ug{g} :yfgLo :t/df ;d:of b]lvPsf] ePtfklg ;DalGwt kbflwsf/Lx?af6 ;fO6 lgl/If0f
      u/L ;/f]sf/jfnfx?;Fu 5nkmn u/L Concept paper tof/ kfl/Psf] 5 . k/fdz{bftf lgo'lQmsf] nflu
      TOR tof/L sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . sfo{qmd ;+rfngfy{ :yfgLo pkef]Qmf tyf ljleGg /fhgLlts
      kf6L{;Fu 5nkmn k|lqmof cufl8 a9L/x]s]f 5 .
-r_ gbL 8fOe;{g of]hgf -e]l/–jjO{–;'gsf]zL–sdnfdfO{_ -(%–$–(&&_
      gbL 8fOe;{g cfof]hgfsf] nflu ?= !) s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . e]/L aaO{ 8fOe;{g l;+rfO{
      cfof]hgfsf] sfo{qmd :jLs[lt tyf ah]6 lgsf;fsf] nflu sfo{jfxL e} /x]sf] 5 . ;fy} o; l;+rfO
      cfof]hgfsf] lj:t[t ;e{]If0f tyf l8hfOg ug{] sfo{, Topographical Survey, Geological Mapping /
      Survey / Hydrological Survey sfo{x?sf] nflu PQ / TOR tof/ ug{] ;DaGwdf k|f/lDes sfo{
      ;DkGg ePsf] 5 .
-5_ ;fd'bflos u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0f cfof]hgf, gofF g]kfn– pHofnf] g]kfn -u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0f sfo{qmd_     -
    *&–$–&@)_
      o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ^) s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . !! lhNnfsf !* j6f ;fd'bflos
      ;+:yfx?sf] If]qdf !%) ls=ld Pr6L nfOg, #^% ls=ld= Pn6L nfOg lgdf{0f tyf ^^ j6f ljt/0f
      6«fG;kmd{/ h8fg ug{ cfXjfg ul/Psf] af]nkqx?sf] cWoog, d"Nof+sg sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . u|fld0f
      ljB'tLs/0f tyf ljt/0f k|0ffnL ;~rfng ;DaGwL k|fKt $%( j6f k|:tfjx?dWo] @$^ j6f ;+:yfx?sf]
      k|:tfj :jLs[t ePsf] / @)% j6f ;+:yfx?;Fu ;Demf}tf ePsf] 5 . *% j6f ;+:yfnfO{ ljB't ljt/0f
      k|0ffnL x:tfGt/0f ul/Psf] 5 . sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf xfn GITA WINROCK ;Fu ;dGjo u/L tfnLd
      ;+rfng ul/Psf] 5 . o; of]hgf ;+rfngsf] nlu ?= @ c/a *% s/f]8 &( nfv @$ xhf/ /sd nfUg]
      cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 eg] xfn;Dd pQm sfo{qmdsf] nlu ?=@) s/f]8 && nfv ^) xhf/ /sd vr{
      eO;s]sf] 5 .
-h_ cGo tyf cw'/f] u|fdL0f ljB'tLs/0f cfof]hgf -;fna;fnL_, gofF g]kfn–pHofnf] g]kfn -u|fld0f ljB'tLs/0f
    sfo{qmd_ -*&–$–&@)_
      gofF g]kfn–pHofnf] sfo{qmd cGtu{t cGo sfo{qmd tyf cw'/f] u|fld0f ljB'lts/0f cfof]hgf           -
      ;fnj;fnL_ cGtu{t rfn" jif{ ?=&) s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . gofF g]kfn pHofnf] g]kfn sfo{qmd
      cGtu{tg} of] sfo{qmd /x]sf]n] d"Vo sfo{qmddf hDdf ?=! c/a #) s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd
      pQm sfo{qmdaf6 HT tyf LT nfOg lgdf{0f / ljt/0f 6«fG;kmd{/ h8fg ug{sf nflu cfJxfg ul/Psf]
      jf]nkq dWo] s]xLsf] d"Nof+sg eO{ ;Demf}tf ;d]t ;DkGg eO;s]sf] / s]xL jfFsL /x]sf]    -!) k|ltzt
      hlt_ 5 . xfn;Dd pQm sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=@ s/f]8 @) nfv &@ xhf/ /sd vr{ eO;s]sf] b]lvG5 .


                                                 45
-em_ dflyNnf] tfdfsf]zL hnljB't cfof]hgf -#)( d]=jf=_           -*&–$–&&*_
     o; cfof]hgf cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ b]lv z'? eO{ @)^(÷&) df ;DkGg ug]{ nIo /flvPsf] 5 . o;
     cfof]hgfsf] s"n nfut ?=@* ca{ #^ s/f]8 @! nfv /xg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . o;af6 #)( d]=jf6=
     ljB't pTkfbg ug]{ nIo /fv]sf] 5 . rfn" jif{df cfof]hgf k|j]z dfu{sf] 6«ofs lgdf{0f sfo{ z'? ul/g] 5 .
     rl/sf]6b]lv k|j]z dfu{;Dd k'Ug] dfu{x?sf] ;'b[9Ls/0f sfo{ z'? ul/g] 5 . af6f]df kg]{ ^ j6f k'nx?sf]
     l8hfOg k"/f u/L lgdf{0f z'? ul/g]5 / l;len lgdf{0f sfo{sf] 7]Ssfk§f ;DkGg ul/g] nIo /x]sf] 5 .
     rfn' cfly{s jif{df o; cfof]hgfsf] nflu ?=% s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd rl/sf]6–
     nfdfau/ @* ls=ld= k|j]zdfu{ lgdf{0f sfo{ %@ k|ltzt ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . d'Vo l;len lgdf{0f sfo{sf]
     k"j{of]Uotf lgwf{/0f ePsf] 5 . lj:t[t ;DefJotf cWoog / Ol~hlgol/ª l8hfOgsf] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf]
     5 . k|j]zdfu{ lgdf{0f sfo{df s/La ;ft ;o dhb'/n] /f]huf/L kfpg] 5g\ . d'Vo l;len lgdf{0f sfo{ z'?
     ePkl5 sl/a b'O xhf/ hgfn] /f]huf/L kfpg] cj:yf b]lvG5 . of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf qmddf k|j]zdfu{
     lgdf{0f tyf Kofs]h g+=! sf] sfo{ l9nf] eO/x]sf]n] k'nx? lgdf{0f sfo{sf nflu lgdf{0f ;fdu|L 9'jfgL ug{
     ;d]t ;d:of eO/x]sf] 5 .


                                 #= ko{6g k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd
-s_ ko{6g k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd -$(–$–@()_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] nflu ?=@& s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . o; sfo{qmddf
     >LcGt', xn];L, u9LdfO{–l;d|f}gu9, dgf:n' If]q dgsfdgf–uf]/vgfy, :ju{åf/L, vKt8, /fdf/f]zg If]qdf
     ko{6g k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ug{ ?= & s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf]df sfo{qmd :jLs[t eO{ /sd lgsf;f ePsf] 5 .
     >LcGt' tyf Onfd If]qsf] ko{6sLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] nflu ?=%) nfv, uf]/vf–dgf]sfdgf uf]/vgfy
     kbofqf dfu{ tyf k"jf{wf/ ljsf; ug{] sfo{sf] nflu ?=() nfv , jf/f lhNnfsf] l;d|f}gu9 tyf u9LdfO{
     ko{6sLo k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] nflu () nfv, Ko"7fg lhNnfsf] :ju{åf/L nufotsf ko{6sLo :ynx?sf]
     ljsf;sf] nflu ?=#% nfv, vf]6fª xn];L ko{6sLo ljsf;sf] nflu ?=!% nfv, /f]Nkf lhNnfsf] hnhnf
     If]qdf ko{6g k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf] nflu ?=%) nfv / c5fdsf] /fd/f];g If]q ljsf;sf] nflu ?=!% nfv
     ljlgof]hg u/L ;j} sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{sf] nflu clVtof/L k7fOPsf] 5 . ;fy} ndh'ª dgf:n' cGgk"0f{
     6«]lsË 6«]nsf] nflu ?=@% nfv /sd ljlgof]hg u/]sf]df tf/fufp ljsf; ;ldltnfO{ /sd lgsf;f k7fO{
     ;lsPsf] 5 .
-v_ j[xb k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd If]qLo÷cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn lgdf{0f -(%–$–(&)_
     Joj:yflksf ejg lgdf{0f sfo{qmd df3 dlxgfdf :jLs[t ePsf] 5 . ejgsf] Conceptual Design ug]{,
     Detail Architectural design ug]{, lgdf{0f:ynsf] ;e]{ / df6f] k/LIf0f ug]{, EIA cWoog ug]{, ;fwg
     pks/0f / hzlQmsf] Joj:yf ug]{, ejg lgdf{0f:yndf /x]sf lgsfo -;]gf_, :yfgfGt/0f ug]{, ejg
     lgdf{0f:yndf ;8s 9nsf] sfo{x? ;d]t oxL kmfu'gb]lv cfufdL cfiff9 d;fGt;Dd ;DkGg ug]{ sfo{qmd
     /x]sf] 5 .
     d]rL–dxfsfnL /]Nj] nfOgsf] ;DefJotf cWoogsf] sfo{ of]hgf cGtu{t ;DefJotf cWoog ug{sf] nflu
     cfzo kq dfu ug]{, TOR, RFP tof/ ug]{ sfo{ e}/x]sf] 5 . EOI sf] ;"rgf k|sfzg ePsf] 5 .
     k/fdz{bftfsf] short listing ug]{ sfo{ oxL r}qleq ;DkGg x'g]5 / ;DefJotf cWoog sfo{sf]
     k/fdz{bftf lgo'lQm u/L ;j]{If0f sfo{ cfufdL cfiff9;Dddf x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
     lghu9df cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn, kf]v/f / e}/xjfdf If]qLo ljdfg:yn lgdf{0f of]hgfsf] nflu ?=@)
     s/f]8 / Nxf;f–sf7df08f}+–kf]v/f–n'lDjlg–lrtjg–sf7df08f}+ ljB'lQo /]ndfu{ ;DefJotf cWoogsf] nflu
     ?= ! s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . jf/fsf] lghu9df bf];|f] cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yn lgdf{0fsf] nflu
     t];|f] rf}dfl;s ;Dddf cGt/f{li6«o k/fdz{bfqL lgo'lQm ug{] nIo /flvPsf] 5 eg] xfn;Dddf BOOT
     k|0ffnL cGtu{t lgdf{0f sfo{ u/fpg] l;nl;nfdf World Wide Company (Korean) ;Fu jftf{ ug{ Ps
                                                  46
     jftf{ sldl6 u7g ePsf] 5 . o; cfof]hgfsf] sfof{Gjogdf @ j6f If]qLo ljdfg:ynx?sf] lgdf{0fsf] nflu
     ;fj{hlgs–gLlh ;fem]bf/L cjwf/0ff cGtu{t 5'§\ofOPsf] ah]6 cg';f/ ?=!$ s/f]8sf] sfo{qmd g]kfn
     gful/s p88\og k|flws/0faf6 k]z eO /sd lgsf;fsf] nflu cy{ dGqfnodf k7fpg] qmddf /x]sf] 5 .
     bf];|f] cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf] xsdf BOOT k|0ffnLdf hfg] ePsf]n] yk sfo{qmd k]z x'g cfPsf] 5}g .
     uf}tdj'4 ljdfg:yn e}/xjfsf] nflu ?= %) nfv ljlgof]hg ePsf]df ;f;]s cfof]hgf cGtu{t ug{] u/L
     k|lqmof z'? ePsf] 5 . h; cg';f/ hUuf k|fKt ug{] sfo{ eO{ d'cfJhf ljt/0f ug{ cfjZos tof/L e}/x]s]f
     5 eg] l5g]8fF8f ljdfg:yn kf]v/fsf] nflu ?=%) nfv ljlgof]hg ePsf]df ;dLIff cjlwdf k/fdz{bfqL
     lgo'lQm ug{ cfjZos TOR tof/ ug{] sfo{ clGtd r/0fdf k'u]sf] 5 .


                                 $= of]hgfj4 zx/L ljsf; sfo{qmd
-s_ gd"gf PsLs[t jl:t ljsf; sfo{qmd -t/fO{–dw]z–kxf8–lxdfn_ -$*–#÷$–&&)_
     lxdfn kxf8 / t/fO{sf !@ j6f ufp ljsf; ;ldltdf of] sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug]{ nIo tf]lsPsf] / ;f]sf]
     nflu !$ s/f]8 %) nfv /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . gd"gf uf=lj=;=sf] of]hgf cg';f/ k"jf{wf/ ljsf;
     sfo{qmd cGtu{t ;Nofgsf] yf/df/], afUn'ªsf] cu{nsf] pkef]Qmf ;ldlt;+u ;+emf}tf ug]{ sfo{ ;DkGg
     ePsf] 5 . To:t} gd"gf uf=lj=;=sf] of]hgf cg';f/ k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd cGtu{t slknj:t'sf]
     lqltlvsf] nflu ;"rgf k|sfzg ePsf] 5 . tfKn]h'ªsf] v]lhlgd, ;nf{xLsf] xhfl/of, c5fdsf] /fdf/f];g /
     88]nw'/fsf] hf]ua'9f uf=lj=;=, ef]hk'/sf] jf]of uf=lj=;=sf] of]hgf sfof{Gjog ug{ v/Lb k|lqmof z'?
     ePsf] 5 . ;f]n'v'Dj'sf] uf]nL, sfe|]sf] cg]sf]6, uf]/vfsf] u'Dbf / lrtjgsf] sNof0fk'/ uf=lj=;=df ljleGg
     sf/0fn] ubf{ of]hgf 5gf}6 x'g g;s]sf] . 8f]6Lsf] sn]gf, gjnk/f;Lsf] c§x/L, /f}tx6sf] a/]8jf,
     ;'g;/Lsf] htk'/ ufpFsf] k|ltj]bg sfof{Gjog ug{ v/Lb k|lqmof z'? ePsf] 5 .
     -v_ ;3g zx/L ljsf; sfo{qmd -7"nf] zx/L sf]/L8f]/_ -$*–#÷$–&^#_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu rfn' cfly{s jif{df !% s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . 7"nf zx/L sf]l/8f]/
     k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd cGtu{t cQl/of–wgu9L sf]l/8f]/, sfe|]knf~rf]ssf] kfFrvfn–w'lnv]n–ag]kf–
     kgf}lt -sfe|] pkTosf_, ;'g;/Lsf] Og?jf–b'xjL–O6x/L–w/fg sf]l/8f]/, ;'v]{tsf] jL/]Gb|gu/–l5Gr'–bz/yk'/
     -;'v]{t pkTosf_ sf] nut Oli6d]6 tof/ ug]{ sfo{ eO/x]sf], sf:sLsf] kf]v/f–n]vgfy–b'n]uf}+8f -kf]v/f
     pkTosf_sf] @)^%÷!)÷@( df ;"rgf k|sfzg ePsf] / $ sf]l/8f]/sf] u'?of]hgf th'{df sfo{sf] nflu
     )^%÷!)÷@! df ;"rgf k|sfzg ePsf] 5 .


                                     %= cf}Bf]lus ljsf; sfo{qmd
-s_ cf}Bf]lus k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd -ljz]if cfly{s If]q emfkf, wg'iff, aL/u~h, kfFrvfn, h'Dnf / wgu9L_
    -#*–$–^)%_
     ljz]if cfly{s If]q cfo]hgf cGtu{t ?=$) s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . h'Dnf / wg'iffdf k"j{
     ;DefJotf cWoogsf] nflu ?=@) nfv nfUg] cg'dfg ul/Psf]df k/fdz{bftf lgo'lQmsf] sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf]
     5 . kfFrvfn, emfkf / wgu9Ldf lj:t[t ;+efJotf cWoog ug{ ?=#) nfv ljlgof]hg ePsf]df
     k/fdz{bftf lgo'lQm ePsf] 5 . To:t} l;d/fdf SEZ, EIA cWoogsf] nflu k/fdz{bftf lgo'lQm ePsf]
     5 . kfFrvfn, emfkf / wgu9Ldf SEZ hUuf clwu|x0f ug{] nIo /x]sf]df hUuf PsLs/0f ug]{ sfo{ z'?
     eO/x]sf] 5 . e}/xjfdf eg] EPZ sfo{sf] nflu hUuf PsLs/0f ug]{ sfo{ e}/x]sf] 5 . k|zf;lgs ejg
     lgdf{0fsf] nflu 9n, k|zf]wg k|0ffnL, ljB'tnfOg lgdf{0f, 6]lnkmf]g nfOg, ;8s sfnf]kq] ug{ / afx\o
     ;8s a]; sfo{sf] nflu 7]Ssfk§fsf] sfo{ e}/x]sf] 5 . o; cfof]hgf ;DkGg ePkl5 SEZ lgdf{0f, l;d]06
     sf/vfgsf] nflu pBf]u:yn / vfgL If]q;Dd hf]8\g] ;8ssf] lgdf{0f sfo{ tyf ljB't k|zf/0f nfO{g h8fg
     sfo{ ;DkGg x'g] 5 .

                                                   47
-v_ gjLs/0ffLo phf{ ljsf; sfo{qmd -h}ljs OGwg ljsf; ;d]t_ -^!–#÷$–@^)_
      o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= % s/f]8 /sd /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . xfn ;Dd o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t ?s'd
      pHofnf] sfo{qmdtkm{ !@^ j6f hnljB'tsf] ;e{]If0fsf] nflu dfu k|fKt ePsf] 5 . n3' hnljB'tsf]
      lj:t[t ;DefJotf cWoog sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . d+l;/ dlxgf ;Dddf ;f}o{ phf{df nufgL ug{] !) j6f
      ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ tfnLd lbOPsf] / $* j6f kl/of]hgfsf] ;e{]If0faf6 sl/j !$%) ls=jf= ljB't
      pTkfbg ug{ ;lsg] 5 . ;fy} (& j6f kl/of]hgfsf] ;e{]If0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . o;af6 @%%) ls=jf=
      ljB't pTkfbg u/L @) xhf/ 3/w'/Ldf ;]jf lbg ;lsg] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
      h}ljs OGwg sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= % s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . o;dWo] ;lhjg v]tLsf] nflu Ifdtf
      clej[l4 tyf tfnLd ug{ ?= ^) nfv, ;lhjg v]tLsf] nflu cfw'lgs g;{/Lsf] lgdf{0f ug{ ?= %) nfv,
      k|j4{g ;DaGwL ;fdfu|Lx? k|sflzt u/L ljt/0f ug{ ?= # s/f]8 %) nfv, h}ljs OGwgsf] k|of]u u/L
      Pilot Project sf] ;+rfng ug{ ?= $) nfv, u'0f:t/ lgwf{/0f k|of]uzfnfsf] :yfkgf ug{ ?= #) nfv
      ah]6 ljlgof]hg eO{ TOR tof/L e}/x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdsf] cWoog / cjnf]sg e|d0f ug{
      dsjfgk'/sf] j}slNks phf{ k|zf]wg s]Gb| / jf=lj=k|=lj=d=sf] ;+o'Qm 6f]nLåf/f cjnf]sg e|d0f eO{ TOR
      tof/ eO/x]sf] 5 . ;fy} o; jif{ h}ljs OGwgsf] k|j4{g ;DjGwL /0fgLlt tof/ kfg{ ?=!) nfv ljlgof]hg
      ul/Psf]df /0fgLlt tof/Lsf] nflu d:of}bf ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5 . h}jLs OGwg k|zf]wg u[x / kDksf]
      :yfkgf ug{ ?= @ s/f]8 @% nfv ljlgof]hg ul/Psf]df k|ult k|fKt x'g ;s]sf] 5}g .
-u_ cf}Bf]lus k"jf{wf/ ljsf; sfo{qmd -l;d]G6 pBf]u–;'v{]t, bfª, x]6f}8f, pbok'/_ -#*–$–^)%_
      o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=@) s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf]df sfo{qmdx? :jLs[t u/L ;j{]If0f, 7]Ssfk§f
      nufot sfo{ cufl8 a9fpg k"j{ tof/L e}/x]sf] 5 .
      l;d]G6 pBf]usf] vfgL:yn ;8s lgdf{0f cGtu{t
      bfª
      o; lhNnfdf 6«fs lgdf{0f ^ ls=ld=, dN6L;]n sNe6{ ^ ls=ld=, u|fe]n ( ls=dL=, kSsL gfnL #=%
      ls=dL=,k'n lgdf{0f )=@% ls=dL= sfo{ ;DkGg ug{ ?=% s/f]8 *% nfv !% xhf/ s"n nfut nfUg] cg'dfg
      ul/Psf]df ;j]{If0f, 7]Ssfk§f nufot sfo{ cufl8 a9fpg k"j{ tof/L eO /x]sf] 5 .
      pbok'/M
      9'+uf df6f]sf] sfo{ & ls=ld= ;DkGg ug{ ?= ^ s/f]8 nfUg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .
      x]6f}8f
      9'Ëf df6f]sf] sfo{ !*ls=ld=, u|fe]n sfo{ *=# ls=dL=, Xo'd kfOk tyf ;Nofa sNe6{ @% j6f, k'n ;e]{
      7]Ssfk§f ! yfg, kSsL gfnL (%) ld6/ lgdf{0f ug{] nIo /x]sf] 5 . of] sfo{qmdx? cfly{s jif{ )^%.^^
      df k|f/De eO{ cfly{s jif{ )^&.^* df ;DkGg x'g] nIo /flvPsf] 5 .
-3_ hg;xeflutfdf cfwfl/t >d d"ns ljsf; sfo{qmd -(%–$–(*)_M
      o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ! ca{ &% s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf]df ?= @@ s/f]8 DRILP cGtu{t
      ;+rflnt ;8s lgdf{0fsf nflu yk /sd lbOPsf] 5 eg] lgjf{rg If]q ljsf; sfo{qmd cGtu{t k|lt ;f+;b
      !) nfvsf b/n] ?=## s/f]8 !) nfv lgsf;f uO;s]sf] 5 . #^ lhNnfsf s]lGb|o / If]qLo:t/sf
      sfo{qmdsf nflu ?=%% s/f]8 %) nfv k7fOPsf] 5 .
-ª_   s[lif / jghGo pBf]u k|j4{g sfo{qmd -hl8a'6L ljsf; sfo{qmd–s0ff{nLdf hl8a'6L k|zf]wg ;d]t_       -
      %(–#÷$–@#)_
      o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t hl8a'6L lj?jf $,!#,))) pTkfbg ug]{, tLg k|hfltdf cg';Gwfg sfo{ ug]{,
      hl8a'6L v]tL ;DaGwL @^) hgfnfO{ tfnLd lbg] h:tf sfo{qmdx? /x]sf 5g\ . rfn" jif{df pQm
      sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ! s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf lgDgfg';f/ pknlAw ePsf] b]lvG5 .
                                                  48
     -s_ jg ljefu
          != !! j6f g;{/L dd{t ;DkGg .
          @= pTkfbg ul/g] hl8a'6L lj?jfsf] ;+Vof / k|hflt Plsg ul/Psf] .
          #= @ j6f hl8a'6L v]tL tyf k|j4{g cGt/lqmof uf]li7 ;DkGg .
          $= hl8a'6L ;+sng tyf e08f/0f tfnLdsf] ;xefuL 5gf}6 ePsf] .
     -v_ /fli6«o lgs'~h tyf jGohGt' ;+/If0f ljefu
          != hl8a'6L / jx'p2]ZoLo lj?jf pTkfbgsf] nflu g;{/L ;+rfngdf cfPsf] .
          @= ! j6f hl8a'6L Knfg ;+rfng ePsf] .
          #= hl8a'6L ;+sng / jx'p2]ZoLo lj?jf v]tL ug{ ;Sg] %) hgf JolQmnfO{ tfnLd k|bfg ul/Psf] .
          $= @% hgfn] 8fn]r's ;+sng u/L h'; agfpg ;Sg] tfnLd k|bfg u/]sf] .
     -u_ jg:klt ljefu
          != Guideline on Good Agriculture and Collection Practices of Medicinal Plants
             k|sfzg ug{sf] nflu lj1x?;Fu cfGtl/s 5nkmn u/L 8«fˆ6 tof/ ePsf] .
          @= /fli6«o k|fyldstf k|fKt $ hl8a'6Lx?, -;tfj/L, lr/fOtf], l6d'/ / u'hf]{_ dWo] ;tfj/L /
             lr/fOTf]sf] Quality standard tof/ ug{ Nofa 8«fˆ6 8f6f tof/ ul/Psf] .
          #= hl8a'6Lx?sf Cultivation Practices k'l:tsf tof/ ug{sf nflu lkknf / l6d'/sf] kf08'lnkL
             tof/ ePsf] .
          $= hl8a'6L pknAwtf tyf ahf/ Joj:yfkg ;xsfo{ ug]{ ;DaGwdf cfo"j]{lbs cf}ifwL pTkfbs
             ;+3 tyf g]kfn hl8a'6L pTkfbg ;+3;Fu cGt/lqmof uf]li7 ;DkGg .
          %= cfo cfh{gsf nflu ;d'bfodf hl8a'6L v]tL ug{ ;Nofgdf ;'uGwjfnsf] g;{/L lgdf{0f e}
             -$ xhf/ lj?jf pTkfbg_ / afFs]df @) xhf/ c:juGwf pTkfbg ePsf] .
          ^= l6:o"sNr/af6 pTkflbt lj?jf c:juGwf, ;'uGwjfn cg';Gwfg ug]{ qmddf ;'uGwjfnsf
             cg';Gwfg ;DkGg u/L ;'uGwjfnsf] lkmN8 kl/If0f ePsf] .
          &= hl8a'6L v]tL k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f ;DaGwL :ynut tfnLd–s}nfnL, h'Dnf, ;Nofg / afFs] -*)
             hgfnfO{ tfnLd k|bfg- -dlxnf–#( tyf k'?if–$! hgf_
          *= hl8a'6L lj?jf Joj:yfkg pTkfbg tyf ljt/0f- s}nfnL, h'Dnf, afFs], ;Nofg_ sfo{qmd
             cGtu{t ^) xhf/ lj?jf pTkfbg ePsf] .
          (= k|of]uzfnf ;+rfng u/L ;'ulGwt hl8a'6Lx?sf] t]n k|ltzt lgsflnPsf] -afFs]–;'uGwjfn,
             h'Dnf–h6fd;L_ .


                          ^= æ;fIf/ agf}, gofF g]kfn agfpFÆ sfo{qmd
-s_ ljZjljBfno cg'bfg cfof]u -65-3-164•
     b'u{d kxfl8 lhNnfdf cf+lus SofDk; * j6f yk ug{] sfo{sf] nflu ?= (@ nfv /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5
     eg] o;sf] sfo{ k|lqmof cl3 a9]sf] 5 .
     s[lif, jg tyf kz'lj1fg ljZj ljBfno -/fdk'/_ sf] nflu ?= $ s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf]df ;}4flGts
     :jLs[ltsf] nflu dlGqkl/ifb\df k]z ug{] tof/L ePsf] 5 .

                                               49
      dWoklZrdf~rn k|f}Bf]lus ljZj ljBfnosf] nflu ?=# s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf]df ;f] sfo{sf] nflu
      ;}4flGts :jLs[ltsf nflu dlGqkl/ifb\df k|:tfj k]z ug{ tof/L ePsf] 5 .
      ;'b'/ klZrdf~rn d]l8sn sn]h :yfkgf ug{] sfo{sf] nflu ?= ! s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf]df ;f] sfo{ ug{
      5nkmn k|lqmof cufl8 al9/x]sf] 5 .
-v_ /fli6«o ;fIf/tf cleofg -cIf/ lrgf}_ -^%–#–^))_
      o; cfof]hgfsf] ;'?jft @)%%÷%^ df ePsf] xf] . o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t ;fIf/tf a9fpg] cleofgdf
      tfnLd ;+rfng, k':ts ljt/0f, kf7\o k':ts / tfnLd ;fdfu|L kl/dfh{g, cfod"ns sfo{qmd ;+rfng,
      blnt tyf lk5l8Psf] ;d"xnfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug]{ /x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdn] ##( ;fd'bflos cWoog s]Gb|sf]
      lg/Gt/tf / k|f}9 ;fIf/tf sfo{qmd, cfod"ns sfo{qmd / gj ;fIf/nfO{ ;fIf/f]Q/ ug]{5 . rfn" jif{df o;
      sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ! cj{ $ s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf]5 . xfn;Dd ;f] sfdsf] nflu ?=! s/f]8 %$
      nfv (! xhf/ ^@^ ?k}of rfn" vr{tkm{ vr{ eO;s]sf] 5 . of] vr{ s]Gb|Lo:t/df ePsf] vr{nfO{ dfq
      ;d]l6Psf] / lhNnf :t/df ul/Psf] vr{ ljj/0f ;d]6\g ;lsPsf] 5}g .
            #,)!^ ;fIf/tf s]Gb|x? ;+rflnt .
            !! nfv !& xhf/ %#) hgfn] ;fIf/tf sfo{qmddf ;xefuLtf hgfPsf] .
            #*,)!^ ;fIf/tf :jod\;]js / $,)!# lg/LIfs sfo{/t .
-u_ dfWolds lzIff ;xof]u sfo{qmd, dfWolds :t/;Dd lgMz'Ns lzIff -% sIff;Dd lgMz'Ns / clgjfo{ Pj+
    lbjf vfhf, !) sIff;Dd lgMz'Ns, s0ff{nLdf / blntnfO{ !@ sIff;Dd lgMz'Ns_ -^%–#–*#)_
      dfWolds lzIff lgMz'Ns cWoog ;'ljwfsf] nflu ?=() s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd pQm
      sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] nflu ?=@ s/f]8 @! nfv $ xhf/ *!( vr{ ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd o; sfo{qmdaf6
      ljBfno ;'wf/ of]hgf cg'bfg /sd, kf7\ok':tssf] cg'bfg /sd lhNnf lzIff sfof{nodf lgsf;f
      k7fOPsf] 5 .
      dfWolds ljBfno tyf pRr dfWolds ljBfnodf cWoog/t blnt, cltl;dfGts[t / nf]kf]Gd'v /
      s0ff{nLsf ;j} ljBfyL{nfO{ lgMz'Ns lzIffsf nflu ljBfno ;'wf/ of]hgf cg'bfg /sd / kf7\ok':tssf
      nflu /sd lhNnf lzIff sfof{nodf lgsf;f k7fOPsf] 5 .
-3_ åGålkl8t kl/jf/ lzIff sfo{qmd -^%–#÷$–$@&_
      o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t ;lxbsf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf ljleGg cfjf;Lo ljBfno -;lxb k|lti7fg dfkm{t_ sf] nflu ?=
      % s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . o; sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] of]hgf cfof]udf sfo{qmd :jLs[ltsf] nflu
      k7fOPsf] 5 . o; sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePkZrft nlIft ju{df lgz'Ns lzIff k|fKt x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .


-ª_   ljleGg efiffdf uf]/vfkqsf] k|sfzg -^&–#–!!)_
      o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu rfn" jif{df ?=# s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf]df xfn;Dd ?=! s/f]8 !& nfv *$
      xhf/ /sd vr{ ePsf] 5 .
      o; sfo{qmdsf] ;'?jft @)^$.^% b]lv lg/Gt/ ?kdf eO/x]sf] 5 eg] o; sfo{qmdaf6 g]kfn /fHoel/sf
      ljleGg hghfltsf efiffsf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g, k|;f/0f / ljsf;df uxlsnf] 6]jf k'¥ofpg] nIo /flvPsf]
      5 . o; sfo{qmd ;+rfng eP kZrft\ @^ efiffx?df uf]/vfkq k|sfzg e}/x]sf], gofF g]kfn c+ssf nflu
      5'§} sfof{nosf] Joj:yf ul/Psf], cfjZos hgzlQmsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf], gofF g]kfn sdL{x?sf nflu
      ljleGg lsl;dsf uf]li7, 5nkmn tyf tfnLdsf] cfof]hgf ul/Psf] 5 .




                                                 50
                              &= ægofF g]kfn M :j:y g]kfnÆ sfo{qmd
-s_ x[bo/f]u tyf d[uf}nf lgMz'Ns pkrf/ sfo{qmd -&)–#–#@!_
     rfn" jif{sf] nflu #))) la/fdLsf] lgMz'Ns lel8of] PS;/], *))) la/fdLx?sf] d'6' k/LIf0f, !% jif{d'lgsf
     afnaflnsx? $%) hgf / &% jif{ dflysf %) hgf ulDe/ k|s[ltsf d'6' /f]uLx?sf] lgMz'Ns :jf:Yo ;]jf
     / &)) hgf la/fdLx?sf] ck/]zg ug]{ sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=$ s/f]8 ljlgof]hg
     ul/Psf]df ;dLIff cjlwdf #$! hgf c;xfo ul/jx?nfO{ lgz'Ns d'6'sf] pkrf/ (Major OT ;d]t_
     ul/Psf]df k'/} /sd vr{ eO;s]sf] 5 . /fli6«o d[uf}nf s]Gb|nfO{ d[uf}nf pkrf/sf] nflu ?= ! s/f]8 ah]6
     pknAw u/fpg :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfnosf] nflu ljlgof]hg ePsf] ah]6af6 Joj:yfkg ug{ n]lv
     k7fOPsf] .
-v_ lhNnf c:ktfn;Dddf lgMz'Ns :jf:Yo ;]jf sfo{qmd -&)–#–^!)_
     lgMz'Nssf] nflu cf}iflw vl/b ug]{, Buffer Stock u/L ljt/0f ug]{, Refrigirator Van PDa'n]G; vl/b /
     Software sf] ljsf;, 6]lnd]l8l;g ;DaGwdf cfjZos k|lqmof cufl8 a9fpg] . cf}iflw / kl/jf/
     lgof]hgsf ;fwg v/Lb u/L :jf:Yo ;+:yfdf k'¥ofpg], cf}iflw / cf}hf/ pks/0f l/KofsLË u/L ljleGg
     :jf:Yo ;+:yfnfO{ pknAw u/fpg], LIne Ministry Budgetory Information System (LMBIS) kmf/d
     5kfO{ tyf ljt/0f yk lhNnfdf ;fd'bflos cf}iflw sfo{qmdx? ;+rfng ug]{, % j6} If]qLo d]l8sn
     :6f]/x?df Key essential cf}iflw vl/b u/L cfk"lt{ ug]{ h:tf sfo{x? ;+rfng ul/g] nIo /x]sf]df o;
     sfo{qmd cGtu{t df3 ! ut] b]lv lhNnf c:ktfnaf6 lgMz'Ns :jf:Yo ;]jf sfo{qmd ;+rfngdf cfO{
     ;dLIff cjlw;Dddf @) nfv #! xhf/ & ;o hgfn] ;]jf k|fKt ul/;sf 5g\ . o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=
     *% s/f]8 (( nfv vr{ ug{] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 .
-u_ lgMz'Ns k|;'tL ;]jf sfo{qmd -&)–#–*%%_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=@! s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . olx df3 ! ut]af6 ;j} c:ktfnaf6
     lgMz'Ns k|;'lt ;]jf sfo{qmd ;+rfngdf NofOPsf] 5 .


                                    *= ;xsf/L ljsf; sfo{qmd
-s_ æufpF ufpFdf ;xsf/L 3/ 3/df esf/LÆ sfo{qmd -Jojl:yt ;xsf/L÷;fd"lxs v]tL tyf Joj;fo
    sfo{qmd_ -$)–#–$^$_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] k|s[lt pTkfbg k|j4{g ug]{ /x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= * s/f]8 %) nfv /sd
     ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . @^ b'u{d lhNnfsf s[ifsx?nfO{ 9'jfgL cg'bfg lbg] nIo /x]sf] 5 . h;df
     /f;folgs dn #%*^ d]=6g= / pGgt lapm !@* d]=6g= ljt/0f ug]{ nIo /x]sf] 5 . xfn ;Dddf pQm
     sfo{qmdsf] d"Vo pknJwLx?df ;xsf/L v]tL lgb{]lzsf, @)^%÷!)÷& df :jLs[t eO{ sfof{Gjogsf] nflu
     ;DalGwt sfof{nox?df @)^%÷!)÷* df k7fOPsf] 5 .
     ;xsf/L v]ltsf nflu ljlgof]lht s"n ah]6 ?=* s/f]8 %) nfv dWo] % s/f]8 !) nfv s[lif ljefu
     cGtu{t ;xsf/L v]tL :sLd ;+rfng ug{ / ?=# s/f]8 $) nfv kz' ;]jf ljefu cGtu{t ;xsf/Ldf
     a+u'/÷s'v'/f kfng sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] nflu clVtof/L k7fO ;lsPsf] 5 . alb{of, bfË, s}nfnL, afFs],
     ;Kt/L u/L % lhNnfdf ;xsf/Ldf cfwfl/t a+u'/ tuf s'v'/f sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf] nflu ?= # s/f]8 $#
     nfv $# xhf/sf] sfo{qmd tyf clVtof/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu k7fOPsf] 5 . ;xsf/L v]tLtk{m !*% j6f
     lgj]bg ;+sng ePsf] 5 . tLdWo] !#^ j6f 5gf}6 ePsf] / !# j6fsf] ;Demf}tf eO;s]sf] 5 . !#
     lhNnfx|? 5gf}6 k|lqmofdf /x]sf 5g\ . ltgLx?df :ofËhf, tgx'F, uf]/vf, DofUbL, kj{t, afUn'Ë, kfNkf,
     u'NdL, c3f{vfFrL, gjnk/f;L, slknj:t' / ?kGb]xL 5g\ .



                                                  51
-v_ ;xsf/L k;n M ;:tf] / c;n sfo{qmd -$)–#–^#)_
     ;xsf/L dfk{mt ;xsf/L k;n ;+rfng u/L pkef]Uo ;fdfgsf] sf] ljt/0f k|0ffnL ;'b[9 ug]{ p2]Zon] o;
     sfo{qmd ;+rfngdf Nofpg] sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 . slDtdf rfn" jif{df b]ze/ $))) ;xsf/L k;n ;+rfng
     ug]{ nIo /x]sf] 5 . x/]s ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf Pp6f / gu/kflnsfdf -tL; xhf/;Dd hg;+Vof
     ePsf]df_ Pp6f kg]{ u/L lk5l8Psf] ju{sf] ;xeflutfdf ljkGg nlIft, blnt, hghflt, dlxnfnfO{ /fzg
     sf8{sf] cfwf/df vfB j:t' tyf b}lgs pkef]Uo j:t'x?sf] cfk"lt{sf] nflu ;xsf/L ;+rfng ug{ To:tf
     ;xsf/L ;+:yfx?nfO{ ?=! nfv cg'bfg lbg] nIo /flvPsf] 5 . ;f] sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= $) s/f]8 /sd
     ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . ;'ky d"Nosf ;xsf/L k;n ;+rfng lgodfjnL, @)^%, d+=k=af6 @)^%÷!)÷( df
     :jLs[t eO{ sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;a} sfof{nox?df hfgsf/Lsf] nflu k7fO;lsPsf] 5 . ;xsf/L k;n
     vf]Ng k|:tfj dfu eO/x]sf]df kof{Kt dfqfdf k|:tfj k|fKt gePsf]n] !% lbgsf] Dofb yk u/L k'gM ;"rgf
     k|sflzt ul/Psf] 5 .


                        (= æpTkfbgzLn /f]huf/, ;j}sf] df}lns clwsf/Æ
-s_ o'jf :j/f]huf/ sf]if -#%–$–$*%_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu rfn" cfly{s jif{ ?=%) s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu
     sfof{Gjogsf] l;nl;nfdf o'jf tyf ;fgf Joj;foL :jf/f]huf/ lgodfjnL, @)^% ldlt
     @)^%÷!)÷)@ df dlGqkl/ifb\af6 kfl/t eO;s]sf] . xfn;Dddf pQm sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogdf
     lgDgfg';f/sf] sfo{x? z'? ePsf] 5 .
           sd{rf/Lx?af6 @)^% kf}if dlxgfsf] ! lbgsf] tnj o'jf :j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf hDdf ePsf] .
           cy{dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf lgb{]zs ;ldlt u7g ePsf] .
           C0f lng] JolQmx?sf]      tfnLdsf nflu ;"rgf k|sflzt ePsf] / kmf/fdx? Website df
           /flv;lsPsf] .
           j}+s, ljdf tyf ljlQo ;+:yf;Fu C0f nufgL ;DaGwdf 5nkmn e}/x]sf] .
           cy{ dGqfnodf sfof{no /xg] lg0f{o e} ;lrjfno :yfkgf ePsf] .
           ljkGg If]qdf ug'{kg{] nufgL dWo] !Ü :j/f]huf/ sf]ifdf hDdf ug{ g]kfn /fi6« j}+snfO{ cg'/f]w
           ePsf] .
           **,))) hgfn] tfnLdsf] nflu O{G6/g]6dfkm{t lgj]bg lbO{;s]sf 5g\ .
-v_ 6]ln;]G6/ lj:tf/ sfo{qmd -^&–#÷$–!^)_
     o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t %) j6f 6]ln;]G6/ lj:tf/ ug{], nIo /flvPsf]df ;f] sfo{sf] nflu ?=@ s/f]8
     ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . of] sfo{ ;DkGg ug{sf] nflu :yfg 5gf}6 / Specification tof/ ePsf] 5 . o;
     sfo{qmd ;+Rffng x'g ;s]df %) hgf sDKo"6/ ;xfosn] /f]huf/L kfpg ;Sg] cj:yf /x]sf] 5 .
     o; sfo{qmdsf] yfngL @)^$.^% b]lv ePsf] xf] . ut cfly{s jif{ ;Dddf o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=! nfv
     *& xhf/ vr{ ePsf] 5 . cfufdL jif{ ;Dddf #)) j6f 6]ln;]G6/ :yfkgf ug{ !@ s/f]8 nfUg ;Sg]
     b]lvG5 .
-u_ /f]huf/ ;"rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf -&!–#÷$–!!)_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ! s/f]8 $) nfv /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf]df >d sfof{no jL/uGh afx]s jfFsL
     !$ j6f >d sfof{nox?df /f]huf/ ;"rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{] k|lqmof z'? ul/Psf] 5 . ;Lk ljsf; tfnLd
     s]Gb|x? kj{t, bfË / dx]Gb|gu/df /f]huf/ ;"rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{] k|lqmof z'? ul/Psf] 5 . >d sfof{no

                                                 52
     / ;Lk ljsf; tfnLd s]Gb| gePsf lhNnfx? pbok'/ / h'Dnfdf /f]huf/ ;"rgf s]Gb| :yfkgf ug{] k|lqmof
     z'? ul/Psf] 5 .


                                 !)= alnbfgL If]q ljsf; sfo{qmd
-s_ /fKtL /fhdfu{ lgdf{0f -$*–#÷$–@)#_
     o; cfof]hgfsf] ;'?jft cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% b]lv ePsf] xf] . o; cfof]hgfsf] s"n nfut ?= %*
     s/f]8 &@ nfv nfUg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f ug]{ cfof]hgfsf] nIo /x]sf] 5 . o;
     sfo{qmd cGtu{t cldlnof–t'n;Lk'/–;Nofg v08sf] !% ls=dL= ;8s sfnf]kq] :t/df :t/f]Gglt ug]{ nIo
     /flvPsf] 5 . ;Nofg d'l;sf]6 v08df !% ls=dL= ;8s u|fe]n ul/g]5 / lgdf{0f e};s]sf] ;8snfO{
     dd{t ;+ef/ ug]{ sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 . o; sfo{qmd ;+rfngfy{ rfn' jif{df ?= !@ s/f]8 *^ nfv %% xhf/
     ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 eg] xfn;Dddf hDdf ^@* xhf/ dfq vr{ ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd pQm sfo{qmd
     cGtu{t t'N;Lk'/–;Nofg ;8ssf] :t/f]Gglt sfo{ z'? ePsf] 5 .
-v_ zlxb dfu{ -ltnf–3tL{ufpF–yjfªsf]6–?s'dsf]6_ -$*–#÷$–$)@_
     zlxb dfu{ -ltnf–3tL{ufpF–yjfªsf]6–?s'dsf]6_ lgdf{0f sfo{qmd cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% b]lv z'? ePsf]
     xf] . o; sfo{qmdaf6 ef}lts k"jf{wf/ lgdf{0f tyf :t/f]Gglt x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . rfn' cfly{s jif{df
     6«ofs lgdf{0f ePsf] *( ls=dL= ;8ssf] u|]l8Ë ldnfpg], df]8 ;'wf/ ul/g] & ls=dL= 6«ofs vf]Ng] / b'O{
     vf]nL / lqj]0fL k'n lgdf{0f sfo{ rfn' /xg] 5 . rfn" cfly{s jif{df o; dfu{sf] nflu ?= ( s/f]8 (* nfv
     ! xhf/ /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . of] sfo{qmd cGtu{t zlxb dfu{df -ltnf–3tL{ufpF–yjfªsf]6–
     ?s'dsf]6_ !=^ ls=dL= 6«ofs lgdf{0f ePsf] 5 . u|]8 tyf df]8 ;'wf/ sfo{, :6«Sr/ lgdf{0f sfo{ / rqm] /
     lqj]0fL k'n lgdf{0f sfo{ ;dLIff cjlwdf ;Gtf]ifhgs 9+un] eO/x]sf] 5 . xfn;Dd rfn'df **% xhf/ /
     k"FhLut tkm{ @)*)^ xhf/ ;d]t u/L @!^(! xhf/ vr{ ePsf] 5 . /s a|]s/ ;lxtsf] PS;fe]6/
     d]lzgsf] cefjdf ;fgf 7]s]bf/åf/f r§fg sf6\g] eO/x]sf] 5 .
-u_ yjfª gd"gf j:tL ljsf; -$*–#÷$–&&)_
     of] sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= %) nfv /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . yjfª gd"gf j:tL ljsf; cWoog
     k|ltj]bgn] k|:tfj u/]sf] of]hgf dWo]af6 of]hgf 5gf}6 u/L nfut Oli6d]6 tof/ kfg]{ sfd z'? ePsf]
     5.


                          !!= u0ftGq :df/s tyf zxLb ;Ddfg sfo{qmd
-s_ /fdj[If ofbj :d[lt s]Gb| -hgsk'/ c+rn c:ktfn_ -&)–#÷$–##%_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ! s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf]df lgz'Ns cf}iflw v/Lb k|lqmof k|f/De ePsf] /
     ICU ejg lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ k|f/De ePsf] 5 .
-v_ ;'/]z jfUn] :d[lt SofG;/ s]Gb| -lq=lj=lzIf0f c:ktfn_ -&)–#÷$–##^_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= ! s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu lgz'Ns cf}iflw vl/b
     k|f/De ePsf] / SofG;/ ejg lgdf{0f sfo{ k|f/De ePsf] 5 .
-u_ u0ftGq :df/s -$*–$–&&%_
     g]kfndf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq :yfkgf ePsf] P]ltxfl;s cj;/df ;j{;fwf/0f hgtfsf] rfxgf
     cjwf/0ff k|ltljDa ug]{ p2]Zon] u0ftGq :yfkgf ug]{ nIo /x]sf]df ;f]xL cg'?k o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t
     gf/fo0flx6L kl/;/df u0ftGq :df/s lgdf{0f ug]{ nIo /fvL ?=% s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 .
     u0ftGq :df/s lgdf{0f sfo{qmd cGtu{t g]kfndf ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGq :yfkgf ePsf] P]ltxfl;s

                                                  53
     cj;/df g]kfnsf] /fli6«o Pstf / cv08tfsf] kl/ro tyf P]ltxfl;s hgcfGbf]ngsf] pknlAwsf]
     k|ltssf] ?kdf u0ftGq :df/ssf] k|f?k tof/ ug{ l8hfOg k|lt:kwf{ cfAxfg ePsf]df k|lt:kwL{x?sf]
     ;xeflutf Go"g ePsf]n] TOR df cfjZos kl/dfh{gsf] nflu lj1x?;Fu ;'emfj dfu ul/Psf] .
     l8hfOgdf x'g'kg]{ cfjZos tTjx?sf] ;DaGwdf ;j{;fwf/0f OR5's AolQmx?af6 ;'emfj ;+sngsf] nflu
     @)^%÷%÷@$ / @)^%÷&÷@( df / @)^%÷(÷@^ df cjwf/0ff k|f?k0f (Concept Design) tof/ ug]{
     k|ltof]lutf ;DaGwL clGtd Dofb @)^%÷!!÷( ;Dd /xg] u/L @ j6f b}lgs klqsfdf / Spacieses
     Architectural Magazine df $% lbg] ;fj{hlgs ;"rgf k|sfzg ePsf]df xfn;Dd !^ j6f af]nkq
     ljqmL ePsf] .

                                   !@ åGå kLl8t /fxt sfo{qmd
-s_ åGå kLl8t ;fgf ls;fg / pBdL C0f ldgfxf sfo{qmd -#%–$–$*$_
     k|fs[lts k|sf]k tyf åGåsf sf/0f dsf{df k/]sf / ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf ;fgf ls;fg tyf 3/]n'
     pBdLx?n] s[lif ljsf; a}+s, ;fgf ls;fg ljsf; a}+s, g]kfn a}+s lnld6]8 / /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}+Saf6
     lnPsf] ?= #) xhf/;Ddsf] C0fsf] ;fjfF / k"/} Aofh ?= #) xhf/eGbf a9L ?= ! nfv;Ddsf] C0fdf
     afFsL /x]sf] k"/} Jofh / xhf{gf ldgfxf ug]{ ah]6 jQmJosf] 3f]lift sfo{qmd cg';f/ o; k|of]hgsf nflu
     ?= $) s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/ dlGqkl/ifb\af6 sfo{ljlw
     :jLs[t eO{ of] sfo{qmd ;+rfngdf cfO;s]sf] 5 .
     xfn;Dd pknAw tYofÍ cg';f/ /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}+ssf] ?=@% s/f]8 (* nfv, s[lif ljsf; a}+ssf]
     ?= # ca{ ## s/f]8 @# nfv, g]kfn a}+s lnld6]8sf] ?=!! s/f]8 *! nfv / ;fgf ls;fg ljsf; a}+ssf]
     #! s/f]8 &^ nfv u/L hDdf ?= $ ca{ )@ s/f]8 &* nfv ldgfxf eO;s]sf] 5 . sfo{ljlw :jLs[t
     ePsf] # dlxgfdf g} ?= @ ca{ %$ s/f]8 ** nfv ;fFjf / Jofhtk{m ?=! ca{ $& s/f]8 () nfv u/L
     hDdf ?=$ ca{ )@ s/f]8 &* nfv ldgfxf ePsf] l:ylt / C0f ldgfxfsf] sfo{ljlwdf x'g uO/x]sf]
     ;+zf]wg ;d]tsf] c;/sf] k[i7e"lddf rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] afFsL cjlw ;d]tdf s/La ?= * ca{ $) s/f]8
     yk ldgfxf x'g ;Sg] l:ylt b]lvG5 . of] /sd Plsg u/L zf]wegf{ lb+bf ;do nfUg] x'Fbf rfn'jif{ ;j} /sd
     zf]wegf{ geP klg clwsf+z /sd zf]wegf{ ug'{kg{]g} x'G5 .
     o;/L ;/sf/sf] k|:t't 3f]lift sfo{qmd ;+rflnt ug{ rfn" jif{df g} ?= $) s/f]8 o; k|of]hgsf nflu
     5'6\ofOPsf]df ljlgof]hgaf6 s/Lj * ca{ gk'u x'g] cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 . ah]6df gk/]sf] k"+hLut k|s[ltsf]
     of] vr{sf] Joj:yfkg klg dGqfnox?sf] art x'g] k"+hLut ah]6af6 Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf b]lvPsf]
     5.
-v_ zxLb tyf a]kQf kl/jf/ / /fxt sfo{qmd -^@–#÷$–@!@_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= @ ca{ ^) s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf lzlj/df /x]sf
     g]=s=kf=-dfcf]jfbL_ ;]gfsf n8fs'x? !(,%($ hgfnfO{ df3 ;Dddf eQf jfkt ?=(# s/f]8 @ nfv $*
     xhf/ * ;o ** e'Qmfg ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} e/0fkf]if0f jfkt ?=@( s/f]8 %! nfv #( xhf/ @)$ e'QmfgL
     ul/Psf] 5 . ;z:q åGåsf qmddf dfl/Psf d[tssf glhssf xsbf/x?nfO{ cfly{s ;xfotf jfkt df3
     dlxgf;Dddf k|lt kl/jf/ ?=! nfvsf b/n] $@)) hgfsf kl/jf/nfO{ ?=$@ s/f]8 /fxt pknAw u/fpg
     lgsf;f lbO;s]sf] 5 .


                                  !#= l;dfGt ju{ pTyfg sfo{qmd
-s_ ;'s'Daf;L / e"ldxLg Jojl:yt a;f]af; sfo{qmd -$*–$–&^*_
     o; sfo{qmd cGtu{t ejg lgdf{0f ;+lxtf, ;/sf/L ejg lgdf{0f sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug]{ nIo tf]lsPsf] 5 .
     o; sfdsf] nflu lj:t[t l8hfOg k|ltj]bg k|fKt u/] kZrft dfq s"n nfutsf] cg'dfg ug{ ;lsg] 5 .
                                                 54
     xfnnfO{ of] sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{sf] nflu ?=!% s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . o; sfo{qmdaf6
     xfn;Dd ePsf pknAwLdf
     s_ ;'s'Daf;L e"ldxLg Go"g cfo ePsf ju{x?sf] lgldQ cfjf;sf] Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLlt, lgod, P]g,
        g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^#, /fli6«o cfjf; gLlt @)^$, National Shelter Policy 1996,
        /fli6«o cfjf; gLlt d:of}bf @)^%, bzf}+ k~r jlif{o of]hgf, tLg jlif{o cGtl/d of]hgf, / cfly{s
        jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6 jQmJo compile u/L sfo{ gLlt th'{df ug]{ sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
     -v_ ;'s'Daf;L d"ldlxg Go"g cfo ePsf ju{x?sf] lgldQ pknAw u/fOg] cfjf;sf] k|f/lDes l8hfOg
         tof/ ug]{ sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
     -u_ ;/f]sf/jfnf AolQm ;'s'Daf;L ;DaGwL sfd ug]{ ;+3 ;+:yfx?;Fu 5nkmn Pj+ cGtlq{mof rfn' /x]sf] .
     -3_ pilot project sf] ?kdf z+vd"n If]qsf] k|f/lDes tYofÍ ;+sng ug]{ sfo{ z'? ePsf] .
-v_ ul/jLsf] /]vfd'gLsfnfO{ kl/ro kq tyf /f;g sfo{ ljt/0f -#)–#–@@)_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=% s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . cfof]hgfsf z'? b]lv @)^% kf}if d;fGt ;Ddsf
     @% lhNnfx? cGtu{tsf ^&) ufpF ljsf; ;ldltx?df ;fd'bflos ;+:yfx?af6 sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog
     eO/x]sf] 5 / xfn ;Dddf #)),&^# j6f nlIft 3/w'/L nfeflGjt eO;s]sf 5g\ . sf]ifsf] sfo{qmd g]kfn
     ;/sf/, ljZj j}+s / s[lif ljsf;sf] nflu cGt/f{li6«o sf]ifsf] cg'bfg ;xof]udf ;+rfng eO/x]sf] 5 .
     g]kfn ;/sf/n] @)^% sf] ah]6 jQmJodf lg/k]If u/LjLsf] /]vfd'gLsf hgtfnfO{ kl/ro kq pknJw
     u/fO{ s]xL ;x'lnot lbg] Joj:yf pNn]v u/] cg';f/ u/LjL lgjf/0f sf]ifnfO{ kl/ro kq lbg] lhDd]jf/L
     tf]s]s]f ;DaGwdf sf]ifn] sfo{qmd ;+rfng u/]sf ;d'bfox?df u/Lj 3/ klxrfg u/L sf]ifsf] sfo{qmd
     ;+rfng u/]sf] jf ;+rfng ug{ ;d"xdf cfj4 eO{ sf]ifdf btf{ ePsf 3/ kl/jf/nfO{ r/0fj4 ?kdf
     kl/ro kq lbg nut /fVg] sfd z'? ul/Psf] 5 . :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno / lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{no;Fu
     ;dGjo u/L kl/ro kqsf] vfsf lgdf{0f ug{] sfd z'? ul/Psf] 5 .
-u_ d'Qm sd}of / d'Qm xlnof k':yfkgf sfo{qmd -%%–$–@^)_
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?= !$ s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd pQm sfo{qmd ;+rfngdf rfn"
     tkm{ %)) xhf/ k"FhLut tkm{ !( nfv *$ xhf/ u/L @$ nfv *$ xhf/ vr{ ePsf] 5 . o;
     sfo{qmdaf6 d'Qm sd}of kl/jf/nfO{ k|lt kl/jf/ a9Ldf % s7\7f ;Dd hUuf pknJw u/fO ;s]kl5 3/
     agfpg k|lt kl/jf/ ?= !) xhf/sf] b/n] /sd pknJw u/fpgsf nflu ?= !) s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf]
     Pj+ /sd lhNnf lhNnfdf k'uL ljt/0f ug{] sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . ;dLIff cjlwdf ^^* kl/jf/nfO{ ?=%# nfv
     ljt/0f ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} &^@ kl/jf/nfO{ hUufwgL k|df0fk"hf{ ljt/0f ul/Psf] 5 .
     o;} cfly{s jif{ leq k':yf{kg sfo{ ;DkGg ug{] u/L clwsf/ ;DkGg d'Qm sd}of k'gM:yfkgf ;d:of
     ;dfwfg cfof]u @)^% u7g ePsf] 5 . zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqfnoaf6 d'Qm xlnofx?sf] tYofÍ
     ;+sng ug{] sfo{ e}/x]sf 5 .
     d'Qm sd}of k'g:yfkg sfo{qmd ;+rfngsf qmddf pko'Qm hUuf km]nf gkg'{ / ;fljs b]lv j;f]jf;
     ul//xsf] -jgIf]q÷;fd'bflos jg, gu/ ljsf;÷u|fld0f ljsf; sDkgL÷skf; ;ldlt÷/fli6«o lgs'~h /
     dWojtL{ If]q÷Po/kf]6{÷ljBfno÷SofDk;sf] hUuf cflb_ If]qdf k'g:yf{kg ug{ ;d:of k/]sf] 5 .
     w]/}h;f] 7fpFdf d'Qm sd}of / u}/ sd}of÷;s'Djf;Lx? Ps ;fy j;f]jf; ul/cfPsf]n] sd}ofx?nfO{ dfq
     k'g:yf{kg ug{ ;d:of k/]sf] 5 . d'Qm xlnof k':yf{kg sfo{qmd e"ld;'wf/ tyf Joj:yf dGqfno / zflGt
     tyf k'glg{df{0f dGqfno jLr ;dGjo u/L sfof{Gjog ug'{ kg{] x'Fbf ;fdfGo ;d:of b]lvPsf] 5 .




                                                 55
              !$= ;fdflhs ;'/Iff Pj+ ;fd'bflos ljsf;
-s_ h]i7 gful/s, czQm, nf]kf]Gd'v hflt tyf Psn dlxnf ;'/Iff Joj:yf -^(–#–!$%_
     cfly{s jif{@)^%÷^^ df @)^% c;f]hb]lv nfu" x'g] &) jif{ pd]/ k'u]sf ;dfhsf ;a} h]i7 gful/s, ^)
     jif{ pd]/ k'u]sf s0ff{nL c~rnsf h]i7 gful/s / klxrfg ePsf blnt ;d'bfosf ^) jif{ pd]/sf ;a}
     h]i7 gful/ssf nflu / nf]kf]Gd'v ;d"x / clt l;dfGts[t ;d"xsf cflbjf;L hghflt / ^) jif{ pd]/
     k'u]sf b]zel/sf cGo c;xfo Psn dlxnfsf nflu dfl;s ?=%)).– sf b/n] eQf pknAw u/fOg]
     sfo{qmd /x]sf] 5 . ;fy} b}lgs lqmofsnfk ;Dkfbg ug{ lg/Gt/ c?sf] ;xof]u ln+bf klg sl7gfO{ x'g]
     cj:yfsf b]zel/sf k"0f{ czQm ckfË JolQmnfO{ dfl;s ?=!))).– sf b/n] / cGo ckfËsf nflu dfl;s
     ?=#)).– sf b/n] dfl;s j[lQ pknAw u/fOg] nIo /x]sf] 5 .
     o; sfo{qmdsf] nflu ?=$ ca{ $) s/f]8 *) nfv *% xhf/ /sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] 5 . ;dLIff
     cjlwdf o; sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ;fdflhs ;'/Iff sfo{ljlw @)^%, :jLs[t ePsf], ;f]lx jdf]lhd
     nut lnO{ kl/ro kq ljt/0f sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . xfn;Dd ?=@ ca{ (@ s/f]8 ;j} lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltdf
     lgsf;f k7fO;lsPsf] 5 .
-v_ xfd|f] ufpF /fd|f] jgfpF sfo{qmd -^(–#÷$–*)!_
     o; sfo{qdsf] nflu ?=& c/a *# s/f]8 /sd ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . ufpF ljsf; ;ldlt cg'bfg
     sfof{Gjog sfo{ljlw, @)^% d+=k=af6 ldlt @)^%÷*÷!* df :jLs[t e} sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] / /sd
     lgsf;f u};s]sf] 5 .
;f/f+z
         ult ;':t g} dfGg'k5{ .
         t/ gofF sfo{qmd ePsf]n] s]xL l9nfO{ ePsf] 5 .
         cj Pickup ln+b}5 .
         ljz]if ;ldltsf] cWoIf ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLHo" sxfF ;dLIff j}7s ePsf] 5 .
         ljz]if ;ldltsf] pkfWoIf dfggLo cy{dGqLHo" sxfF ;dLIff e}/x]sf] 5 .
         ;DalGwt dGqfnox?n] klxnf] k|fyldstf lbO{/x]sf] kfO{Psf] 5 .




                                                    56
                                              kl/R5]b – $
                                         cw{–jflif{s vr{ ljZn]if0f


$=!   gLltut Joj:yf M
      $=!=! cy{ dGqfnosf] k|d'v lhDd]jf/Lsf] ?kdf /x]sf] ;|f]t Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{ cg'?k rfn' jif{sf]
            ;]jf / sfo{x?sf] nflu ;l~rt sf]ifaf6 /sd lemSg] / vr{ ug]{ P]g, @)^% cGtu{t ;fpg !
            ut] g} vr{sf] clVtof/L ;j} dGqfnox?nfO{ k7fOPsf] lyof] . o:t} ljlgof]hg ljw]os
            Joj:yflksf–;+;b ;dIf k|:t't eP kZrft Joj:yflksf ;+;baf6 k]ZsL vr{ P]g kfl/t ePsf]
            nut} @)^% c;f]h ( ut] klxn]sf] clVtof/L cg';f/sf] vr{nfO{ ;d]t ;d]6L k'gM vr{sf]
            clVtof/L ;j} dGqfnox?nfO{ k7fO ;lsPsf] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfox?df ;|f]tsf] ;'lglZrttf
            tyf :yfgLo:t/sf] ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] pRrtd pkof]u ug]{ cfwf/lznf lgdf{0f ug{ laut b'O{
            jif{b]lv g} &% j6} lhNnf ljsf; ;ldlt, %* j6} gu/kflnsf tyf ;Dk"0f{ ufpF ljsf;
            ;ldltx?df lgzt{ cg'bfgsf] /sd cy{ dGqfnoaf6 ;f]em} vr{ ug]{ clVtof/L k7fOPsf]df rfn"
            cfly{s jif{df klg o;nfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfodf hfg] lgzt{ cg'bfgsf] vr{
            ug]{ clVtof/L ;d]t c;f]h ( ut] g} k7fO ;lsPsf] 5 . o;sf] ;fy} rfn" jif{b]lv lhNnf
            ljsf;x?df hfg] cg'bfgnfO{ Go"gtd zt{ / sfo{ ;Dkfbg dfkgdf -Minimum Condition of
            Performance Measurement-MCPM) cfwfl/t u/L cg'bfg k|bfg ug]{ Aoj:ysf] ;fy} ufFp
            ljsf; ;ldlt cg'bfgnfO{ ;d]t ;"qdf cfwfl/t ul/Psf] 5 . s0ff{nL c+rnsf ;j} lhNnfx? /
            afh'/f lhNnfdf hfg] k"FhLut ah]6 csf]{ jif{sf] sflt{s d;fGtdf dfq lk|mh ug]{ Joj:yfnfO{
            lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf]] 5 .
      $=!=@= gofF g]kfn lgdf{0fsf] cleofg cGtu{tsf pRr k|fyldstf k|fKt gofF sfo{s|dx?sf] nflu ljgf
             ca/f]w lgwf{l/t ;do / nfutdf ;DkGg eO{ ck]lIft pknlAw xfl;n x'g ;sf]; eGg]
             clek|fon] ;f] sfo{s|dx?sf] ljj/0f ;fy lgjf{w lgsf;fsf] nflu ;d]t clVtof/L kqdf g}
             pNn]v u/L k7fO{Psf] 5 . ;|f]tsf] ;'lglZrttfsf nflu ljutdf h:t} rfn" cfly{s jif{df klg
             k|fyldstf k|fKt cfof]hgf tyf sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ef}lts k|ultsf cfwf/df /sd lgsf;f lbg]
             Joj:yf clVtof/L kqd} pNn]v u/L k7fO ;lsPsf] 5 . ut jif{sf] k|ultsf] cfwf/df k|yd
             rf}dfl;s lgsf;f tyf bf];|f] / t];|f] rf}dfl;s cjlwsf] k|f/Dedf lgsf;f ln+bf ef}lts k|ultsf]
             cfwf/df lgsf;f lbg] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . To:t} bf];|f] jf t];|f] k|fyldstfk|fKt ljsf;
             sfo{qmdsf] g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;|f]t, hfkfg l8cf/Pkm, o"=s]= l8cf/Pkm tkm{sf] t];|f] rf}dfl;s
             /f]Ssf /flvPsf] 5 . /fh:j c;'nL tyf gub k|jfx tyf cfof]hgfsf] pkfb]otfsf] cfwf/df t];|f]
             rf}dfl;ssf] z'? dlxgfdf oyf]lrt lg0f{o lnO{ hfgsf/L k7fOg] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 .
      $=!=#= klxnf] k|fyldstfsf ;j} ljsf; sfo{qmdx?sf] rf}dfl;s ljefhg ;lxt jflif{s sfo{qmd
             /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]udf k7fO c;f]h !% ut]leq :jLs[t u/fpg' kg]{ u/L ljsf; sfo{qmd
             ;dod} ;DkGg ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 .
      $=!=$= ljut cfly{s jif{b]lv n}lËs pQ/bfoL ah]6 k|f/De ul/Psf] x'Fbf n}lËs ah]6nfO{ ;+:yfut u/L
              k|efjsf/L agfpg ?=% s/f]8 eGbf a9Lsf sfo{qmd ;DkGg ePkl5 dlxnf tyf k'?if dfly
              k/]sf] k|efjsf] n}lËs?kdf k/LIf0f u/L (Gender Audit) k|ltj]bg k|sfzg ug]{ Joj:yfnfO{
              ut jif{ h:t} rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] clVtof/Ldf klg lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 .
      $=!=%= ljQLo kf/blz{tf, hjfkmb]lxtf / cg'udgdf k|efjsf/Ltf Nofpgsf nflu ;a} dGqfno tyf
              ;+j}wflgs lgsfon] cfˆgf] jflif{s sfo{qmd -sfo{of]hgf_ c;f]h dlxgfleq} ;fj{hlgs ug'{kg]{,
                                                 57
              ?=^ s/f]8 eGbf a9L ljlgof]hg ePsf] cfof]hgfsf] 7]Ssfk§fsf] lg0f{o ;DaGwL ;"rgf
              /fli6«o:t/sf] kqklqsfdf ;fj{hlgs ug'{kg]{ tyf cfˆgf] jflif{s k|ult / ljQLo ljj/0f cfly{s
              jif{ ;lsPsf] # dlxgfleq clgjfo{ ?kdf ;fj{hlgs ug]{ Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 .
      $=!=^= ah]6sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug]{ ;Gbe{df k|To]s dlxgfsf] & ut] laefuLo dGqLHo"sf]
             cWoIftfdf lgoldt cg'udg tyf k|ult ljj/0f k7fpg' kg]{, gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f ug]{ pRr
             k|fyldstfsf sfo{s|dx?, ah]6 jQmtAodf plNnlvt gLlt / sfo{s|dx? / klxnf] k|fyldstf
             k|fKt cfof]hgfx?sf] k|To]s dlxgfsf] !) ut] dlGqkl/ifbsf] cfly{s tyf k"jf{wf/ ;ldltdf /
             gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f ug{ pRr k|fyldstfsf sfo{s|dx?sf] rf}dfl;s ?kdf ;DdfggLo
             k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] cWoIftfdf /xg] ljz]if ;ldltn] ;dLIff ug]{ Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . o;af6
             ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf k/]sf sl7gfOx?sf] ;dfwfg ;dod} eO sfof{Gjog k|efjsf/L x'g] b]lvPsf]
             5 . To:t} u/L :yfgLo:t/sf ljsf; sfo{qmdx?sf] vr{ ;fj{hlgs ug]{ Joj:yf u/]af6 :yfgLo
             :t/df ;/sf/n] ug]{ vr{sf] jf/]df hgr]tgf j[l4 eO{ ljsf; sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfx?sf] 5gf}6
             th'{df sfof{Gjog tyf d"NofÍgdf hg;xeflutf a9\g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .


$=@   c4{–jflif{s vr{
      $=@=! ;dli6ut vr{sf] l:ylt M rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf ?=^# ca{ *^ s/f]8 () nfv
            vr{ ePsf] 5 . of] vr{ ljlgof]lht ah]6sf] @&=)^ k|ltzt xf] . ut cf=a sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf]
            t'ngfdf of] jif{sf] klxnf] ^ dlxgfdf *=@( k|ltztn] vr{ j[l4 ePsf] 5 . o;dWo] gubtkm{ ?=
            ^) ca{ %$ s/f]8 !@ nfv / u}/ gub -j:t'ut tyf ;f]em} e'QmfgL_tkm{ ?=# ca{ #@ s/f]8
            &* nfv vr{ ePsf] 5 . h'g ljlgof]lht ah]6sf] qmdzM @*=#@ k|ltzt / !$=(* k|ltzt x'g
            cfpF5 . ut jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlw;+u t'ngf ubf{ gubtkm{sf] vr{ *=@( k|ltztn] / u}/–gub
            vr{tkm{ eg] !*=)& k|ltztn] a9\g uPsf] 5 .
                                                  tflnsf – !
                                           ;dli6ut vr{sf] t'ngfTds l:ylt
                                                                                        -? nfvdf_
                                 ah]6             klxnf] ^ dlxgfsf] vr{     ut       ah]6sf]] t'ngfdf vr{ %
                                                                          cfly{s
                                                                           jif{sf]
          ljj/0f                                                          t'ngfdf
                        @)^$÷^%     @)^%÷^^       @)^$÷^%      @)^%÷^^    vr{ %      @)^$÷^%     @)^%÷^^
       rfn"              981725     1285165        386201       437337    13=24        39=34          34=03
       k"FhLut           552617          913101    127223      107190     -15.75       23.02          11.74
       ;fjfFF e'QmfgL    155614          161893    73808        94163     27.58        47.43          58.16
            hDdf        1689956         2360159    587232      638690      8.76        34.75          27.06
       gub              1554704     2138044       559048       605412      8.29       35=96         28.32
       j:t'ut
       ;xfotf tyf       135252          222115    28184        33278       18.07     20.84          14.98
       ;f]em} e'QmfgL
            hDdf        1689956         2360159    587232      638690      8.76       34.75         27.06

      gf]6 M g]kfn /fi6« a}+sjf6 k|fKt k';sf] sf]ifsf] cj:yf / dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{nosf] u}/ gub vr{sf]
      cfwf/df tof/ ul/Psf] .

                                                  58
$=@=@ rfn" / k"FhLut vr{sf] l:yltM k'; d;fGt;Dd rfn" vr{ ?=$# ca{ &# s/f]8 #& nfv k'u]sf]
      5, h'g ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL calwsf] t'ngfdf !#=@$ k|ltztn] a9]sf] b]lvG5 . t/ s'n
      ah]6sf]] cfwf/df t'ngfubf{ ut / rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] vr{sf] c+z %=#!
      k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 . cyf{t of] vr{ rfn" vr{tkm{ ljlgof]lht ah]6sf] #$=)# k|ltzt x'g
      cfp5, h'g ut cfly{s jif{ df #(=#$ k|ltzt /x]sf] lyof] . k"FhLuttkm{ k|yd ^ dlxgfdf
      ?=!) ca{ &! s/f]8 () nfv vr{ ePsf] 5, h'g ut jif{sf] vr{sf] k|ltzt eGbf of] jif{sf]
      vr{ k|ltzt !!=@* -!!=&$ – @#=)@_ k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 . of] k"FhLut vr{tkm{ ljlgof]lht
      ah]6sf] !!=&$ k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 . o:t} ;fjfFF e'QmfgLtkm{ ?=( ca{ $! s/f]8 ^# nfv vr{
      ePsf] 5, h'g ;f]xL k|of]hgsf] nflu ljlgof]lht ah]6sf] %*=!^ k|ltzt 5 . ut cfly{s jif{sf]
      ;f]xL calwsf] t'ngfdf ;fjfFF e'QmfgL vr{ !)=&# k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 .
                           k'; d;fGt;Ddsf] vr{sf] t'ngfTds l:ylt
                                                                               -? nfvdf_



                                                           437337
                 450000         386201
                                                                             rfn'
                 400000

                                                                             k"_hLut
                 350000

                                                                             ;f_jf e'QmfgL
                 300000

                 250000

                 200000
                                         127223
                                                                    107190 94163
                 150000
                                                  73808
                 100000

                  50000

                      0

                                  2064/65                    2065/66
       ;dli6ut vr{sf] k|j[lQ ljZn]if0f ubf{ of] jif{sf] klxnf] ^ dlxgfdf cl3Nnf] jif{sf] ;f]xL
       cjlwsf] t'ngfdf *=&^Ü j[l4 ePsf] / ah]6sf] t'ngfdf s'n vr{ @&=)^Ü k|ltzt a[l4 /x]sf]]
       5 . rfn" vr{ / ;fjfFF e'QmfgL vr{ qmdzM #$=)# k|ltzt / %*=!^ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . hasL
       kF"lhuttkm{ Hofb} Go"g cyf{t !!=&$ k|ltzt dfq /x]sf] 5 . ljut cfly{s jif{x?df h:t} o;
       cfly{s jif{df klg cl3Nnf] ^ dlxgfdf sd vr{ x'g] / kl5Nnf] ^ dlxgfdf a9L vr{ x'g] xfd|f]
       sdhf]/Lsf] k'gM k'g/fj[lQ x'g] nIf0f t b]lvPs} 5 . o; cnfjf k"Flhut tkm{sf] vr{ rfn'
       cfly{s jif{df sd x'g'sf] sf/0fdf ah]6 l9nf] cfPsf] / gofF sfo{qmdsf] nflu sfo{ljlw th'{df
       ug'{kg]{ x'Fbf k"FhLut vr{ ck]lIft ?kdf a9\g g;s]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . vr{sf] ljZn]if0f ubf{ u}/
       gub vr{tkm{ ut cfly{s jif{sf] vr{;+u t'ngfubf{ !*=)& k|ltztn] a9\g uPsf] / rfn"
       cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6;+u t'ngf ubf{ !$=(* k|ltzt /x]sf]] 5 . o;af6 u}/ gub vr{
       kl/rfngdf cem} laz]if Wofg k'¥ofpg h?/L /x]sf] 5 . o; afx]s of] d"Nof+sg ug]{ kl/k|]Iodf
       kg{ uPsf] ;d:ofnfO{ ljrf/ ubf{ u}/–gubtkm{sf] tYof+ssf] ;dodf k|ltj]bg ug]{ kl/kf6Ldf
       lgoldttf Nofpg'kg]{ s'/f o; jif{ klg dx;'; ul/of] . o; kl/k|]Iodf u}/ gub vr{nfO{ s;/L
       lgsf;f;+u cfa4 u/L k|ltj]bg k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ ug]{ eGg] laifodf Aofks 5nkmn u/L pko'Qm
       ;+oq th'{df ug{' kg]{ b]lvG5 .

                                             59
     $=@=# ;fj{hlgs vr{ tyf ljQLo pQ/bfloTj (PEFA) ;DaGwL ;"rsf+Ísf] cfwf/df vr{ l:ylt
             ljZj a}+saf6 cWoog ul/Psf] ;fj{hlgs vr{ tyf ljQLo pQ/bfloTj (Public Expenditure
             & Financial Accountability -PEFA) ;DaGwL cWoog cg';f/ C0ftkm{sf] ;fjfFF lkmtf{ tyf
             j}b]lzs ;xfotfaf6 ;+rflnt cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu 5'6\ofO{Psf] ah]6 tyf vr{df ;/sf/L
             lgoGq0f sd dfq /xg] eÌ] /x]sf] 5 . t;y{ PEFA sf] ;"rsf+Ísf] nflu To:tf vr{x?nfO{
             5'6\ofO vr{ laZn]if0f ug]{ dfGotf /x]sf] 5 .
             oxL dfGotfsf]] cfwf/df PEFA sf] ;"rsf+Í;+u cfa4 ?=(# ca{ ^* s/f]8 )( nfv ah]6
             /x]sf] 5, h'g ut cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6sf] t'ngfdf #*=#$ k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . o;
             ;"rsf+Í cg';f/ ut cfly{s jif{sf] t'ngfdf o; rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k';;Ddsf] vr{df ?=!##
             ca{ @* s/f]8 &( nfv ah]6 /x]sf]df $# cj{ ($ s/f]8 $# nfv vr{ ePsf] 5 . of] vr{
             ut cfly{s jif{sf] t'ngfdf al9 /sd b]lvPtfklg ah]6 k|ltztsf] cfwf/n] *=&! k|ltztn]
             36\g uO{ #@=(& k|ltzt dfq vr{ ePsf]5 . t;y{ PEFA ;"rsf+Í cg';f/ vr{ ug]{ Ifdtfdf
             clej[l4 ug{ h?/L /x]sf] oyfy{nfO{ O+lut u/]sf] 5 .
                                                tflnsf – @
             PEFA ;"rsf+Í cg';f/ cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% / @)^%÷^^ sf] t'ngfTds vr{ l:ylt

                                                                                                -? nfvdf_
l;=g+              ljj/0f                       cfly{s jif{@)^$/^%                     cfly{s jif{@)^%/^^
                                        jflif{s       klxnf] ^    ah]6sf]      jflif{s       klxnf] ^     ah]6sf]
                                        ah]6          dlxgfsf]    t'ngfdf      ah]6          dlxgfsf]    t'ngfdf
                                                        vr{     vr{ k|ltzt                     vr{     vr{ k|ltzt
!=      s'n ah]6                      1689956    587232       34.75          2360159    638690       27.06
@=      hDDff ;xfotf cfa4             597533     122934       20.57          865387     105084       12.14
        ;xfotf;+u cfa4 g]kfn          149251     34438        23.07          207449     31037        14.96
        ;/sf/ ;|f]t (Counter Part
        Fund)
        j}b]lzs cg'bfg                274609     41445        15.09          470932     48823        10.37
        j}b]lzs C0f                   173674     47051        27.09          187006     25224        13.49
#=      ;fjfFF e'QmfgL                155614     73808        47.43          161893     94163        58.16
$=      PEFA       ;"rsf+Í   cg';f/   936809     390490       41.68          1332879    439443       32.97
        hDdf
     ;|f]tM dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{no
             o;/L PEFA ;"rsfÍsf] cfwf/df laZn]if0f ubf{ ut cfly{s jif{x?df h:t} o; rfn" cfly{s
             jif{df klg vr{ ;DaGwL ;dli6ut ;d:of j}b]lzs ;xfotfaf6 ;+Grflnt sfo{qmdx?df g}
             /x]sf] s'/f :ki6 x'G5 . ut cfly{s jif{ k|sflzt PEFA ;DaGwL cWwog k|ltj]bgdf pNN]lvt
             Development Action Plan cg';f/ ah]6 tyf vr{ jLrsf] leGgtf (Variance) df %
             k|ltzt eGbf sd Nofpg] eGg] nIo tf]lsPsf] ;Gbe{nfO{ larf/ ubf{ ah]6nfO{ s;/L
             oyfy{k/s jgfpg] / vr{ ug]{ ;Gbe{df s], s:tf Aojwfg /x]sf] 5 eGg] laifodf cWoog u/L
             cfaZos sbd rfNg h?/L ePsf] b]lvG5 .



                                                60
$=@=$ If]qut vr{sf] l:ylt
       If]qut cfwf/df rfn" cly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf klg ut b'O{ cfly{s jif{sf] h:t} ;a}eGbf
       a9L vr{ lzIff If]qtkm{ ?=!@ ca{ !% s/f]8 )^ nfv ePsf] 5 . To;kl5 bf]>f] clwstd
       vr{df cfGtl/s C0fsf] ;fFjf / Aofh tkm{ ^ cj{ #$ s/f]8 #! nfv ePsf] 5 . o; pk|fGt
       s|dzM k|x/Ltkm{ ?= ^ ca{ )% s/f]8 &! nfv, jfx\o C0f tyf Aofh e'QmfgLdf ?=% ca{ &!
       s/f]8 ^! nfv / /Ifftkm{ ?=% ca{ ^^ s/f]8 #% nfv vr{ ePsf] 5 . o;sf] lj:t[t ljj/0f
       cg';"rL @ df lbO{Psf] 5 .
$=@=% k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df vr{sf] l:ylt
       vr{sf] k|fyldlss/0f dWo] klxnf] k|fyldstf k|fKt If]qdf s'n ah]6sf @^=@# k|ltzt vr{
       ePsf] 5, h'g ut jif{ eGbf *=)^ k|ltztn] 36\g uPsf] 5 . ah]6sf] t'ngfdf bf];|f] / t];|f]
       k|fyldstfdf qmdzM #@=%^ k|ltzt / ^&=%& k|ltzt vr{ ePsf] 5, h'g ut jif{sf] t'ngfdf
       bf];|f] k|fyldstf cGtu{t ^=#! k|ltztn] 36]sf] / t];|f] k|fyldstf cGtu{t $!=%! k|ltztn]
       a[l4 ePsf] 5 . k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df laZn]if0f ubf{ klxnf] k|fyldstf If]qdf sd vr{ x'g' /
       sd k|fyldstf If]qdf al9 vr{ x'g'nfO{ /fd|f] ;+s]t dfGg ;lsGg . t;y{ o; ;DaGwdf lj:t[t
       cWoog ug{ h?/L b]lvG5 . vr{sf] la:t[t tflnsf lgDgfg';f/ /x]sf] 5 .
                                           tflnsf – #
                            k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df t'ngfTds vr{ l:ylt
                                                                    -? nfvdf_
          k|fyldtf        ah]6 ljlgof]hg     vr{       ah]6sf] t'ngfdf vr{
                                                             k|ltzt
                       @)^$÷^% @)^%÷^^ @)^$÷^% @)^%÷^^ @)^$÷^% @)^%÷^^
        klxnf] (P1)     1489287       2135590         510736     560174       34 .29       26.23
        bf];|f] (P2)      188923        209165         73435      68107       38 .87       32.56
         t];|f] (P3)        11746         15404         3061      10409       26 .06      67.57
           hDdf          1689956       2360159        587232     638690       34 .75      27.06

$=@=^ /0fgLlts :tDex?sf] cfwf/df vr{sf] l:ylt
       lqjlif{o cGtl/d of]hgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf /0fgLlts :tDex? (Strategic Pillars) cg'?k
       ljutdf rfn" jif{sf] ah]6nfO{ ljZn]if0f u/]/ ljlgof]hg k|:tfj ul/Psf] 5 . plNnlvt
       /0fgLlts :tDe cg';f/ ;j}eGbf a9L vr{ /fxt, k'glgdf{0f / k'gP{sLs/0fdf ePsf] 5 eg]
       ;j}eGbf sd vr{ ;'zf;g / ;]jf k|jfxsf] k|efjsfl/tfdf b]lvPsf] 5 .
                                      tflnsf – $
          /0fgLlts :tDesf] cfwf/df @)^%÷^^ sf] ah]6 tyf vr{sf] t'ngfTds l:ylt
                                                                                         -? nfvdf_
        :tDe                   /0fgLlts                    jflif{s        klxnf] ^     vr{ k|ltzt
                                                           ah]6         dlxgfsf] vr{
         )!    /fxt, k'glg{df{0f tyf k'gP{sLs/0f               105750         56508        53.44
         )@    /f]huf/Ld"ns, ul/jf]Gd"v / km/flsnf]
               cfly{s j[l4                                     224852        54820          24.38
        )#     ;'zf;g / ;]jf k|jfxsf] k|efjsfl/tf          140887              6512          4.62
        )$     ef}lts k"jf{wf/ ljsf;                           533512         34194          6.41
        )%     ;dfj]zL ljsf; / nlIft sfo{s|d                   236908         13918          5.87
        )&     ;fwf/0f k|zf;g                              1118250          472738          42.27
                                  hDdf                     2360159           638690         27.06


                                             61
                   cfly{s jif{ 2065/66 sf] <)fgLlts :tDesf] cfwf<df ah]^sf] cg''kftdf vr{ <sd



                                                                          56,508

                                                                                         54,820



                                                                                                    6,512


                                                                                                    34,194



                                                                                                     13,918
                                                     472,737




                                    {
                          1.<fxt,k'glgdf{)f tyf Plss<)f                  2=<f]huf<Ld"ns, ul<jf]Gd"v, km<flsnf] cfly{s a[l$
                      3=;'zf;g / jf
$=@=& cfly{s juL{s/0fsf] cfwf/df ;]vr{k|jfxsf] k|efasf<Ltf
                                        l:ylt                            4=ef}lts k"jf{wf< ljsf;
                          5=;dfj]zL ljsf; < nlIft sfo{s|d                7=;fwf<)f k|zf;g
        cly{s juL{s/0f cg'?k rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] s'n vr{df ;a}eGbf a9L vr{
        ePsf & vr{ zLif{sx? b]xfo adf]lhd /x]sf 5g\ M
                                            tflnsf – %
                                       zLif{sut vr{ l:ylt
                                                                                -? nfvdf_
          vr{                vr{ zLif{s                   jflif{s     klxnf] ^      vr{   l:ylt
         zLif{s                                           ah]6      dlxgfsf] vr{ k|ltzt
           g+=
          !=!     tna                                     328697        152199         46.30         I
         #=)#     ;fdfhs ;]jf – lgzt{ cg'bfg              231032        100815         43.64         II
          !)=     ;fjfF e'QmfgL                           161893          94163        58.16        III
         !=)&     ;]jf lga[Q ;'lawf                       74240           31556       42.50         IV
         #=)%     ;fdflhs ;]jf – ;zt{ cg'bfg              125212         29580         23.62         V
         !=)%     vfBfGg tyf cfxf/                         53915          25551        47.39        VI
         &=)@     C0f nufgL                               111731         24327         21.77        Vi
         *=)%     ;fdflhs ;]jf – ;zt{ cg'bfg              189553         22498         11.86        VIi




$=@=* ;fwf/0f tyf ljsf; vr{sf] l:ylt
        ah]6 sfof{Gjogsf] cfwf/df ;fwf/0ftM ;fna;fnL?kdf vr{ x'+b} hfg] / ljsf; sfo{sf] nflu
        5'6\ofOPsf] /sddWo] rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf s]–slt vr{ eof] eÌ] ;DaGwdf
        b]xfo adf]lhdsf] l:ylt b]lvPsf] 5 .


                                                62
                                          tflnsf – ^
                            ;fwf/0f / ljsf; vr{sf] t'ngfTds l:ylt
                                                                                        ? nfvdf
       ljj/0f           ah]6 ljlgof]hg                     vr{             ah]6sf] t'ngfdf vr{
                                                                                 k|ltzt
     cfly{s       @)^$.^%        @)^%.^^        @)^$ .^%         @)^%.^^   @)^$.^% @)^%.^^
     jif{
      ;fwf/0f       937430        1118250        415956           472738     44.37       42.27
      ljsf;          752526       1241909        171276           165952      22.76       13.36
       hDdf        1689956        2360159        587232           638690     34.75      34 .75

       pk/f]Qm tflnsfsf] cfwf/df laZn]if0f ubf{ ah]6;+u t'ngf ubf{ ;fwf/0f vr{ al9 x'g] / ljsf;
       vr{ sd x'g] l:yltdf cem a[l4 x'g uPsf] 5 . ;dli6ut cfly{s ljsf;sf] nflu jf:tad}
       o:tf] vr{ l:yltnfO{ /fd|f] dfGg ;lsGg . t;y{ ljsf; sfo{sf] kl/k|]Iodf jf:tjdf g} s] s;/L
       absorption Ifdtf j[l4 ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;Gbe{df d]xgt u/L ;+oGq lgdf{0f ug{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .

$=@=( a}]b]lzs ;xfotfdf ;+rflnt cfof]hgfsf] vr{sf] l:ylt
       k|yd ^ dlxgfdf j}b]lzs ;xfotf cGtu{t hDdf ?=& ca{ $) s/f]8 $& nfv vr{ ePsf]
       5 h;dWo] gubtkm{ ?=$ ca{ )& s/f]8 ^( nfv / u}/–gubtkm{ ?=# ca{ #@ s/f]8 &* nfv
       /x]sf] 5 . o;df s'n j}b]lzs vr{dWo] cg'bfg ;xfotf ?=$ ca{ ** s/f]8 @# nfv / C0f
       ;xfotftkm{ ?=@ ca{ %@ s/f]8 @$ nfv /x]sf] 5 . u}/–gubtkm{ cg'bfg ;xfotftkm{ ! ca{
       #) s/f]8 @& nfv / C0f ;xfotftkm{ @ cj{ @ s/f]8 %) nfv dfq /x]sf] 5, . o;/L u}/
       gub hDdf vr{ ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL calwsf] t'ngfdf !*=)& k|ltztn] a9\g uPsf] 5 .
       o;/L b]zdf zflGt axfnL ePsf] cfwf/df s'n j}b]lzs ;xfotftkm{ cfzf ul/P cg'?k ut
       cfly{s jif{ h:t} vr{ a9\g ;s]g . t;y{ o;f] x'g'df ;xfotftkm{sf] bftfx?af6 /flvg] zt{ xf]
       jf cfof]hgfx?sf] af]lemnf] design n] xf] jf sd{rf/Lx?df lglxt Ifdtf s} sdLn] xf] jf cGo
       sf/0f pQ/bfoL 5g\ o; ;Dawdf lj:t[t cWoog u/L pkfo klxNofpg' kg]{ h?/L cBflk
       sfod} /x]sf] 5 .
$=@=!) ;du| vr{ l:ylt
       ;du| ?kdf laZn]if0f ubf{ ut cfly{s aif{sf] t'ngfdf vr{ k|a[lQnfO{ ;sf/fTds dfGg
       ;lsGg . t/ cfly{s jif{ Aoltt ePsf] b"O{ dlxgf kl5 dfq ;+;b Aoj:yflksf ;dIf ljlgof]hg
       law]os k|:t't ePsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ vr{sf] nflu k"/f ug'{ kg]{ k"jf{wf/ jgfpgdf ;d]t l9nf] x'g
       hfg' / ;f]xL cg'?k vr{df klg l9nf x'g hfg'nfO :jeflas} dfGg ;lsG5 . o;/L s'g} sfd
       ljgf Aoltt ePsf] b"O dlxgfnfO{ s;/L Recover ug]{ eGg] ;DaGwdf sfo{ of]hgf;fy
       sfo{fGjog ug{ g;s]df s'n vr{sf] k|a[lQdf ut cfly{s jif{sf] t'ngfdf sdL cfpg] c;+eflj
       5 . o; cnfjf Psftkm{ ljlgof]lht jh]6 k"0f{ ?kdf vr{ gx'g' / csf]{tkm{ gofF sfo{s|dx?sf]
       nflu cToflws ah]6 dfu x'g'n] hgtfaf6 cg'df]lbt sfo{s|dx?df hf]8 lbO{ ah]6 vr{ ug]{
       tkm{ ;ts{ x'g kg]{ b]lvG5 . ljut jif{x?sf] vr{ k|j[lQsf] cnfjf jfx\o tyf cfGtl/s C0f
       e'QmfgL ;DaGwL Amortization Schedule, vr{x?sf] cg'dflgt ;do / vl/b of]hgf -
       Procurement Plan) h:tf ljj/0fx? ;d]tsf] cfwf/df ah]6 lalgof]hg ug'{kg]{ s'/f klg
       lj;{g ldNb}g . ;fj{hlgs vr{sf] nflu lglZrt gLlt lgodsf] kl/lw leq vr{ ug'{ kg]{
       cfaZostfnfO{ ;d]t larf/ u/L vr{sf] nflu k'/f ug'{ kg]{ k"jf{wf/sf] l:ylt ;d]tnfO{
       cf+sngsf] cfwf/df ah]6 th'{dfsf] cfwf/ jgfp+bf ah]6 a9L oyfy{k/s x'g'sf] ;fy} jh]6 tyf
       vr{ jLrsf] vf8n klg ;fgf] x'g] s'/fdf laZjf; ug{ ;lsG5 .
                                           63
s'g} klg d"+Nofsgsf] tfTko{ s]jn l:yltsf] cf+sng ug]{ dfq ge} l:yltnfO{ ;s/fTds
lbzftkm{ pFef] nufpg df}h'bf ;d:of Pj+ AojwfgnfO{ x6fpg cfaZos pkfox? cjn+jg ug'{
klg xf] . t;y{ oxL b[li6sf]0fnfO{ cfTd;ft u/L rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] jf+sL cjlwnfO{ ljrf/ u/L
;do cfj4 k|To]s lgsfo cGtu{t x/]s kbflwsf/Lsf] AolQmut lhDd]jf/Lsf] sfdsf] jf+8kmf+8
/ ;f]xL cg'?k sfo{;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t -Performance based_ b08 tyf k'?:sf/ g}
Psdfq pkfo x'g ;Sg] b]lvG5 .




                                   64
                                           kl/R5]b – %
                                 ;fj{hlgs vr{ Joj:yfkgsf r'gf}ltx?

!=   yk dfusf] a9\bf] rfk
     Joj:yflksf–;+;bdf ah]6 k|:t't ePs} dlxgfb]lv ljleGg dGqfnox?af6 yk dfusf] cf]O/f] nfu]sf] 5 /
     To;kl5sf] % dlxgfsf] cjlwdf ?=# cj{ %* s/f]8 #$ nfv yk lgsf;f ePsf] 5 . o; jfx]s rfn"tkm{
     !% ca{ %^ s/f]8 @^ nfv / k"FhLuttkm{ !) ca{ %& s/f]8 $# nfv u/L hDdf ?=@^ ca{ ^ s/f]8 ^(
     nfvsf] cTof;nfUbf] /sd ;Daf]wg ug{ cem} afFsL /x]sf] 5 . dGqfnout yk lgsf;f lbOPsf] ljj/0f
     cg';"rL !# / ;Daf]wg ug{ afFsL yk dfusf] ljj/0f cg';"rL ^ df lbOPsf] 5 . oL dfux?dWo] s]xL
     dfux? d'n'ssf] ljQLo cj:yf, vr{sf] k|efjsfl/tf / sfo{qmdsf] k|fyldsLs/0fsf] cf}lrTotf ;d]tsf]
     ljrf/ gu/L >[hgf ul/Psf 5g\ . t/ s]xL dfux? ah]6 th'{df eO;s]kl5 ;/sf/n] lnPsf gLltut
     lg0f{osf sf/0f >[hgf ePsf x'g\ / s]xL d'n'ssf] ;+qmd0fsfnLg cj:yfsf sf/0f >[lht 36gfqmdx?sf
     pkhsf] ?kdf klg b]lvPsf 5g\ h;nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug}{kg]{ cj:yf klg 5 .


@=   rfn" vr{ dfly a9\bf] bjfj
     cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% sf] s"n ah]6df rfn"vr{ %*=! k|ltzt, k"FhLut vr{ #@=& k|ltzt / ;fFjf
     e'QmfgL vr{ (=@ k|ltzt /x]sf]df cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] s"n ah]6df rfn" vr{ %$=$ k|ltzt,
     k"FhLut vr{ #*=& k|ltzt / ;fFjf e'QmfgL tkm{ ^=( k|ltzt ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . o;/L ah]6 th'{dfsf
     avt g} s"n ljlgof]hgdf rfn" vr{sf] lx:;f s/Lj #=& k|ltztn] 36fOPaf6 rfn" vr{sf] ljlgof]hgdf
     s7f]/ gLlt cjnDjg ul/Psf] tYo :ki6 5 . oxL s7f]/ gLlt cg'?k ah]6 sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sbf rfn"
     vr{ tkm{sf] yk dfu y]Ug} g;Sg] cj:yfdf b]lvPsf] 5 . o; cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] vr{sf]
     k|j[lQ x]bf{, o;sf] j[l4b/ *=# k|ltzt dfq /x]tfklg rfn" vr{sf] j[l4b/ !#=! k|ltzt dfq ePsf] b]lvP
     tfklg df3sf] t];|f] xKtfdf k'Ubf o;sf] j[l4b/ !&=@ k|ltzt x'g uPsf] 5 / o;df u}/ ah]6/L vr{ ;d]t
     hf]8]/ x]bf{ s/La @#=% k|ltztsf] j[l4 ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . kl5Nnf lbgx?df of] j[l4b/sf] k|j[lQ (Trend)
     cem a9L /x]sf] l:ylt 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm, rfn"tkm{ dfu ePsf] /sd ?= !@ ca{ %@ nfvdWo]af6
     lgsf;f glbO gx'g] /sdsf] nflu ah]6 Joj:yfkg sl7g r'gf}ltsf] ?kdf b]lvPsf] 5 .


#=   k"FhLut vr{df Go"gtf
     utjif{sf] t'ngfdf k"FhLut vr{sf] ljlgof]hg ^%=@# k|ltztn] j[l4 ul/P tfklg o; jif{sf] ^ dlxgfdf
     gubtkm{sf] dfq vr{ l:ylt x]bf{ utjif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] eGbf @#=$ k|ltztn] 36]sf] 5 eg] ;du|
     k"FhLut vr{ klg 36]sf] cg'dfg 5 . kl5Nnf lbgx?df of] gsf/fTds k|j[lQdf ;'wf/ cfO{ df3sf] rf}+yf]
     xKtfdf !&=@ k|ltztdf em/]sf] 5 .
     d'ntM o;jif{sf] ah]6 k|:t'ltdf @ dlxgfeGbf a9L l9nfO x'g', ah]6 k|:t't x'gf;fy bz}+ / ltxf/sf] nfdf]
     ;fj{hlgs ljbfsf] k|efj kg'{, t/fO{df czflGt, aGb x8\tfnsf] c;/ x'g', l8hfOg ;DkGg gePsf
     cfof]hgf÷sfo{qmdsf] tof/L k"/f x'g g;s]sf]n] ;dodf sfo{qmd ;+rfng x'g g;Sg', sltko sfo{qmdsf
     lgb]{lzsf÷sfo{ljlw agfpg ;do nfUg' h:tf sf/0fx?af6 sfo{qmdx? ;+rfngdf ljnDj eO{ k"FhLut
     vr{df x|f;f]Gd'v cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 h;nfO{ ult lbg'kg]{ r'gf}lt 68\sf/f] ?kdf b]lvPsf] 5 .




                                                  65
$=   ljlgof]lht sfo{qmd cf]em]ndf÷gofF sfo{qmdsf] >[hgf
     ljlgof]lht sfo{qmdx?sf] vr{ ug]{ clVtof/L / :jLs[t sfo{qmd k7fPkl5 ltgLx?sf] sfof{GjognfO{ ult
     lbg], sfof{Gjog x'g g;Sg] sfo{qmdx?nfO{ ;+zf]wg ug]{, art x'g] /sd cGoq vr{ gk'u x'g]
     sfo{qmdx?df /sdfGt/ u/L vr{nfO{ Joj:yfkg ug]{tkm{ eGbf lhDd]jf/ lgsfox? gofF gofF sfo{qmdx?
     to u/L yk /sd dfutkm{ pGd'v ePsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . o;af6 ljlgof]lht ah]6 vr{ gx'g], ah]6sf]
     cefjdf yk sfo{qmdsf nflu /sd klg lgsf;f gx'g] / sf]ifdf /sd ;+lrt /lx/xg] lj8Djgfk"0f{ cj:yf
     >[hgf ePsf] 5 . df3sf] rf}+yf] xKtfsf] gub sf]ifsf] l:ylt x]bf{ ljlgof]lht k"FhLut vr{ ut jif{eGbf !&
     k|ltztn] 36]sf], gofF sfo{qmdsf nflu yk k"FhLut ah]6 !@ cj{eGbf a9L dfu ePsf] / sf]ifsf] cj:yf
     @@ cj{ &) s/f]8sf] ;+lrlt b]lvPaf6 of] tYonfO{ k'li6 ub{5 . of] lj8Djgfk"0f{ l:yltnfO{ lgoGq0f ug{
     ljlgof]lhttk{msf] k"+hLut vr{df j[l4 ug'{kg]{, gofF dfu / sfo{qmdnfO{ k|fyldlss/0f u/L art x'g]
     ah]6af6 ;Daf]wg ug'{kg]{ / vr{ j[l4 u/L sf]ifdf /x]sf] /sdsf] ;+lrlt ;Gt'ngdf /fVg'kg]{ h:Tf r'gf}lt
     b]lvPsf 5g\ .


%=   d'ns'n] y]Ug sl7g j}b]lzs e|d0f / cfly{s ;xfotf
     ljlzi6 JolQm / k|ltlglwd08nsf] e|d0f vr{jfkt ut jif{sf] k'; dlxgf;Dd ?=# s/f]8 (@ nfv %!
     xhf/ vr{ ePsf]df o;jif{ ^)=! k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?=^ s/f]8 @* nfv $% xhf/ vr{ ePsf] 5 /
     jif{e/sf nflu ljlgof]lht /sd ?= ^ s/f]8 ;dfKt eO{ ?= @* nfv $% xhf/ C0ffTds x'g uPsf]
     5.
     To:t}u/L cfly{s ;xfotf jfktsf] vr{ klg utjif{ k'; dlxgf;Dd ?= $ s/f]8 ^& nfv @# xhf/
     ePsf]df o; jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf %#=$ k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?=& s/f]8 !^ nfv *( xhf/ k'u]sf] 5 .
     rfn" jif{el/sf nflu ljlgof]lht /sd ?= ^ s/f]8 /x]sf] ;Gbe{df ^ dlxgfdf g} ?=! s/f]8 !^ nfv *(
     xhf/ C0ffTds x'g uPsf] :ki6 5 .
     ;/sf/n] vr{df ldtJolotf sfod ug]{ lgb]{lzsf, @)^% hf/L u/]kl5 o;k|sf/sf] vr{df sdL cfpg]
     ck]Iff ul/P tfklg jif{el/sf nflu ljlgof]lht /sd cfwf jif{nfO{ klg gk'Ug] u/L vr{ ePsf] cj:yf 5 .
     o:tf] vr{ lgoGq0f eO{ 36\g] eGbf klg a9\g] qmd lg/Gt/ /x]sf] b]lv+bf o; k|of]hgsf nflu dfq afFsL
     cjlwsf lglDt slDtdf ?=!@ s/f]8 vr{ Joj:yfkg ug'{ ;fFlRrs} r'gf}ltk"0f{ 5 .


^=   k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] ;+af]wgdf pNn]lvt ljifox?sf] sfof{Gjog M
     ;DdfgLo k|wfgdGqLHo"n] hgtfn] kl/jt{gsf] k|ToIf cg'e'lt ug{ gkfO/fv]sf] cj:yfdf kl/jt{gnfO{
                      "
     k|ToIf ?kdf cg'et ug]{ u/L ljleGg ljifox? ;d]6L ldlt @)^%÷!)÷!@ df /fi6«sf] gfddf ;+j]fwg ug'{
     ePsf] lyof] . tL ljifox?dWo] sltko s'/fx? ;/sf/sf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd / ah]6 jQmJodf ;dflxt
     eO{ ah]6 ljlgof]hg ;d]t ePsf] / sltko ljifox? ah]6df gk/]klg pNn]v ePsf 5g\ h;sf] tTsfn
     sfof{Gjogsf] h?/L 5 . rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6df gk/]sf t/ k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] ;+jf]wgdf k/]sf s]xL
     dxTjk"0f{ sfo{qmdx? h:t} 3/]n' lx+;fnfO{ lgif]w ub}{ hfg] p2]Zon] x/]s ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf !
     dlxgfleq 3/]n' lx+;f ph'/L s]Gb|x? :yfkgf ug]{, gofF sfg"g agfO{ 5'jf5'tnfO{ h3Go ck/fwsf] s;'/sf
     ?kdf sf/jfxL ug]{, cbfntdf 5'jf5't ;]n :yfkgf, k|To]s ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf blntsf] clgjfo{
     ;xeflutfdf clwsf/ ;DkGg 5'jf5't ck/fw lgu/fgL s]Gb| u7g, blnt z}lIfs 5fqj[lQ sf]if :yfkgf,
     /fli6«o dhb'/ cfof]u, ;'s'Daf;L, d'Qm sd}of, xn}of, jfbL / d';ndfg ;d'bfo ;d]tsf ck]Iff ;Daf]wg
     ug{ clwsf/ ;DkGg cfof]u u7g ug]{, kz' :jf:Yo lzlj/ ;+rfng ug]{, k|To]s lhNnf k|zf;g sfof{nodf
     vfB ;'/Iff cfo'Qm lgo'Qm ug]{, ;a} gful/sx?sf] ljB'tLo clen]v z'? ug{, pRr:t/Lo lzIff cfof]u
     u7g, v'nf ljZjljBfnosf] cjwf/0ff sfof{Gjog ug{ cWoog sfo{bn u7g, Gofo k|0ffnLdf ;'wf/ u/L
     hg;fwf/0fsf nflu GofonfO{ ;'ky / ;'ne t'Nofpg j}slNks ljjfb ;dfwfg P]g Nofpg] nufotsf
                                                  66
     ljleGg sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ ;DalGwt dGqfnox?af6 sfo{of]hgf agfO{ dGqfnosf] lgoldt ah]6
     / sfo{qmdaf6 Joj:yfkg x'g g;Sg] cj:yf bzf{O{ ah]6 dfu ug]{ sfd z'? ePsf] 5 .
     o; ;Gbe{df dlxnf afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfnoaf6 3/]n' lx+;fnfO{ lgif]w ub}{ hfg] p2]Zon]
     k|To]s ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf 3/]n' lx+;f ph'/L s]Gb|x? :yfkgf ug{ / k|To]s ufpF ljsf; ;ldltdf
     5'jf5't ck/fw lgu/fgL s]Gb| :yfkgf ug]{ sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ?= !$ s/f]8 &( nfv yk
     ah]6 dfu eO{ cfPsf] 5 . o;/L yk ePsf] sfo{qmdx?sf] nfutsf] oyfy{tf klxrfg u/L bf]xf]/f] gkg]{
     u/L yk lgsf;f lbg] sfo{ r'gf}ltk"0f{ 5 .


&=   lgj[lQe/0f vr{df j[l4 M
     rfn' cfly{s jif{df ;]jf lgj[Q /fi6«;]js sd{rf/Lx?sf] lgj[lQe/0f jfkt lghfdtL, h+uL / k|x/L tk{m ?=
     ^ ca{ @* s/f]8 / lzIfstk{m ?=&( s/f]8 u/L hDdf ?=& ca{ & s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ePsf] 5 . sf}zL
     tf]iffvfgf, /Iff n]vf lgoGqs sfof{no / lzIfs lstfavfgfaf6 k|fKt kl5Nnf] ljj/0f cg';f/ k|yd ^
     dlxgfdf lghfdtLtk{m ?=# ca{ lgsf;f ePsf]df ?=@ ca{ %), h+uLtk{m ! ca{ %) s/f]]8 lgsf;f ePsf]df
     ?= (( s/f]8 &@ nfv vr{ e};s]sf], ?=%) s/f]8 *^ nfvsf] /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}+s / g]kfn a}+s
     lnld6]8af6 vr{sf] :6]6d]06 k|fKt e};s]sf]n] ;f] ;d]t lgsf;f lbPsf] /sd ;a} tTsfn g} vr{ x'g]
     b]lvG5 . lzIfstk{m ?=&( s/f]8 lgsf;f ePsf]df ?= !^ s/f]8 vr{ e};s]sf] 5 . lghfdtL tk{m afFsL
     cjlwsf] nflu ?=@ ca{ %) s/f]8 vr{ x'g] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 . To:t} h+uL tk{m afFsL cjlwsf] nflu ?=!
     ca{ @$ s/f]8 yk nfUg] cg'dfg k|fKt ePsf] 5 . To:t} lzIfstk{m afFsL cjlwsf] nflu ?= ^$ s/f]8
     nfUg] cg'dfg k|fKt ePsf] 5 .
     ut cfly{s jif{df lghfdtL, k|x/Ltk{m lgj[lQe/0fdf ?= # ca{ &) s/f]8, h+uLtkm{ ?= ! ca{ (& s/f]8 /
     lzIfstk{m ?= %) s/f]8 ;d]t u/L hDdf ?= ^ ca{ !* s/f]8 vr{ ePsf] lyof] . ;]jf lgj[Q /fi6« ;]js
     sd{rf/Lx?sf] ;+Vof k|To]s jif{ a9\b} hfg] x'Fbf lgj[lQe/0f jfktsf] /sd klg ;f]xL cg';f/ a9\b} uPsf]5 .
     rfn" cfly{s jif{df afFsL ^ dlxgfsf] nflu ?=$ ca{ #* s/f]8 nfUg] cg'dfg ul/Psf] 5 pQm /sddWo]
     ljlgof]hg ePsf] /sddf sl/a ?=! ca{ %) s/f]8 gk'u x'g] b]lvG5 . lgj[lQe/0f ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf]
     b[li6sf]0fn] klg ;+j]bgzLn ljifo xf] h;nfO{ ;dod} Joj:yfkg ug{ g;Sg] xf] eg] /fHosf]
     ljZj;gLotfdf cfFr cfpg ;S5 . of] vr{ rfn' k|s[ltsf] vr{ ePsf] / cGoq dGqfnosf] art ah]6af6
     /sdfGt/÷;|f]tfGt/ u/]/ dfq o;nfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ ;lsg] t/ o:tf] art ;DalGwt dGqfnoaf6 ;xh
     lsl;dn] pknJw gx'g] x'Fbf of] sfo{ r'gf}tLk"0f{ b]lvPsf] 5 .


*=   :j]lR5s cjsfzsf] ;}4flGts ;xdlt M
     lghfdtL ;]jf P]gsf] bkmf #% sf] pkbkmf ! adf]lhd pd]/sf] xbdf %) jif{ k"/f ePsf lghfdtL ;]jfsf
     bkmf @$3! adf]lhd ljz]if a9'jf kfPsf sd{rf/Lsf nflu & jif{sf] lgj[Qe/0f /sd Psd'i6 cu|Ld ?kdf
     k|bfg ug{sf nflu /fhkqdf ;"rgf k|sfzg ug{ ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnoaf6 ;}4flGts ;xdlt dfu
     ePsf]df ldlt @)^%÷!)÷@^ sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ ;}4flGts ;xdlt uO;s]sf] 5 . of] :j]lR5s cjsfzsf]
     of]hgfdf slt hgf sd{rf/Lx? ;xefuL x'g]5g\ / slt;Dd vr{ Joxf]g'{ kg]{ xf] xfn;Dd Plsg 5}g .
     tyflk ;/sf/sf] k|fyldstfdf k/]sf] k|:t't ljifodf ;}4flGts ;xdlt lbO;lsPsf]n] rfn" jif{ vr{ geO{
     art x'g;Sg] ah]6af6 vr{ Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 .


(=   sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL lj:tf/ x'Fbf ah]6df yk rfk M
     /fh:j k|zf;gnfO{ kl/0ffdd'vL, :jR5 / kf/bzL{ agfpg cfly{s jif{ @)^#÷^$ b]lv g} k/LIf0fsf] ?kdf
     7"nf s/bftf sfof{no / ;'Vvf aGb/ufx eG;f/ sfof{nodf sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL

                                                   67
     nfu" ul/Psf] lyof] . h;sf] kl/0ffd :j?k pQm sfof{nox?df /fh:j c;"nLdf pNn]vgLo k|ult x'g'sf]
     ;fy} k|efj d"Nof+sg ubf{ ;sf/fTds b]lvPsf]n] cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% df la/f6gu/ / e}/xjf eG;f/
     sfof{no tyf cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{no w/fg / g]kfnh+udf ;d]t sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t k|f]T;fxg
     k|0ffnLnfO{ lj:tf/ u/L nfu" ul/of] . rfn" cfly{s jif{df cem s]xL eG;f/ tyf cfGtl/s /fh:j
     sfof{nox?df k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL lj:tf/ ug]{ u/L ah]6 lgdf{0f ubf{ hDdf ?=^ s/f]8 %( nfv ah]6
     ljlgof]hg ePsf] lyof] .
     ah]6 lgdf{0f kZrft dlGqkl/ifb\af6 ldlt @)^%÷*÷$ df ePsf] lg0f{ofg';f/ !#)) sd{rf/L /x]sf] @@
     j6f eG;f/ sfof{no / ()) sd{rf/L /x]sf] ;a} @@ j6f cfGtl/s /fh:j sfof{nox?df sfo{ ;Dkfbgdf
     cfwfl/t k|f]T;fxg k|0ffnL @)^% d+;L/ ! ut]b]lv nfu" ePsf]n] ;f]sf] nflu dfq rfn" cfly{s jif{df sl/a
     ?= #) s/f]8 gk'u x'g] ePsf] 5 . rfn" k|s[ltsf] vr{df cTolws rfk kl//x]sf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf o;af6
     yk rfk kg{ uO{ ah]6 Joj:yfkgdf r'gf}tL ylkPsf] 5 .


!)= C0fsf] ;fjfF tyf Aofh ldgfxfsf] bfloTj
     k|fs[lts k|sf]k tyf åGåsf sf/0f dsf{df k/]sf / ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf ;fgf ls;fg tyf 3/]n'
     pBdLx?n] s[lif ljsf; a}+s, ;fgf ls;fg ljsf; a}+s, g]kfn a}+s lnld6]8 / /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}+saf6
     lnPsf] ?= #) xhf/;Ddsf] C0fsf] ;fjfF / k"/} Aofh ?= #) xhf/eGbf a9L ?= ! nfv;Ddsf] C0fdf
     afFsL /x]sf] k"/} Jofh / xhf{gf ldgfxf ug]{ ah]6 jQmJosf] 3f]lift sfo{qmd cg';f/ o; k|of]hgsf nflu
     ah]6 pkzLif{s g+a/ #%–$–$*$ df ?= $) s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf] lyof] . o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu
     g]kfn ;/sf/ dlGqkl/ifb\af6 sfo{ljlw :jLs[t eO{ of] sfo{qmd ;+rfngdf cfO;s]sf] 5 .
     xfn;Dd pknAw tYofÍ cg';f/ /fli6«o jfl0fHo a}+ssf] ?=@% s/f]8 (* nfv, s[lif ljsf; a}+ssf]
     ?= # ca{ ## s/f]8 @# nfv, g]kfn a}+s lnld6]8sf] ?=!! s/f]8 *! nfv / ;fgf ls;fg ljsf; a}+ssf]
     ?=#! s/f]8 &^ nfv u/L hDdf ?= $ ca{ )@ s/f]8 &* nfv ldgfxf eO;s]sf] 5 . sfo{ljlw :jLs[t
     ePsf] # dlxgfdf g} ?= @ ca{ %$ s/f]8 ** nfv ;fFjf / Jofhtk{m ?=! ca{ $& s/f]8 () nfv u/L
     hDdf ?=$ ca{ )@ s/f]8 &* nfv ldgfxf ePsf] l:ylt / C0f ldgfxfsf] sfo{ljlwdf x'g uO/x]sf]
     ;+zf]wg ;d]tsf] c;/sf] k[i7e"lddf rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] afFsL cjlw ;d]tdf s/La ?= * ca{ $) s/f]8
     yk ldgfxf x'g ;Sg] l:ylt b]lvG5 . of] /sd Plsg u/L zf]wegf{ lb+bf ;do nfUg] x'Fbf rfn'jif{ ;j} /sd
     zf]wegf{ geP klg clwsf+z /sd zf]wegf{ ug'{kg{]g} x'G5 .
     o;/L ;/sf/sf] k|:t't 3f]lift sfo{qmd ;+rflnt ug{ rfn" jif{df g} ?= $) s/f]8 o; k|of]hgsf nflu
     5'6\ofOPsf]df ljlgof]hgaf6 s/Lj ?= * ca{ gk'u x'g] cj:yf b]lvPsf] 5 . ah]6df gk/]sf] k"+hLut
     k|s[ltsf] of] vr{sf] Joj:yfkg klg dGqfnox?sf] art x'g] k"+hLut ah]6af6 Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf
     b]lvPsf] 5 .


!!= sd{rf/Lsf] tna ;dfof]hg / yk dfu
     >]0fLa4 kbx?sf] tnadfgdf b]lvPsf] lj;+ult x6fpg cNksfnLg ?kdf eP klg s]xL >]0fLx?sf] tnadf
     ;dfof]hg ug'{kg]{ l;kmfl/z k|fKt ePsf] 5 . of] l;kmfl/z sfof{Gjog ubf{ dfq klg s/Lj      ?= ! cj{
     %) s/f]8 /sd gk'u x'g] b]lvG5 . rfn" vr{tk{msf] of] /sdsf] Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{ r'gf}ltk"0f{ b]lvPsf]
     5 . o;sf cltl/Qm, ljleGg sd{rf/L ;+u7gx?sf] tk{maf6 k|fKt ePsf cfly{s dfux?sf] ;DaGwdf klg
     5nkmn eO/x]sf] l:ylt 5 .




                                                 68
!@= ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQf
     Ho]i7 gful/sx?n] ;fljsdf kfOcfPsf] ;fdflhs ;'/Iff eQfdf rfn" jif{ j[xt\ ?kdf k'g/fjnf]sg
     ul/of] . o; qmddf Ho]i7 / Psn dlxnf gful/ssf] pd]/sf] xb 36fpgsf] ;fy} eQf b/df klg j[l4
     ul/of] . o;sf cltl/Qm nf]kf]Gd'v hfltsf ;a} pd]/sf AolQmnfO{ eQf lbg] 3f]if0ff ul/of] . o;sf nflu
     ;fljsdf ?= (* s/f]8 !* nfv ljlgof]hg ul/Psf]df o; jif{ ?= $ ca{ $! s/f]8 ljlgof]hg ul/Psf]
     lyof] .
     :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfnoaf6 k|:t't sfo{qmdsf nflu ljleGg lhNnfx?af6 gk'u x'g] eg]sf] cfwf/df ?=
     !) s/f]8 dfu eO;s]sf] l:ylt 5 eg] o;} k|of]hgsf nflu ut jif{sf] e'QmfgL lbg afFsL ?= @( s/f]8sf]
     ;d]t dfu k|fKt ePsf] 5 . rfn" k|s[ltsf] s"n ?= #( s/f]8sf] of] dfusf] oyfy{tf klxrfg ug'{ / To;sf]
     nflu cfjZos vr{sf] Joj:yfkg ug'{ ;flRrs} r'gf}ltk"0f{ b]lvPsf] 5 .


!#= c:yfoL b/aGbL yk x'Fbf ah]6df bjfj
     rfn" cfly{s jif{df ljleGg dGqfno÷cfof]u cGtu{t c:yfoL b/aGbL yk x'Fbf rfn" vr{df bjfj a9\b}
     uPsf] 5 . Ps k6s b/aGbL ;[hgf u/]kl5 To;nfO{ x6fpg} g;Sg] ljutsf] cg'ej /xFbf /xFb} klg
     c:yfoL b/aGbL yk ug]{ qmd /f]lsPsf] 5}g . o; cfly{s jif{df dfq lgjf{rg cfof]u cGtu{tsf lgjf{rg
     sfof{nox?sf] nflu ;jf/L rfns ^& hgfsf] b/aGbL ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . To:t} zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f
     dGqfno cGtu{t cfof]hgf Joj:yfkg ;d"x zflGt ;ldlt, zflGt sf]if ;lrjfno nut ;+sng sfo{bn,
     åGåf]Q/ zflGt tyf k'glg{df{0f kl/of]hgfdf /f=k=k|yd >]0fLb]lv >]0fL lalxg, ;jf/L rfns, kl/r/ ;d]t
     @)( hgfsf] c:yfoL b/aGbL ;[hgf ul/Psf] 5 . To:t} ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno cGtu{t
     af9LhGo Iflt k'glg{df{0f cfof]hgf, ;'g;/L df]/Ë k'n lgdf{0f cfof]hgf, l6s/ bfr'{nf ;8s cfof]hgfdf
     /f=k=k|yd >]0fLb]lv >]0fL lalxg;Dd #) hgfsf] b/aGbL ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . pBf]u dGqfno cGtu{t ljz]if
     cfly{s If]qsf] nflu @) j6f gofF b/aGbL ;[hgf ePsf] 5 . ;fgf]ltgf] ;+Vofdf c:yfoL b/aGbL yk
     ePsf ;a} lgsfox?sf] gfd pNn]v ug]{ xf] eg] ljj/0f nfdf] aGg ;S5 . o;/L b/aGbL ylkb} uPkl5
     yk ah]6 klg lb+b} hfg' kg]{ x'Fbf yk ah]6 dfu ug]{ qmd z'? e};s]sf] 5 . t/ ljlgof]hgdf gk/]sf] rfn"
     k|s[ltsf] vr{ Joj:yfkg ug]{ sfo{ eg] ;lhnf] 5}g .
     c:yfoL b/aGbL ;[hgfaf6 cNksfnLg cfly{s bfloTj dfq ga9L pkbfg, cf}iflw pkrf/ tyf ;+lrt labf
     jfktsf] /sd lbg' kg]{ x'Fbf bL3{sfnLg ?kdf g} /fHonfO{ cfly{s bfloTj a9\g] b]lvG5 . Psftk{m lghfdtL
     ;]jfdf sd{rf/L ;+Vof a9L eof] Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsPg eg]/ ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfnon] :j]lR5s
     cjsfzsf] k|lqmof cl3 a9fpg] csf]{tk{m ljleGg dGqfno / cfof]ux?n] c:yfoL b/aGbL ;[hgf ul/b}
     hfFbf /fHonfO{ bf]xf]/f] cfly{s bfloTj kg]{ ljifodf ;dodf g} ;a}sf] Wofg hfg ;s]df /fHosf] yk cfly{s
     bfloTjdf sdL NofpFg ;lsGYof] .


!$= ljb]zl:yt /fhb"tfaf; / :yfoL lgof]ux?sf] dfu
     ljb]z l:yt @# j6f g]kfnL /fhb"tfaf;x? @ j6f :yfoL lgof]u / # j6f dxfjfl0fHo b"tfaf;x? ;d]tsf
     nflu rfn" vr{tk{m gk'u x'g] egL ?= $ s/f]8 / d'b|f cjd"Nof+gsf sf/0f yk ug'{kg]{ ?= !! s/f]8 $%
     nfv u/L ?= !^ s/f]8 $% nfv / k"+hLuttk{m ;jf/L ;fwgsf nflu ?= ! s/f]8 ^) nfv u/L hDdf
     ?=!* s/f]8 )% nfv dfu ePsf] 5 . ah]6 k|:tfj eO;s]kl5 dlGqkl/ifb\sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ ljb]zl:yt
     g]kfnL b"tfjf; tyf dxfjfl0fHo b"tfjf;sf] sd{rf/Lx?sf] nflu hgj/L !, @))( b]lv nfu" x'g] u/L gofF
     eQfb/ sfod ul/Paf6 yk ?=@ s/f]8sf] jflif{s bfloTj klg ylkPsf] 5 .
     o;sf cltl/Qm blIf0f clk|msf, s'j]t, Sofgf8f / a|flhndf gofF /fhb"tfaf; :yfkgf ug'{kg]{ / o;sf
     nflu s/La ?=!@ s/f]8 /sd o;} jif{ cfjZos kg]{ ljj/0f ;lxt k//fi6« dGqfnoaf6 ;xdlt dfu
     eO/x]sf] l:ylt 5 .
                                                  69
     o;/L xfn ;+rfngdf /x]sf /fhb"tfaf; / lgof]ux?s} nflu vr{ Joj:yfkg ug{ wf} wf} kl//x]sf] cj:yf /
     To;df klg gofF b"tfaf; :yfkgfn] jif]{gL >[hgf ug]{ yk bfloTjdf ;xdlt lbg] ljifo r'gf}ltk"0f{ b]lvG5 .


!%= zflGt ;'/Iffsf] a9\bf] vr{
     u[x dGqfno cGtu{t rfn" jif{sf] ljlgof]hsf] cltl/Qm ?=*& s/f]8 yk lgsf;f uO;s]sf] 5 . o;b]lv
     afx]s gk'u x'g] tnasf] cltl/Qm, vfBfGg cfxf/, OGwg dd{t, ;+rf/, kf]zfs, clkm; ;fdfg, x]lnsK6/
     ef8f, cfly{s ;xfotf h:tf rfn" vr{df dfq ?= ! ca{ *^ s/f]8, sfof{no lgdf{0f / hUuf v/Lb
     nufotsf sfdsf nflu ?=$& s/f]8 )@ nfv k"+hLut vr{df dfq dfu ePsf] 5 . dfu ePsf] k"+hLut
     vr{ sfo{ k|ultsf] cfwf/df ljleGg dGqfno cGtu{t art x'g] k"+hLut vr{af6 Joj:yfkg ug{ ;lsg]
     eP tfklg rfn" vr{ tkm{sf] dfunfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ sfo{ r'gf}ltk"0f{ b]lvPsf] 5 .


!^= lhNnfut k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf nflu ePsf] yk dfu
     ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno / :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ljutdf ;+rfngdf /x]sf
     lhNnf:t/Lo of]hgfx?df ljutsf] ljlgof]hg 36]sf] egL cfPsf] u'gf;f]nfO{ b[li6ut u/L yk lgsf;faf6
     ljutsf] ljlgof]hg g36\g] Joj:yf ldnfpg] k|ltj4tf JoQm ePsf] 5 . o; qmddf ljutsf of]hgfx?sf]
     cltl/Qm yk of]hgfx? ;d]tsf nflu hgk|ltlglwx?af6 yk dfusf] cf]O/f] nfUg yfn]sf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf]
     dfu :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno cGtu{t ?= ^* s/f]8 !) nfv / ef}lts of]hgf dGqfno cGtu{t ?=$@
     s/f]8 %* nfv u/L hDdf ?=! ca{ !) s/f]8 ^* nfv b]lvPsf] 5 h;sf nflu art ah]6af6
     kl/rfng ug{ sl7gfO ePsf] 5 .


!&= /fli6«o ljB't ;+s6 lg?k0f, sfo{of]hgf, @)^% sf] bfloTj
     g]kfn ;/sf/ -dlGqkl/ifb\_ sf] ldlt @)^%.(.( sf] lg0f{oaf6 æ/fli6«o ljB't z+s6 lg?k0f sfo{of]hgf,
     @)^%Æ kfl/t ePsf] 5 . pQm :jLs[t sfo{of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] nufgL ug'{kg{] s"n
     /sd ?= & ca{ ^% s/f]8 *) nfvdWo] rfn" jif{ b'xjL–s6}of ljB't k|zf/0f k'glg{df{0fsf nflu ?= #
     s/f]8, CFL 3/b}nf] cleofgsf nflu ?= !! s/f]8, cfBf]lus If]qdf lkm8/ lgdf{0fsf nflu ?= !) s/f]8,
     ;f}o{ phf{ k|f]T;fxg sfo{qmdsf nflu ?=% s/f]8 / /fli6«o k|zf/0f nfOgsf] Ifdtf lj:tf/sf nflu ?= !
     ca{ u/L hDdf ?= ! ca{ @( s/f]8 yk lgsf;f lbg'kg{] cj:yf 5 . k"FhLut k|s[ltsf] of] vr{ cGoq
     dGqfnosf] jrt x'g] ah]6af6 Joj:yfkg ug{] sfo{ r'gf}ltk"0f{ 5 .


!*= Sofen/L :yfgfGt/0f
     @))( ;fn b]lv l;+xb/jf/ kl/;/df /x]sf] g]kfnL ;]gf lsË; xfp; xf]N8 Sofen/Lsf] lj?4df ;jf{]Rr
     cbfntdf k/]sf] d'4fdf Ps jif{leq 3f]8f–tj]nf / To;df kflnPsf 3f]8fx? xfnsf] :yfgaf6 :yfgfGt/0f
     ug'{, ToxfF ePsf kmf]xf]/x?nfO{ j}1flgs / ;'/lIft 9+un] :yfgfGt/0f ug{] jf lj;h{g ug{] Joj:yf ug'{, pQm
     If]q jl/kl/ b'u{Gw cfpg] jf cGo s'g} 9+un] jftfj/0ffLo x|f; cfpg] s'g} sfd gug"{, gu/fpg' eGg]
     ;Ddsf] k/dfb]z ldlt @)^%.@.@@ df ePsf] 5 . pNn]lvt k/dfb]z sfof{Gjog ug{] ;Gbe{df pQm
     Sofen/L Psjif{ leqdf gf/fo0flx6Ldf :yfgfGt/0f ug'{kg{] Joxf]/f ;fy ?=@@ s/f]8 *& nfv %& xhf/
     yk /sd dfu ePsf] 5 . ;jf{]Rr cbfntaf6 km};nf ePsf] pQm sfo{qmd ;+rfngfy{ ah]6 th'{dfsf
     jvt ;DalGwt lgsfoaf6 ah]6 k|:tfjg} gePsf] t/ ah]6 jlg;s]kl5 tfs]tf eO/x]sf] of] vr{
     Joj:yfkg ug'{ csf{] r'gf}lt b]lvPsf] 5 .


                                                   70
!(= af9Lsf] k|sf]kaf6 pTkGg bfloTjM–
     sf]zLsf] afFw eTsg uO{ ;Kt/L, ;'g;/L / df]/Ëdf ePsf] wg–hgsf] IfltnfO{ b[li6ut u/L o;sf]
     k'g:yf{kgf / k'glg{df{0fsf nflu rfn"tkm{ ?=!) s/f]8 / k"FhLutkm{ ?=! ca{ () s/f]8 u/L hdf ?= @ ca{
     ljlgof]hg ul/of] . ;DalGwt lgsfox?af6 kl5 sfo{qmd th'{df ubf{, rfn" k|s[ltsf vr{;Fu ;DalGwt
     sfo{qmdx?sf] cf]O/f] nfUof] h;nfO{ ;Daf]wg ubf{ e}k/L zLif{sdf /x]sf] rfn"vr{af6 dfq
     ?= !^ s/f]8 #& nfv !* xhf/ /sd lgsf;f lbOof] eg] jfFsL cjlwsf] dfu t ;Djf]wg ePs} 5}g .
     k"FhLuttkm{ eg] ljlgof]hgaf6 vr{ Joj:yfkg x'g;Sg] b]lvPtfklg rfn" vr{sf] bjfj wfGg ufx|f] kg{]
     b]lvPsf] 5 .
     o;sf cltl/Qm, dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ldlt @)^%.&.!! sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ æ;b"/ klZrdf~rn If]qdf ljkbaf6
     k|efljtx?sf nflu ljz]if /fxt sfo{qmdnfO{ qmdzM sfof{Gjog ug{] u/L ah]6nfO{ @ ca{ %) s/f]8
     ?k}ofsf] ;Ldfleq ;dfof]hg ug{]Æ lg0f{o ePtfklg u[x dGqfnotkm{ ?= &) s/f]8 #@ nfv #* xhf/,
     :jf:Yo tyf hg;FVof dGqfnotkm{ ?= ^ s/f]8 @ nfv ^$ xhf/, hn;|f]t dGqfnotkm{ ?=*# s/f]8 !$
     nfv @% xhf/, ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfnotkm{ ?= ## s/f]8 !# nfv ^* xhf/ / s[lif
     dGqfnotkm{ ?= !^ s/f]8 !) nfv #^ xhf/ sf] sfo{qmd ;lxt /sd dfu eO{ cfPsf] 5 .
     rfn" jif{sf nflu :jLs[t ah]6sf] ;Ldfleq gk/]sf] of] sfo{qmd dlGqkl/ifb\af6 lg0f{o x'Fbf klg qmdzM
     sfof{Gjog ug{] elgPsf]df rfn" jif{df vr{ ug{] Ifdtf;Dd ljrf/ gu/L ;DalGwt dGqfnox?af6
     sfo{qmd ;lxt ah]6 dfu ePsf] / k|fKt ePsf sfo{qmdx? klg :ki6 / ljz]if k|s[ltsf] gePsf] cj:yf
     5 . u[x dGqfnon] k|:t't u/]sf] sfo{qmddf ;jf/L Joj:yfkgsf nflu dfq ?=(# nfv, cg'udgsf nflu
     dfq ?=! s/f]8 @) nfv / ljljwdf ?=@ s/f]8 @% nfvsf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t ePsf] 5 eg] lxN;f ;8s
     k'gM lgdf{0f / x'Dnf ljdfg:yn dd{t / lj:tf/sf] sfd klg u[x dGqfnosf] sfo{qmddf ;dflji6 5 .


@)= åGå k|efljt ;'/IffsdL{sf kl/jf/nfO{ lbOg] ;'ljwf
     ljutsf] ;z:q åGåsf] ;dodf d[To' ePsf, c+ue+u eO{ ckfË ePsf tyf a]kQf kfl/Psf /fHosf tLgj6}
     ;'/Iff lgsfosf kl/jf/nfO{ ;dfg ;'ljwf pknAw u/fpg kg]{df ;f] gePsf] Joxf]/f ;lxt /Iff
     dGqfnoaf6 ;xdlt dfu eO{ cfPsf] 5 . o;df d'ntM g]kfnL ;]gfsf d[ts ;'/IffsdL{sf] pd]/sf] xb
     ggf3L d[To' ePsf kl/jf/n] & jif{;Dd k"/f tna kfpg' kg]{ ePkl5 lgj[lQe/0f kfpg] cjlw yk u/L
     lgj[lQe/0f kfpg' kg]{ nufotsf Joj:yf 5g\ h; jfkt s/La ?=#@ s/f]8 jflif{s bfloTj yk x'g] cj:yf
     5 . plNnlvt dfusf cltl/Qm cGo yk bfloTj kg]{ dfux? klg /Iff dGqfnoaf6 k|]lift eO{ cfPsf 5g\ .


@!= v]ns"bsf] yk sfo{qmd
     o'jf tyf v]ns"b dGqfno cGtu{t vr{ zLif{sut ?kdf /x]sf] /sdsf] cltl/Qm sfo{qmd ;+rfngfy{
     e}k/Ldf /x]sf] ?=!! s/f]8 !% nfv /sdsf] cltl/Qm kfFrf} /fli6«o v]ns"b sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{sf nflu
     ljlgof]hg afx]s ?= !) s/f]8 /sd lgsf;f lbg] u/L ;xdlt ePsf] 5 . of] /sddWo] ?= % s/f]8
     lgsf;f eO;s]sf] 5 eg] afFsL ?= % s/f]8 ah]6 Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ r'gf}tL afFsL g} /x]sf] 5 .


@@= cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf] hUuf clwu|x0fsf] bfloTj
     lqe'jg cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:ynsf nflu !!*–*–@–# /f]kgL hUufsf] clwu|x0f jfkt d'cfAhf ljt/0f ug{
     cfjZos /sddWo] ?= ^@ s/f]8 %) nfv cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% b]lv tLg cfly{s jif{df bfdf;fxLn] cy{
     dGqfnon] ko{6g tyf gful/s p8\8og dGqfnonfO{ lgsf;f lbg] u/L g]kfn ;/sf/ dlGqkl/ifb\af6 ldlt
     @)^$÷%÷^ df lg0f{o ePsf] /x]5 . pQm lg0f{osf] clwgdf /xL ut cfly{s jif{sf] c;f/ dlxgfdf ?=@)
     s/f]8 *$ nfv /sd k"+hLut cg'bfgdf lgsf;f klg ePsf] /x]5 .
                                                  71
     dlGqkl/ifb\sf] plNnlvt lg0f{oaf6 >[lht bfloTj jfktsf] /sdnfO{ rfn" jif{sf] ah]6df ;dfj]z ug]{ u/L
     k|:tfj g} ePg / ah]6df k/]g . kmntM ;DalGwt dGqfnon] of] bfloTj jfkt ?=@) s/f]8 *$ nfv yk
     lgsf;f dfu u/]sf] 5 . rfn" jif{sf] :jLs[t ah]6 / sfo{qmddf gk/]sf] of] bfloTj c? sfo{qmddf art
     x'g] /sdaf6 Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf ljBdfg 5 .

@#= dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs'x?sf] eQf Joj:yfkg M
    dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs'x?nfO{ eQf ljt/0f ug]{ k|of]hgfy{ ljZj a}+ssf] cg'bfg ;xof]udf zflGt k|lqmof
    ;xof]u cfof]hgf cGtu{t /sd ljlgof]hg u/]tfklg ljutsf] !@ dlxgf cjlwsf] e'QmfgLsf] k|lqmofsf]
    ;DaGwdf pTkGg ljz]if sf/0fn] ;f]wegf{ x'g g;s]sf] cj:yf x'Fbf ?=&),%#,*$,))).– ;|f]tfGt/ ug'{kg]{
    l:ylt 5 eg] dlGqkl/ifb\sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ ;a} n8fs'x?nfO{ ljutdf kfO/x]sf] dfl;s ?= #))).– sf]
    cltl/Qm dfl;s ?=@))).– yk u/L dfl;s ?=%))).– sf b/n] ljt/0f ug'{kg]{ cj:yf >[hgf ePsf] 5,
    o;sf] sf/0faf6 ;d]t rfn" cfly{s jif{df ?=^@ s/f]8 ^ nfv #) xhf/ ljlgof]hg ah]6df gk'u x'g]
    b]lvPsf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] k|ltj4 vr{ (Committed Expenditure) Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ x'Fbf o;sf nflu
    cGoq dGqfnoaf6 art x'g] /sdaf6 Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ b]lvPsf] 5 .

@$= g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;|f]tdf ;|f]tfGt/sf] z'?jft
    rfn" jif{ j}b]lzs ;|f]tdf /x]sf] /sddWo] xfn;Dd s/La ?=! ca{ #! s/f]8 g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;|f]taf6
    Joxf]g]{ k|ltj4tf uO;s]sf] 5 . o;dWo] d'ntM zflGt k|lqmof ;xof]u cfof]hgfsf] ljZj a}+ssf] ;|f]tsf]
    ?=&) s/f]8 %# nfv *$ xhf/, dflyNnf] lqz'nL hnljB't cfof]hgfsf] rLg ;/sf/sf] ;|f]tsf] ?=@@
    s/f]8, u|fdL0f kx'Fr ;'wf/ tyf ljs]Gb|Ls/0f sfo{qmdsf] ljZj a}+ssf] ?=!% s/f]8, ;Ffkm]au/ dft{8L
    ;8ssf] ef/t ;/sf/sf] ?= & s/f]8, ;8s :t/f]Gglt ef/t ;/sf/sf] ?=# s/f]8 %) nfv cflb 5g\ .

@%= P;=Pn=;L= k/LIff ;+rfng vr{
    ut cfly{s jif{df P;=Pn=;L= k/LIff ;+rfng ug]{ lgsfo k/LIff lgoGq0f sfof{nosf] vr{sf] ;+zf]lwt
    cg'dfg ?=!& s/f]8 #@ nfv (^ xhf/ ePsf] /x]5 t/ rfn" jif{sf] nflu eg] ?=!# s/f]8 %* nfv !(
    xhf/ dfq k|:tfj eOcfPsf] 5 . ljutsf] oyfy{ vr{ of] jif{ yk x'g] k/LIffyL{ ;+Vof / k|zf;lgs vr{df
    ePsf] d"No j[l4 ;d]tsf] k[i7e"lddf ah]6 k|:tfj eO{ cfpg'kg]{df ;f] gePsf sf/0fn] ;d]t
    ?=(,!@,$!,))).– sf] yk dfu k|fKt ePsf] 5 . dfu ePsf] plNnlvt /sddWo] s]xL /sd lgsf;f
    lbg}kg]{ cj:yf 5 t/ rfn" vr{df k/]sf] bjfjsf sf/0f of] dfu ;Daf]wg ug]{ sfo{ r'gf}tLk"0f{ b]lvG5 .

@^= ;fIf/tf sfo{qmdsf] yk dfu
    /fli6«o ;fIf/tf cleofg sfo{qmd sfof{Gjogsf nflu ?=! ca{ $ s/f]8 ljlgof]hg eO{ ;f]xL cg'?k
    /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]uaf6 sfo{qmd :jLs[t ePsf]df, dlGqkl/ifb\sf] ldlt @)^%÷*÷!* sf] lg0f{oaf6
    ;fIf/tf :jo+;]js / :yfgLo lg/LIfssf] dfl;s k|f]T;fxg eQf qmdzM ?= !%)).– / ?=@))) .– df j[l4
    u/L qmdzM ?=@))).– / @%)).– sfod ePsfn] plNnlvt yk Jooef/sf nflu cfjZos kg]{ /sd
    ?=##,#$,)*,))).– /sd dfu eOcfPsf] 5 .
    ah]6 aflx/sf] rfn" vr{tk{msf] olt 7"nf] bfloTj >[hgf x'Fbf ah]6 Joj:yfkg ug]{ lgsfo cy{ dGqfnonfO{
    cQf]kQf] g} ePg . d+=k=af6 k|f]T;fxg eQfsf] b/ k'g/fjnf]sg u/]kl5 >[hgf ePsf] bfloTjnfO{
    ljlgof]hgaf6} Joj:yfkg ug]{ u/L sfo{qmd g} ;+zf]wg ug{ klg ;DalGwt dGqfnon] cfjZos 7fg]g .
    kmntM olt 7"nf] bfloTjnfO{ Joj:yfkg ug'{kg]{ r'gf}tL ylkPsf] l:ylt 5 .

@&= cfof]u÷;ldlt / sfo{bnsf] clwstf
    rfn" cfly{s jif{df dfq u7g eO;s]sf] / u7g x'g] qmddf /x]sf cfof]uxsf] ;+Vof dfq Ps bh{geGbf
    a9L /x]sf] 5 . u7g eO;s]sf cfof]u / ;ldltsf lglDt xfn;Dd ?=$ s/f]8 ^# nfv dfu eO{
    clwsf+ztM lgsf;f ;d]t uO;s]sf] 5 . o; qmddf, pRr:t/Lo e"ld;'wf/ cfof]usf lglDt ?= $( nfv

                                                 72
/ k|zf;g k'g;{/rgf cfof]usf lglDt ?= ! s/f]8 )$ nfv lgsf;f uO;s]sf] 5 eg] afFsL lgsf;fsf]
qmddf /x]sf] 5 .
pQm dfu ePsf] /sdsf] cltl/Qm u7g x'g] qmddf /x]sf cfof]u÷;ldlt / sfo{bnsf lglDt ;d]t rfn"
jif{ em08} ?= * s/f]8 vr{ x'g] cg'dfg 5 .

;f/f+z
 ljlgof]lht vr{ gx'g] yk /sd dfUg] k|j[lQ xfjL eof] .
 vr{ ug]{ sfo{ljlw, unit cost, cg'udgsf] Joj:yf, ;j]{, l8hfOg geO{ /sd dfUf eof] .
 d'n's ;+qmd0fdf /x]sf]n] dlGqkl/ifb\n] lg0f{o ug]{ / cy{ dGqfnon] /sd h'6fpg} kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] .




                                             73
                                          kl/R5]b – ^
                           ;+zf]lwt cfo Joo cg'dfg / o;sf cfwf/x?

^=! /fh:j ;+sngsf] cg'dfg
     rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] s"n /fh:j ;+sng nIo ut cfly{s jif{sf]= t'ngfdf #!=&* k|ltztn]
     a9L ?= !$! ca{ &@ s/f]8 @! nfv /x]sf]df rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] kf}if d;fGt;Dddf hDdf ?= %( ca{
     $* s/f]8 !& nfv /fh:j ;+sng eO{ ut cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^% sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf @%=%@
     k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5 . of] /fh:j ;+sng rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] nIosf] t'ngfdf ((=@!
     k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . s"n /fh:jdWo] s/ /fh:jtk{m ?=$( ca{ (( s/f]8 ^@ nfv / u}/ s/ /fh:jtk{m ?=
     ( ca{ $* s/f]8 %$ nfv /fh:j c;'nL ePsf] 5 . ;+slnt s"n /fh:jdf s/ /fh:jsf] of]ubfg
     *$=)% k|ltzt / u}/ s/ /fh:jsf] of]ubfg !%=(% k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 .
     rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIo cg'?k j[l4b/ xfl;n x'g g;s] klg /fh:j c;"nL eg] k|yd ^
     dlxgfsf] nIosf] t'ngfdf ((=@! k|ltzt c;"nL ePsf] 5 . rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] df3 d;fGt;Ddsf]
     c;"nL pT;fxk|b eO{ nIosf] t'ngfdf !)$=#% Pj+ ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf #@=%%
     k|ltzt j[l4 ePaf6 rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ df nIo cg'?k /fh:j ;+sng x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .


^=@ zLif{sut /fh:j c;"nL tyf afFsL cjlwsf] cg'dflgt ljj/0f
     -!_   eG;f/
           rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] t'ngfdf ($=&% k|ltzt / ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL
           cjlwsf] t'ngfdf !!=(# k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ eG;f/ dx;"n tk{m ?= !! ca{ !) s/f]8 ^& nfv &)
           xhf/ /fh:j c;"nL ePsf] 5 . cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] $% k|ltzt / afFsL ^
           dlxgfdf %% k|ltzt c;"nL x'g] k|j[lQ x]bf{ k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] $@=&@ k|ltzt c;"nL
           x'g'nfO{ pT;fxk|b g} dfGg' kb{5 .
           k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIo cg'?k eG;f/ dx;'n c;"nL gx'g'df af/Daf/ eO/xg] aGb, rSsfhfd /
           x8tfnsf sf/0f lgsf;L k}7f/L cj?4 x'g' / nf]8;]l8Ë nufotsf sf/0fn] pBf]u Joj;fo ;'rf?
           ?kn] rNg g;Sg' Pj+ ef/tLo cGtMz'Ns lkmtf{ nIo cg'?k gx'g' g} sf/s tTjsf] ?kdf /x]sf]
           kfOG5 .
           cfly{s jif{sf] kl5Nnf] ^ dlxgfdf a9L /fh:j ;+sng x'g] k|j[lt, rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] df3 dlxgfdf
           nIosf] t'ngfdf #=&# k|ltztn] a9L c;"nL, nf]8;]l8Ëdf x'g] ;'wf/ / k|efjsf/L cg'udgsf]
           Joj:yfsf] sf/0f nIo cg'?kg} eG;f/ dx;"n c;"nL x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
     -@_   d"No clej[l4 s/
           rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] t'ngfdf **=&* k|ltzt / ut cfly{s
           jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf !$=(! k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ d"No clej[l4 s/ ?=!& ca{ !% s/f]8 #%
           nfv @* xhf/ c;"nL ePsf] 5 . k}7f/Ltk{m nIosf] t'ngfdf *%=%* k|ltzt / cfGtl/s
           pGkfbgtk{m ($=$$ k|ltzt d"No clej[l4 s/ c;'nL ePsf] 5 . phf{ ;+s6sf] sf/0f ePsf]
           nf]8;]l8Ë tyf aGb, x8tfn, rSsfhfdsf sf/0fn] pBf]u Joj;fodf k/]sf] gsf/fTds c;/sf
           sf/0f nIo cg'?k d"No clej[l4 s/ ;+sng x'g g;s]sf] xf] .
           xfn;Ddsf] k|j[lQ x]bf{ rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo;Dd d"No clej[l4 s/ nIoeGbf s]xL Go"g ;+sng
           x'g ;Sg] b]lvPtf klg cfos/ / u}/s/ tk{msf] pT;fxk|b c;"nLn] d"No clej[l4 s/ tk{msf] Go"g
           k"lt{ x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 .
                                                 74
     -#_   cGtM z'Ns
           rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] t'ngfdf !)&=@% k|ltzt / ut cfly{s
           jif{sf] t'ngfdf ##=!^ k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ cGtMz'Ns ?= ^ ca{ %( s/f]8 *$ nfv ^$ xhf/ c;"nL
           ePsf] 5 . dlb/fhGo tyf cGo cGtMz'Ns nfUg] If]qdf ePsf] ;'wf/ / k|efjsf/L cg'udgsf] sf/0f
           cGtMz'Ns tk{m pT;fxk|b c;"nL ePsf] 5 . of] k|j[lQ df3 dlxgf;Dd sfod} /x]sf] b]lv+bf
           cGtMz'Ns tk{m rfn' cfly{s jif{df ;xh} nIo k|flKt x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
     -$_ cfos/
           rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] t'ngfdf !)#=&% k|ltzt / ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL
           cjlwsf] t'ngfdf #$=%* k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ cfos/ tk{m hDdf ?=!! ca{ #) s/f]8 #% nfv ^&
           xhf/ c;"nL ePsf] 5 . k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] c;"nLsf] k|j[lQ Pj+ :jo+ cfo 3f]if0ff, 3/ axfn s/
           3f]if0ff h:tf sfo{qmdsf] ;kmntfsf] sf/0f cfos/ tk{m rfn" cfly{s jif{df nIosf] t'ngfdf sl/a
           !) k|ltzt a9L c;"nL x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
     -%_   /lhi6«]zg b:t'/
           rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] t'ngfdf !@&=$( k|ltzt / ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL
           cjlwsf] t'ngfdf bf]Aa/eGbf a9L !!^=(& k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ /lhi6«]zg b:t'/tk{m ?=@ ca{ @&
           s/f]8 *% nfv ^ xhf/ c;"nL ePsf] 5 . 3/hUufsf] d"Nof+sgdf ul/Psf] ;'wf/ nufotsf sf/0fn]
           /lhi6«]zg b:t'/tk{m bf]Aa/ c;"nL x'g] / o;n] cGo zLif{sdf Go"g x'g ;Sg] /fh:jnfO{ ;d]t k"lt{
           ug{] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
     -^_   ;jf/L ;fwg s/
           rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf nIosf] t'ngfdf &(=*@ k|ltzt / ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL
           cjlwsf] t'ngfdf *$=%$ k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ;jf/L ;fwg s/tk{m ?=! ca{ %% s/f]8 %# nfv ($
           xhf/ c;"nL ePsf] 5 . s/sf] b/df kl/dfh{g ul/Psf] sf/0fn] ubf{ ut cfly{s jif{sf] t'ngfdf
           pT;fxk|b j[l4 eP klg ck]lIft ?kdf ;jf/L ;fwg k}7f/L gePsf] nufotsf sf/0f Pj+ cfly{s
           jif{sf] cGTodf /fh:j a'emfpg] k|j[lQsf] sf/0fn] ubf{ ;jf/L ;fwg s/tkm{ z'?sf] cg'dflgt nIo
           eGbf s]xL Go"g /fh:j ;+sng x'g] b]lvG5 .
     -&_   u}/s/ /fh:j
           rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf u}/s/ tk{m nIosf] t'ngfdf !!^=&@ k|ltzt / ut cfly{s
           jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf #)=!) k|ltztn] j[l4 eO{ ?=( ca{ $* s/f]8 %$ nfv &! xhf/
           ;+sng ePsf] 5 . u}/s/sf b/x?df ul/Psf] ;dfof]hg, nufgL tyf nfef+z c;"nL tk{m ul/Psf]
           s8fO{ cflbn] nIoeGbf a9L ;+sng e}/x]sf] l:yltdf u}/s/ tk{m ;xh} nIo cg'?k /fh:j ;+sng
           x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .
     rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] /fh:j c;"nLsf] zLif{sut ;dLIff ubf{ eG;f/, u}/s/ / cGtMz'Ns
     s/La nIo cg'?k, cfos/, /lhi6«]zg b:t'/ tk{m nIoeGbf s/La % ca{ a9L / d'=c=s/ / ;jf/L ;fwg
     s/ tk{m ?= $ ca{ %) s/f]8 Go"g c;"nL x'g] cg'dfg /x]sf] 5 . o;/L cfos/ / /lhi6]zg b:t'/n]
     d'=c=s/ / ;jf/L ;fwg s/ tk{msf] Go"g k"lt{ ug'{sf ;fy} eG;f/tkm{ nIo eGbf s]xL Go"g /fh:j c;"nL
     ePtfklg To;nfO{ klg k"lt{ ug]{ k|If]k0f /x]sfn] rfn" cfly{s jif{ @)^%÷^^ df nIo cg'?k ?= !$! ca{
     &@ s/f]8 @! nfv !) xhf/ c;"nL x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .


^=# j}b]lzs ;xfotf kl/rfngsf] cg'dfg
     nfdf] åGåkl5 :yflkt u0ftflGqs g]kfnsf] ljsf;df cGt/f{li6«o bft[ lgsfox?sf] ;sf/fTds ;f]rsf]
     sf/0f rfn" cfly{s jif{df j}b]lzs ;xfotf pNn]vgLo ?kdf j[l4 x'g] cg'dfg ul/P cg';f/ cfly{s jif{sf]
                                                 75
     k|yd ^ dlxgfdf ?= !@ ca{ @^ s/f]8 & nfv cg'bfg / ?= $ ca{ *! s/f]8 $* nfv C0f u/L s"n ?=
     !& cj{ & s/f]8 %% nfv j}b]lzs ;xfotf kl/rfng ePsf] 5 . k|fKt j}b]lzs ;xfotf dWo] ?=!# ca{
     &$ s/f]8 && nfv gub / ?= # ca{ #@ s/f]8 &* nfv u}/ gub j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|fKt ePsf] 5 . h'g
     ut cfly{s jif{sf] kl5Nnf] cjlwsf] t'ngfdf @% k|ltztsf] pT;fxhgs j[l4 xf] .
     bft[ ;+:yfx?sf] ;sf/fTds ;f]r ePklg rfn' jif{sf nflu s"n j}b]lzs ;xfotf /sdsf] ljlgof]hgdWo]
     ?= #* cj{ #) s/f]8 *& nfv cg'bfg / ?=!) cj{ (^ s/f]8 (@ nfv C0f u/L s"n ?= $( ca{ @&
     s/f]8 &( nfv dfq kl/rfng x'g;Sg] b]lvPsf] 5 . o;/L j}b]lzs ;xfotf ?=^% cj{ &( s/f]8 #*
     nfvdf ?= !^ cj{ %! s/f]8 %( nfv Go"g x'g] b]lvPsf]n] cfly{s jif{sf] z'?df k|If]k0f ul/Psf] j}b]lzs
     ;xfotf /sd eg] kl/rfng x'g;Sg] b]lvPg .


^=$ j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|ltj4tfsf] l:ylt M
     rfn' cfly{s jif{sf] df3 d;fGt;Dddf ?=$@ cj{ #$ s/f]8 #% nfv j}b]lzs ;xfotf pknJw u/fpg
     bft[ lgsfox?af6 k|ltj4tf e};s]sf] 5 . k|ltj4tf JoQm e};s]sf] ;xfotfdWo] ?=#& cj{ $^ s/f]8 $)
     nfv cg'bfg / ?=$ cj{ *& s/f]8 (% nfv C0f /x]sf] 5 . h'g ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf]
     t'ngfdf !@!=@$ k|ltztn] a9L /x]sf] 5 . ut cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwdf ?=!( cj{ !# s/f]8 () nfv
     dfq k|ltj4tf JoQm ePsf] lyof] . k|ltj4 j}b]lzs ;xfotfdWo] ;a}eGbf a9L :yfgLo ljsf; If]qdf ?=!!
     cj{ &@ s/f]8 !) nfv / ;a}eGbf Go"g u[x k|zf;g If]qdf ?= @ s/f]8 ^* xhf/ j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|fKt
     x'g] k|ltj4tf JoQm ePsf] 5 . bft[ lgsfodWo] ;a}eGbf a9L PlzofnL ljsf; a}+saf6 ?=* cj{ (# s/f]8
     (* nfv / ;a}eGbf Go"g cd]l/sL ;xof]u ?= @ s/f]8 ^ nfv k|fKt x'g] k|ltj4tf JoQm ePsf] 5 .
     j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|ltj4tf ;DaGwL ljj/0f cg';"rL !) / !! df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .


^=% cfGtl/s C0f M
     rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k'if dlxgf;Dd cfGtl/s C0f ?= * ca{ &) s/f]8 kl/rfng ul/Psf] 5 . of] /sd
     rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] cg'dflgt ?= @% ca{sf] #% k|ltzt xf] . ut jif{sf] oxL cjlwdf ?= * ca{ @) s/f]8
     kl/rfng ePsf] lyof] . xfn;Ddsf] 6«]h/Ldf /x]sf] df}Hbft / j}b]lzs ;xfotfdf ePsf] j[l4 Pj+ /fh:jdf
     ePsf] pT;fxk|b j[l4sf] sf/0f cfly{s jif{sf] afFsL cjlwdf cg'dfg u/]s} ;Ldfdf cfGtl/s C0fsf]
     kl/rfng x'g] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 .


^=^ ;fj{hlgs vr{sf] cg'dfg M
     ;+ljwfg;efsf] P]ltxfl;s lgjf{rg, u0ftflGqs g]kfnsf] klxnf] lgjf{lrt ;/sf/ u7g ePkl5 cfPsf]
     P]lgxf+l;s ah]6sf] ;f]+r cg'?k ;fj{hlgs vr{df eg] pT;fxhgs j[l4 x'g ;s]sf] 5|}g . u0ftflGqs
     ;/sf/sf] u7g kZrft pn{bf] hg rfxgfnfO{ ;+jf]wg u/L ?= @ va{ #^ ca{ ! s/f]8 %( nfv sf] ah]6
     th'{df ul/Psf]df rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfdf rfn" vr{tk{m ?=$# ca{ &# s/f]8 #& nfv /
     k"+hLuttk{m ?=!) ca{ &! s/f]8 () nfv / ;fjfF e'QmfgLdf ?= ( ca{ $! s/f]8 ^# nfv u/L s"n ^#
     ca{ *^ s/f]8 () nfv vr{ e} s"n ah]6sf] t'ngfdf @&=)^ k|ltzt vr{ ePsf] 5 . o; cjlwdf rfn"
     vr{df k"+hLut vr{sf] t'ngfdf j[l4 ePsf] 5 . c;f]h dlxgfdf dfq ah]6 k]z ePsf] sf/0f klg k"+hLut
     vr{df Go"gtf cfPsf] xf] . gofF g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg, åGå lkl8tnfO{ /fxt ljt/0f, lj:yflktx?nfO{
     k'g:yf{kgf nufot k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] vr{sf] k|j[lQ, ljleGg dGqfnox?af6 yk lgsf;f dfu ul/Psf]
     /sd, kl/jlt{t /fhgLlts cfly{s / ;fdflhs jftfj/0fn] NofPsf] gofF kl/l:yltsf] sf/0f cfufdL ^
     dlxgfdf x'g] vr{sf] k|If]k0f ul/Psf] 5 . vr{ cg'dfgsf d'Vo d'Vo cfwf/x? lgDg lnOPsf] 5 .


                                                 76
  dfcf]jfbL n8fs'x?sf] tna, eQf cflb .
  lghfdtL ,k|x/L, ;]gf nufot ;fj{hlgs If]qx?sf] tnj, eQf /fzg nufotsf] vr{ .
  ljut jif{x?eGbf o; jif{ l9nf] ah]6 hf/L ePklg yk /sd dfudf ePsf] cTolws j[l4af6 x'g]
  rfksf] vr{ .
  ;/sf/n] lbg'kg{] d'cfJhf / ljleGg lsl;dsf Ifltk"lt{sf] vr{ .
  ;fdflhs ;'/Iff cg'bfg / eQfdf ul/Psf] j[l4sf] vr{ .
  ;/sf/n] /fxt :j?k k|bfg u/]sf] C0f ldGxf nufotsf sfo{qmdsf] vr{ .
  ;ef;b\ ljsf; If]q sfo{qmdsf] vr{ .
  ;8s nufot ljB't, vfg]kfgL / l;+rfO{ / ljBfno h:tf k"jf{wf/df Jofks ?kdf yk gofF sfo{qmdx?
  k|:tfljt ePsfn] To;df x'g] yk vr{ .
  phf{ ;+s6sf] sf/0f j[l4 ePsf] vr{ .
  u}/ ah]6/L sfo{qmd tyf lqmofsnfkx?nfO{ /sd dfu ug{] / lgsf;f lbg] k|j[lQsf] ltj|tfn] j[l4 x'g]
  vr{ .
  zflGt ;'/Iffdf x'g] yk vr{ .
  s]xL l9nf] ah]6 hf/L ePsfn] k"FhLut vr{df kg{] k|efj .
  ljut jif{x? / rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] rfn" / k"FhLut vr{sf] cg'kftsf] cfwf/df x'g] vr{ .
ljleGg dGqfnox?af6 xfn;Dd k|fKt yk /sd lgsf;f dfunfO{ ljZn]if0f ubf{ rfn" vr{tkm{ ? !% ca{
%^ s/f]8 @^ nfv / k"\FhLut vr{tkm{ ?= !) ca{ %) s/f]8 $# nfv ;d]t u/L hDDff ?= @^ ca{ ^
s/f]8 ^( nfv yk lgsf;f dfu ePsf] 5 . u}/ah]6/L dfusf] k|j[lQn] Psftkm{ /fi6«df cfPsf] P]ltxfl;s
kl/jt{g kl5 hgtfsf] a9\bf] cfsf+IffnfO{ xtf/df th'{df ePsf] ah]6n] k"0f{tM ;Djf]wg ug{ g;s]sf] /
csf{]tkm{ ah]6 th'{df k|lqmofdfg} cfjZos u[xsfo{ k'Ug g;s]sf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . yk lgsf;f dfu Pj+
lgsf;f ePsf] ljj/0f cg';"lr–^ df pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
dfly plNnlvt cfwf/df yk dfusf] ;Djf]wg ug{ cGo vr{ gx'g] zLif{ssf] /sd ;dfof]hg ;d]t ubf{
rfn" vr{ tkm{ hDdf ?=!@# cj{, k"FhLut vr{tkm{ ?=&% cj{ *$ s/f]8 !@ nfv / ;fFjf e'QmfgL tkm{
?=!^ ca{ !% s/f]8 ** nfv vr{ eO{ s"n ?= @!% ca{ vr{ x'g] ;+zf]lwt cg'dfg /x]sf]
5 . of] /sd z'? ljlgof]hg /sdsf] (!=!) k|ltzt x'g cfpF5 .
dfly pNn]lvt ljleGg cfwf/df ul/Psf] s"n vr{sf] ;+zf]lwt cg'dfgn] z'?df ul/Psf] s"n ljlgof]hgsf]
;Ldf eg] ggf£g] b]lvG5 . t/ rfn" vr{ tyf k"FhLuttkm{ k/]sf] yk rfksf] Joj:yfkgsf] nflu ljleGg
dGqfnodf art x'g] ah]6af6 ;|f]tfGt/ tyf /sdfGt/ ug'{kg{] b]lvG5 . /fh:j ;+sng cfly{s jif{sf]
z'?df cg'dfg ul/P cg'?kg} ;+sng x'g] k|If]k0f /x]sfn] cfGtl/s C0f ;Ldf leq} /xg] cg'dfg 5 .
;+zf]lwt vr{sf] cg'dfg ubf{ rfn" vr{ tkm{ k/]sf] cTolws dfusf] rfk / k"FhLut vr{ tkm{ gofF –gofF
cfof]hgfsf] nflu yk dfusf] rfkn] c;/ kf/]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . oL yk dfux?nfO{ ljleGg dGqfnox?df
art x'g] ah]6af6 ;|f]tfGt/ / /sdfGt/ u/L ;Daf]wg ug'{kg]{ cj:yf 5 . t/ dGqfnox?df vr{ geO{
art x'g] /sd klxrfg ug]{ sfo{ eg] ;DalGwt dGqfnos} ;xof]ulagf ;Dej x'g] b]lv+b}g .
j}b]lzs ;xof]utkm{ klg k|ltj4tf cg'?k /sd pknJw gx'g] ;Defjgf klg /lx/xFbf cfGtl/s ;|f]tdf
cem a9L rfk kg{ hfg] x'Fbf ;|f]t Joj:yfkg ug{ r'gf}lt ylkg] b]lvG5 . /fh:j c;"nL nIo cg'?k
;+sng x'g] b]lvPsf]n] ;|f]t Joj:yfkgdf s]xL ;xhtf x'g ;Sg] ePklg /0fgLltut ?kdf sfo{of]hgf
agfO cl3 ga9]df cfly{s jif{sf] clGtd dlxgfx?df ;|f]t Joj:yfkg ug{ sl7gfO kg{ ;Sg] b]lvG5 .



                                           77
                                               kl/R5]b—&
                                                ;'emfjx?

ah]6 sfof{Gjogsf] dWo r/0fdf pleP/ ah]6n] kl/nlIft u/]sf gLlt / sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{FGjog cj:yfsf]
af/]df ;fËf]kfËf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ sfo{ dWofjlw d"NofÍg xf] . o; d"NofÍgdf ljut ^ dlxgfsf] ;du| cGt/f{li6«o
tyf /fli6«o cfly{s l:yltsf] ljZn]if0f ub}{ ah]6 aStJodf k/]sf gLlt / sfo{qmdx? / gof+ g]kfn lgdf{0f
cleofg cGtu{tsf cfof]hgfx?sf] sfof{Gjog l:yltsf] ;dLIff ul/Psf] 5 . o:t]} cw{ jflif{s vr{ / vr{sf
;|f]tx?sf] ljZn]if0f ;fj{hlgs vr{ Joj:yfkgsf r'gf}ltx?, ;+zf]lwt cfoJoo cg'dfg / o;sf cfwf/x? o;
d"NofÍgdf ;d]l6Psf] 5 .
log} ;"rgf / ljZn]if0fx?sf] cfwf/df ah]6 sfof{GjognfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] af+sL cjlwdf
rfNg' kg]{ sbdx? / clxn];Ddsf] cg'ejsf] cfwf/df cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] jh]6sf] ah]6 th'{df ;DaGwdf
ckgfpg' kg]{ ljifout kIfx?nfO{ ;d]6L lgDg ;'emfjx? k|:t't ul/Psf] 5M


&=! rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] af+sL cjlwsf] nflu rfNg' kg]{ sbdx?M
     !=! cfly{s lqmofsnfkx?df j[l4 Nofpg]]
           /fh:j ;+sngdf ah]6n] k|If]k0f u/] cg'?k pT;fxhgs j[l4, j}b]lzs ;xof]u k|flKtdf lg/Gt/tf
           h:tf ;sf/fTds kIfx? ePtf klg k+"hLut vr{df sdL ePsf], d"Noj[l4 pRr /x]sf], ljZj
           cy{tGqdf cfPsf] cfly{s dGbL / o;n] g]kfnsf] cy{ Joj:yfdf kfg{ ;Sg] k|efj / a}b]lzs
           /f]huf/Ldf cfpg] lu/fj6nfO{ ;d]t dWo]gh/ u/L cfly{s lqmofsnfkx?df j[l4 Nofpg lgDg
           sbdx? rfNg' kg]{ b]lvG5M
           -s_     ljZjJofkL cfly{s dGbLsf] g]kfndf kg{;Sg] k|efjnfO{ Go"lgs/0f ug{ k|of; ug]{
                 ljZjdf cfPsf] cfly{s dGbLsf] g]kfndf kg]{ k|efj Tolt :ki6 geO{ ;s]sf] cj:yf ePtf
                 klg o;af6 g]kfnsf] lgof{t, a}b]lzs /f]huf/L, ko{6g cfudgdf kg{ ;Sg] gsf/fTds
                 c;/nfO{ Go"g ug{ lgof{t Jofkf/df a:t'ut tyf b]zut ljljlws/0f, ;Ldd"ns tflnd,
                 Joj;fo k|j4{g ;]jf k|bfg u/L :j/f]huf/d'vL sfo{qmd ;+rfng, pTkfbgd"ns nufgL,
                 l5d]sL b]zx? ef/t tyf lrgaf6 a9L eGbf a9L ko{6s cfsif{0f ug]{ nufotsf pkfosf]
                 vf]hL ug{ h?/L b]lvG5 .
           -v_ ah]6n] nlIft u/]sf] cfly{s j[l4b/ xfl;n ug{ yk k|oTg ug]{
                 rfn" jif{ ;du| cfly{s j[l4b/ & k|ltzt x'g] cg'dfg ul/Ptf klg s]Gb|Lo tYof+s ljefun]
                 xfn]} u/]sf] k|If]k0f cg';f/ rfn" cfly{s jif{df g]kfnsf] cfly{s j[l4b/ k|fKt ug{ w]/} k|of;
                 ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . sfo{qmd, lgb]{lzsf tyf sfo{ljlwh:tf k|lqmofut sfo{x?df ePsf] l9nfO{,
                 dhb'/ / pBf]uLx? aLrsf] c;dembf/L, nf]8 ;]l8ªsf] ;d:of tyf b]zsf] s]xL efudf
                 e}/x]sf] zflGt ;'/Iff nufotsf ;d:ofx?n] ubf{ ah]6n] lnPsf] cfly{s j[l4b/sf] nIf xfl;n
                 ug{ sl7g x'g] b]lvPsf] xf] . ;/sf/n] pk/f]Qm ;d:ofx? s|dzM xn ub}{ ;xh aftfj/0f
                 agfpg k|oTgzLn /x]sf] oyfy{tf ePtf klg ;/sf/ cem} yk ;zQm / r':t eO{ ;/sf/,
                 lghLIf]q / ;xsf/Lsf] ;xsfo{sf] cjwf/0ff cg'?k ;xsfo{, 5l/tf] lg0f{o, ;zQm cg'udg
                 d"NofÍg / sfo{;Dkfbgdf cfwfl/t b08 / k'/:sf/sf] gLlt ;lxt ljsf; lgdf{0f /
                 pTkfbgsf] sfo{df 7f]; ?kdf nfUg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .



                                                   78
-u_ nf]8;]l8ªsf] cj:yfnfO{ x6fpg k|of; ug]{
      g]kfn ljZjdf hn;|f]tsf] lx;fjn] bf];|f] wgL b]z x'+bfx'b} klg b}lgs !^ 306f cGwsf/df
      a:g' kg]{ cj:yfn] b]zsf] ;du| pTkfbg, /f]huf/L tyf cfodf c;/ kl//x]sf] 5 . t;y{
      lau|]sf ljB't KnffG6x?sf] dd{t ;+ef/, k|zf/0f nfOgx?sf] lgdf{0f, ef/t ;+u ;dembf/L
      u/L yk ljB't cfk"lt{, u|L8x?sf] lgdf{0f tyf dd{t, r'xfj6 lgoGq0f, cleofgsf] ?kdf
      CFL lrdsf] k|of]u, a}slMNks phf{df hf]8, cf}Bf]lus If]qdf lgjf{w ljB't cfk"lt{ h:tf
      cNksflng pkfox?nfO{ ;3g ?kdf ;+rfng u/L nf]8 ;]l8ªsf] cj:yfnfO{ Go"g ug{ yk
      k|oTg ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
-3|_ s[lif pTkfbg j[l4df yk hf]8 lbg' kg{]
      ;dli6ut cy{tGqsf] ;'wf/sf] nflu s[lif Pj+ u}/s[lif If]q b'j}sf] of]ubfg ckl/xfo{ x'G5 . o;
      jif{ df};dL cg's"ntfn] jif]{ afnLsf] pTkfbgdf ;sf/fTds k|efj k/]tf klg klZrdL jfo"
      cg's"n gePaf6 lxpb]ofddf jiff{ gePsf]n] lxpb]jfnLsf] pTkfbg ;+tf]ifhgs x'g] gb]lvPsf]
      kl/k|]Io / k"jL{ g]kfnsf] emfkfdf b]lvPsf] a8{ ˆn' /f]un] ubf{ k+5LhGo pTkfbgdf sdL cfpg]
      e} ;du| s[lif If]qsf] pTkfbgdf Go"gtf cfpg] ;d:ofnfO{ ;+jf]wg ug{ l;+rfO{ s'nfx?sf]
      dd{t ;+ef/, :ofnf] 6\o"j]n h8fg, dn jLpsf] ;xh cfk"lt{ tyf k+5LhGo pTkfbgdf ljz]if
      sfo{qmd Nofpg h?/L b]lvG5 .
-ª_   d'b|fl:kmlt lgoGq0f ug'{ kg]{
      laZj cfly{s dGbLsf] k|efj:j?k cGt/f{li6«o ahf/df a:t' / ;]jfx?sf] d"No 36\bf] cj:yfdf
      ePtf klg o;sf] ljkl/t g]kfndf rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] 5}6f}+ dlxgfdf jflif{s ljGb'ut
      d'b|fl:kmlt !$=$ k|ltzt /x]sf] g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] tYofÍn] b]vfPsf] 5 . o;/L g]kfndf
      cTolws d"No j[l4 x'g'sf] sf/0fx?df ut jif{df k6s k6s ePsf] k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf]
      d"Noj[l4sf] cGt/fn k|efj, sf]zL s6fgn] oftfoftdf NofPsf] cj/f]w, jGb x8tfn tyf nf]8
      ;]l8ª h:tf ;d:ofx? ePtf klg vf; ?kdf hDdfvf]/L, s[lqd cefj, d"Nodf ldnf]dtf] eO{
      ahf/ ;+oGqn] sfd gug'{ g} xf] . t;y{ o;df afl0fHo ljefu tyf :yfgLo k|zf;gsf]
      ;lqmotf a9fO{ ahf/ cg'udg, cTofjZos j:t'x?sf] ;'ne cfk"lt{, ;'ky d"Nosf k;nx?sf]
      lqmoflzntf, k]6«f]lnod kbfy{sf] cGt/f{li6«o d"No cg'?k dfl;s ;dfof]hg / tbg'?k 9'jfgL
      ef8f ;dfof]hg, aGb, x8tfn h:tf sfo{x? gug]{ /fli6«o ;xdlt h'6fpg] sfo{ ug'{ kg]{
      b]lvG5 .
-r_ :jb]zL j:t'sf] lgof{t j[l4 ug'{kg{]
      rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] kf+r dlxgf;Dddf ut jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf lgof{t / cfoft b'j}
      j[l4 ePtf klg cfoft eGbf lgof{t @=$ k|ltztn] a9L j[l4 x'g'sf] ;fy;fy} lgof{tsf]
      t'ngfdf cfoftsf] cfsf/ ;d]t 7"nf] x+'bf s"n Jofkf/ 3f6f ##=# k|ltztn] a9]sf] 5 . o;sf]
      ;fy} ljZj cfly{s dGbLn] ubf{ ljZj ahf/df dfu ;d]t 36\b} u}/x]sf] cj:yf ePsf]
      oyfy{tfdf g]kfnn] cGt/fli6«o Jofkf/df j:t'ut tyf b]zut ljljwtf, pTkfbg nfutdf
      sdL Nofpg], u'0f:t/ j[l4 ug]{, cGt/fli6«o ahf/df g]kfnL j:t'sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ / cfly{s
      s'6gLltnfO{ ;zQmtfsf ;fy ;+rfng ug]{ /0fgLlt c+lusf/ u/L g]kfnL a:t'sf] lgof{t
      a9fpg h?/L b]lvG5 .
-5_ /f]huf/Lsf] cj;/df clej[l4 ug]{
      laZj cfly{s dGbLsf] sf/0faf6 a}b]lzs /f]huf/Ldf s6f}tL x'g] k|i6 ;+efjgf b]lvPsf] x'+bf
      o;af6 ljleGg b]zdf /f]huf/df uPsf g]kfnLx? /f]huf/ u'dfO{ kms{g' kg]{ cj:yf cfpg]

                                          79
          ;+efjgfnfO{ ljrf/ u/L :jb]zd} /f]huf/Lsf cj;/x? l;h{gf ug{ ljsf; lgdf{0f ;+rfng
          ubf{ >dd"ns k|ljlwsf] k|of]u, cNksflng tflndsf] dfWodaf6 ljleGg ;Lkd"ns tflnd
          k|bfg u/L >ldsx?nfO{ /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ?kdf k|lt:kwf{ ug{ ;Ifd agfpg] Pj+
          ljleGg cf}Bf]lus k|j4{gfTds ;]jfx? / ljQLo ;|f]tdf kx"+r k'¥ofO :j/f]huf/d'vL
          lqmofsnfk tkm{ o'jf÷o'jtLx?nfO{ cfsif{0f ug]{ /0fgLlt ckgfpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .


!=@ ah]6 jQmJodf plNnlvt gLlt tyf sfo{qmd tyf gof+ g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{tsf
    sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjog ug{]
    o; d"NofÍsgsf] kl/R5]b @ / # df pNn]v ul/P cg';f/ ah]6 aQmJodf k/]sf gLlt tyf
    sfo{qmdx? Pj+ gof+ g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfof{Gjog l:ylt ;+tf]ifhgs
    b]lvb}g .
    vf;u/L cfly{s aif{ ;'? ePsf] @ dlxgf kl5 dfq ah]6 sfof{Gjogdf cfpg', bz}+, ltxf/, 57
    h:tf kj{x? klxnf] rf}dfl;sdf kg'{, gof+ g]kfn cleofg cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx?df lgodfjnL,
    sfo{ljlw, lgb]{lzsf tof/ ug'{ kg]{ nufot ljljw sf/0fx?n] of] l:ylt b]lvPsf] xf] . plNnlvt gLlt
    tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] sfo{ of]hgf agfO{ lhDd]jf/ lgsfo tf]sL sfof{Gjog r/0fdf /x]sf] cj:yf
    ePtf klg rfn" cfly{s jif{ ;dfKt x'g cj sl/j ;f9] rf/ dlxgf dfq af+sL /x]sf] x'bf+ cjsf
    lbgdf Joj:yfksLo r':ttf / pRr ;ts{tfk"j{s ;3g ?kdf sfof{Gjogdf gplqP pNn]lvt
    cfof]hgfx? ;dod} ;DkGg x'g sl7gfO{ x'g] b]lvG5 . t;y{ lgDg pkfox? ;lxt sfof{Gjogdf
    pqg' kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvPsf] 5 M
    -s_ sfo{ of]hgf kl/dfh{g u/L :ki6 lhDd]jf/L ;lxt ;doj4 sfo{tflnsf agfpg]
          ah]6df pNn]lvt gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] k"j{ lgwf{l/t sfo{of]hgf cg'?k ;doj4
          sfof{Gjog ug{ xfn ;Dd s] slt ;do cGt/fn (Time lag) ePsf] 5, ;f]sf] ;dLIff ug]{,
          ljleGg lgsfox? dWo] sf], s;sf], s], slt sdhf]/L eof] ;dLIff ub}{ nlIft sfo{qmdx?nfO{
          cfufdL lbgdf lgjf{w sfof{Gjog ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo tyf kbflwsf/Lx?df 7f]; lhDd]jf/L /
          ;doj4 sfo{tflnsf ;lxt sfo{ of]hgfnfO{ kl/dfh{g u/L sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] .
    -v_ ah]6sf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{
          ah]6df pNn]lvt gLlt / sfo{qmd tyf gof+ g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx?
          sfof{Gjog ug{ s]xL l56km'6 sfo{qmd afx]s cGodf ah]6sf] sdL x'g] b]lvb}g . o;
          sfo{qmdx?sf] xfn;Ddsf] oyfy{ vr{sf] l:ylt :ki6 geO;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . ctM o:tf
          sfo{qmdx?sf] cBfjlws vr{ ;lxt nlIft sfo{qmd sfof{Gjog ug{ ah]6 ck'u x'g] l:ylt
          cfPdf ;DalGwt lgsfox?df art x'g] /sd jf cy{ ljljw ah]6af6 /sdfGt/ u/L ah]6sf]
          cefj gx'g] cj:yf l;h{gf ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
    -u_ cg'udg, d"NofÍg sfo{nfO{ k|efjsf/L ?kdf cjnDag ug]{
          pNn]lvt gLlt tyf sfo{qmdx?sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsf] nflu dGqfno:t/df ;DalGwt
          ljefuLo dGqLsf] cWoIftfdf k|To]s dlxgfsf] & ut] / k|To]s @ dlxgfsf] !) ut]
          dlGqkl/ifbsf] cfly{s tyf k"jf{wf/ ;ldltdf x'g] ;dLIff, dGqfno ljsf; ;d:of ;dfwfg
          ;ldlt (MDAC) df k|To]s @÷@ dlxgfdf dGqfno:t/df / k|To]s $÷$ dlxgfdf /fli6«o
          of]hgf cfof]udf x'g] /fli6«o ljsf; ;d:of ;dfwfg ;ldltdf x'g] ;dLIff Joj:yfsf]
          ;fy;fy} gof+ g]kfn lgdf{0f cleofg cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx? pRr k|fyldstfsf sfof{qmdx?
                                           80
          ePsf]n] rfn" cfly{s aif{sf] ah]6df Joj:yf u/] cg'?k cy{ dGqfnodf k|To]s @÷@ dlxgfdf
          / ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLsf] cWoIftfdf k|To]s             $÷$ dlxgfdf k|wfgdGqL tyf
          dlGqkl/ifbsf] sfof{nodf ;dLIff a}7s x'g] Joj:yfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg] dfq geP/ ;doj4
          sfo{ of]hgf adf]lhd sfo{x? eP gePsf] af/]df j:t'lgi6 ;dLIff ug]{, afWff c8sfp
          km'sfpg], dGqfnox?af6 :ynut lg/LIf0f ;zQm agfO :yfgLo:t/df ;dfwfg x'g]
          ;d:ofx?nfO{ :ynut ?kdfg} tTsfn ;+af]wg ug]{ h:tf sfo{x? u/L sfo{qmdx?sf] lgjf{w
          sfof{Gjog x'g] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ug'{kg{] ePsf] 5 .
    -3_ lhDd]jf/L tyf b08 / k'/:sf/sf] Joj:yf s8fOsf ;fy nfu" ug]{
          dfly pNn]v eP cg';f/ ;doj4 sfo{of]hgfdf lgsfout lhDd]jf/L tf]]lsP cg';f/
          ;DalGwt lgsfox?n] cfkm\gf] cGtu{t s'g dxfzfvf ÷zfvf, / s'g kbflwsf/L jf sd{rf/Ln]
          s'g s'g sfo{x? ;Dkfbg ug'{ kg]{ xf], ;f]sf] lnlvt ?kdf lhDd]jf/L tf]Sg] / ;f]xL cg';f/
          sfo{;Dkfbg d"NofÍg ug]{ / tbg'?k g} k'/:sf/ / b08 ug]{ Joj:yfnfO{ s8fOsf;fy kfngf
          ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .


!=# vr{ Joj:yfkg
    ut cfly{s jif{sf] t'ngfdf rfn" cfly{s jif{df ah]6sf] cfsf/ #(=^% k|ltztn] j[l4 ePtf klg
    vr{ ug]{ Ifdtf ;f] cg';f/ a9\g g;s]sf] l:ylt b]lvG5 . rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ^ dlxgfdf ut
    cfly{s jif{sf] ;f]xL cjlwsf] t'ngfdf gub tyf u}/ gub vr{ *=&^ k|ltztn] a9]sf] ePtf klg
    rfn" vr{ !#=@$ k|ltztn] j[l4 ePsf] 5, eg] k"+hLut vr{ !%=&% k|ltztn] C0ffTds /x]sf] 5 .
    of] vr{ rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6sf] t'ngfdf rfn"tkm{ #$=)# k|ltzt 5, eg] k"+hLut vr{ s]jn
    !!=&$ k|ltzt /x]sf] 5 . rfn" vr{sf] j[l4 ;Gtf]ifhgs g} ePtf klg k"+hLut vr{ cg'dfg eGbf
    w]/} g} Go"g ePsf] l:ylt 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm rfn" tyf k"+hLut b'a} vr{ tkm{ u}/ ah]6/L dfu
    cTolws ?kdf j[l4 ePsf] l:ylt 5 . o;/L Psftkm{ cfof]hgfx?df 5'§ofOPsf] ah]6 vr{ x'g
    g;Sg] t/ csf]{lt/ u}/ ah]6/L dfu j[l4 x'g] k|j[lQn] ubf{ xfd|f] ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd th'{df k|lqmofdf
    g} q"6L xf] ls eGg' kg]{ l:ylt b]lvPsf] 5 .
    cfo tkm{ /fh:j ;+sngdf pT;fxhgs k|ult / cfzfltt ?kdf a}b]lzs ;xfotf k|flKtsf] ;'vb
    l:ylt /x+bf /x+b} klg vr{ nIf cg'?k j[l4 ge}/x]sf] oyfy{tf )^% df3 d;fGt;Dddf ;/sf/sf]
    s]Gb|Lo sf]ifdf ?@# cj{ (( s/f]8 df}Hbft /x]sf]af6 k'li6 x'G5 .
    o;/L cfo tkm{ pT;fxhgs j[l4, :jLs[t sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?df cg'dfg cg';f/ vr{ x'g
    g;s]sf] cj:yfsf] ;fy;fy} u}/ ah]6/L dfudf cTolws j[l4 e}/x]sf] la/f]wfefifk"0f{ l:yltdf ah]6n]
    nlIft p4]Zo / cfly{s j[l4b/ xf+l;n ug{ lgDgfg';f/ vr{ Joj:yfkg ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5M
    !=#=! Rffn" vr{ Joj:yfkg
    -s|_ ;/sf/L vr{df ldtJolotf sfod ug]{ lgb]{lzsf, @)^% sf] k|efjsf/L kfngf
          ;/sf/n] b|'tt/ ultdf j[l\4 x'b} u}/x]sf] rfn" vr{nfO{ lglZrt ;Ldfleq /fVg] k|of;:j?k
          ;/sf/L vr{df ldtJolotf sfod ug]{ lgb]{lzsf, @)^% sfof{Gjogdf NofPtf klg ;a}}
          ;/sf/L lgsfox?n] o;nfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{ cfkm\gf] sfo{ k|0ffnLdf cfGtl/sLs/0f u/L
          ldtJolotf ckgfPsf] cj:yf 5}g . o;df ePsf sltko /fd|f k|fjwfgx? a]jf:tf ub}{
          dlGqkl/ifbdf 5'§} k|:tfj nuL yk ;'ljwfx? tyf cfly{s bfloTjx? l;h{gf ug]{ Pj+ ljleGg
          Joxf]/fx? pNn]v ub}{ yk ah]6 dfu ug]{ k|j[lQx? Psflt/ b]lvPsf 5g eg] csf{]lt/
                                            81
      lgb{]lzsfsf sltko k|fjwfgx? cJojxfl/s ePsf u'gf;fx? ;lxt ;+zf]wgsf nflu
      ;'emfjx? klg k|fKt ePsf 5g\ . ctM s]xL Jojxfl/s ;'emfjx?nfO{ pQm lgb{]lzsf ;dfj]z
      ug{] k|of]hgfy{ kl/:s[t / ;+zf]wg u/L lgb{]lzsf k|fjwfgx? x'jx" kfngf ug{ u/fpg cy{
      dGqfno / cGo lgsfox? aLr 5nkmn cGtlqm{of ul/g' h?/L b]lvG5 .
-v_ a}b]lzs e|d0fdf lgoGq0f
      cGt/fli6«o ;lGw, ;+emf}tfdf ePsf] k|fjwfg tyf ljleGg cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfx?n] cfof]hgf
      u/]sf] ;ef, ;Dd]ng a}7sx?df g]kfnn] k|ltlglwTj ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfdf ;DalGwt b]zl:yt
      g]kfnL /fhb'tfaf; af6g} k|ltlglwTj u/fpg] Joj:yf u/L cTofjZos cj:yfdf afx]s
      ;/sf/L clwsf/Lx?af6 x'g] j}b]lzs e|d0fdf sdL Nofpg'kg{] b]lvPsf] 5 .
-u_ tflnd, uf]i7L, ;]ldgf/df /f]s nufpg]
      Rffn" cfly{s jif{sf] af+sL cjlwdf ;]jfu|fxLx?nfO{ nlIft u/L k|bfg ul/g] ;Lkd"ns
      tflndx? Affx]s cGo s'g} klg tflnd uf]i7L tyf ;]ldgf/x? / cy{ dGqfnosf] ;xdlt a]u/
      ug{ gkfpg] u/L /f]s nufpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
-3_ cfly{s ;xfotfsf] vr{ Go"g ug{]
      ljleGg JolQm, ;+3, ;:yf jf lgsfonfO{ k|bfg ul/g] cfly{s ;xfotfsf nflu ljlgof]lht
      /sd vr{ eO;s]sf] jt{dfg cj:yfdf rfn" cfly{s aif{sf] af+sL cjlwdf o; k|sf/sf]
      cfly{s ;xfotf k|bfg ubf{ ljz]if ;ts{tf ckgfpg'kg{] b]lvG5 .
-ª_   vr{sf] k|ultsf] cfwf/df dfq t];|f] rf}dfl;s cg'bfg lgsf;f lbg]
      Rff}dfl;s ?kdf lgsf;f x'g] lg;t{ tyf ;;t{ cg'bfg lgsf;f kfpg] ;+3, ;:yf, ;ldlt
      cfof]u, :yfgLo lgsfox?nfO t];|f] rf}dfl;s lgsf;f lb+bf bf];|f] rf}dfl;s ;Ddsf] lgsf;f
      ePsf] /sd ;a} vr{ ePsf] cj:yfdf dfq, t];|f] rf}dfl;ssf] ;a} /sd lgsf;f lbg] / bf];|f]
      rf}dfl;sdf lgsf;f ePsf] /sd art eP hlt /sd art 5, ;f] /sd s6fP/ dfq
      lgsf;f lbg] . o;sf] ;fy} t];|f] rf}dfl;s lgsf;f lbbf pQm /sd rfn" cfly{s jif{ leq
      ;Dk"0f{ vr{ x'g] ;'lglZrttf u/]/ dfq lgsf;f lbg] gLlt lng' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
-r_ cTofjZos yk dfunfO{ dfq ;+jf]wg ug]{
      kl/R5]b —% df pNn]v eP cg';f/ dlGqkl/ifbsf] ljleGg lg0f{o tyf ;DdfggLo
      k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] ;+jf]wgdf plNnlvt sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjogsf nflu cfjZos /sd,
      lgj[lQe/0f, tnj eQf, dfcf]jfbL ;]gfsf n8fs'x?sf] eQf / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf nflu gk'u
      x'g] /sd ;+jf]wg ug{ rfn" vr{ tkm{ cfjZos x'g] /sd h'6fpg ljleGg lgsfox?nfO{
      ljlgof]lht ah]6 dWo] xfn ;Ddsf] vr{sf] cg'udg u/L Go"g vr{ ePsf sfo{qmdx? klxrfg
      u/L /sdfGt/ Pj+ ;|f]tfGt/ u/L ;|f]t h'6fpg kxn ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
!=#=@ k"FhLut vr{ Joj:yfkg
      ah]6df cg'dfg u/] cg';f/ nlIft sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?df k"+hLut vr{ a9\g
      g;ls/x]sf] cj:yfsf] ;fy;fy} u}/ ah]6/L dfusf] rfk cTolws al9/x]sf] lj/f]wfefifk"0f{
      cj:yf / csf]{ tkm{ k"+hLut vr{g} b]zdf cfly{s j[l4, /f]huf/L l;h{gf, ul/aL lgjf/0f ug]{
      dfWod ePsf] tYonfO{ dWo]gh/ ub}{ rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] af+sL cjlwdf k"+hLut vr{ ubf{
      lgDgfg';f/ /0fgLltx? cjnDjg ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5M

                                      82
-s_ k"+hLut vr{ ug]{ Ifdtf j[l4 ug]{]
      cfof]hgf k|d'vnfO{ :ki6 clwsf/ k|Tofof]hg ;lxt ;doj4 sfo{tflnsf agfpg nufO{
      sfof{Gjog ultnfO{ tLj|tf lbg] . If]qLo tyf s]Gb|Lo lgsfox?af6 cfof]hgfx?sf] :ynut
      lg/LIf0f sfo{nfO ultlbO ljleGg lgsfox?aLr ug'{ kg]{ ;dGjo / afwf c8\sfp km'sfpg]
      h:tf sfo{x?nfO{ tTsfn}} ;+jf]wg u/L cfof]hgfx?sf] lgjf{w sfof{Gojg x'g] jftfj/0fsf]
      l;h{gf ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
-v|_ :yfgLo lgsfodf cGtl/d ;GoGq zL3| u7g x'g' kg]{
      lgIf]k0f cGtu{tsf sfo{qmdx? sfof{Gjog ug{ :yfgLo lgsfox?df hfg] cg'bfg /sddf
      ef/L j[l4 ePtf klg tL lgsfox?df hgk|ltgLlwx?sf] l/Qmtfn] ;dod} ah]6 vr{ x'g
      g;ls/x]sf] l:yltnfO{ lg/fs/0f ug{ ah]6 jQmJodf pNn]v eP cg';f/ :yfgLo lgsfox?df
      cGtl/d ;+oGq u7g ug]{ sfo{nfO k|fyldstf lbg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
-u_ cfof]hgfdf hgzlQmsf] lgjf{w cfk"lt{ Joj:yf ldnfpg]
      w]/} ;dosf] l/Qmtf kl5 nf]s ;]jf cfof]un] k"0f{tf kfPsf] l:yltdf l/Qm b/jGbL k"lt{ x'g]
      ck]Iff ug{ ;lsG5 . t/ klg sfo{af]em a9L ePsf tyf dxTjk"0f{ cfof]hgfx?df cfof]hgf
      k|d'v, k|fljlws sd{rf/L tyf n]vf k|d'v l/Qm g/xg] Joj:yf ul/g' kb{5 . o;f] ubf{ sd
      sfo{af]em ePsf cfof]hgf, sfof{nox?af6 a9L sfo{af]em ePtkm{ hgzlQm :yfgfGt/0f ug]{,
      ef}uf]lns cg's"ntf cg';f/ Ps sd{rf/Ln] PseGbf a9L sfof{nodf sfo{ ug]{ u/L
      portfolio management ug]{ h:tf pkfo ckgfpg ;lsG5 .

-3_ cfof]hgfx? aLr ah]6 Joj:yfkg ug]{
      s'g} cfof]hgfdf ljlgof]lht /sd vr{ x'g g;Sg], s'g} cfof]hgfx?df ah]6sf] cefj x'g]
      l:yltnfO{ lg/fs/0f ug{ ;DjlGwt dGqfno Jff lgsfox?n] cfkm" cGtu{t sfo{;Dkfbg x'g
      g;s]sf sfo{qmd, cfof]hgfx?af6 ah]6 s6f}lt u/L /fd|f] sfo{;Dkfbg e}/x]sf cfof]hgfx?df
      ah]6 Joj:yfkg u/L /fd|f] k|ult xfl;n u/]sf cfof]hgfx?df /sdsf] ;'lglZrttf ug'{ kg]{
      b]lvG5 .
-ª_   a}b]lzs ;f]wegf{ ;xfotf ePsf cfof]hgfx?df lgsf;fnfO{ ;f]wegf{sf] k|ult;+u cfj4 ug]{
      bft[ lgsfodf vr{ ljj/0f (SOE) k]z u/L ;f]wegf{ x'g] u/L g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;|f]taf6 vr{
      u/]sf cfof]hgfx?sf] lgsf;f 5f]8\bf sf]if tyf n]vf lgoGqs sfof{no?n] ;f]wegf{ dfu
      u/]sf] /sd / k|fKtLsf] ljj/0f dfl;s ?kdf k]z u/]df dfq lgsf;f 5f]8\g] Joj:yf
      s8fOsf ;fy kfngf ug{ nufpg] / ;f]wegf{ /sd sd x'g] cfof]hgfx?df dxfn]vf lgoGqs
      sfof{non] cg'udg u/L ;f]wegf{ lx;fj km5\of}{6 ug{ kxn ug]{ / ;f]sf] k|ult cy{
      dGqfnodf lgoldt ?kdf ug]{ Joj:yf ul/g' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
-r_ bf];|f] / t];|f] k|fyldstfsf cfof]hgfx?sf] lgsf;f km's'jf ug]{
      ;/sf/sf] gub k|jfxsf] cj:yf cg's"n /xg'sf] ;fy;fy} k"+hLut vr{ nIf cg'?k vr{ x'g
      g;ls/x]sf] cj:yf ePsf]n] bf];|f] / t];|f] k|fyldstfsf cfof]hgfx?sf] t];|f] rf}dfl;s lgsf;f
      km's'jf u/L vr{ k|lqmofnfO ltj|tf lbg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .




                                        83
          -5_ 7]Ssfk§f ;+emf}tf ug]{ cjlwnfO{ a9fpg]
                rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] clVtof/Ldf 7]Ssfk§f ;+emf}tf ug]{ cjlw kmfu'g d;fGt;Dd -kof{Kt
                sf/0f ePdf r}q d;fGt;Dd_ lbOPsf] lyof] . rfn" aif{sf] ah]6 @ dlxgf l9nf] cfPsf] dfq
                geO{ cGo ljljw sf/0fx?n] ubf{ xfn;Ddsf] k"+hLut vr{sf] l:ylt ;+tf]ifhgs gePsf] x'+bf,
                ;/sf/L lgsfox?n] ;fj{hlgs vl/bsf] nflu 7]Ssfk§f ;+emf}tf ug]{ DofbnfO{ To:tf vl/b
                sfo{ rfn" cfly{s aif{ leq ;DkGg ug{ ;Sg] zt{df v'nf 5f]8\g' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
          -h_ bfloTj l;h{gf ePsf k"+hLut vr{x? / lhNnfut k"jf{wf/ ljsf;sf nflu k|fKt yk dfux?
              ;+jf]wg
                dfly vr{sf r'gf}ltx? kl/R5]bdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ ;DdfggLo k|wfgdGqLHo"sf] ;+jf]wg,
                dlGqkl/ifbsf] lg0f{oaf6 l;h{gf ePsf k"+hLut vr{sf bfloTjx? / ljleGg lhNNffx?af6 cy{
                dGqfnonfO{ ;+jf]wg u/L ljsf; lgdf{0fsf nflu lgs} w]/} /sd dfu eO cfPsf] 5 / o:tf
                dfux? k|fKt x'g] qmd lbgx"+ al9/x]sf] cj:yf 5 . Psftkm{ ljlgof]lht ah]6 vr{ gx'g],
                csf]{tkm{ o; k|sf/sf u}/ ah]6/L dfu ug]{ k|j[lQn] ah]6 cg'zf;g sfod ug{ ufx|f] kg]{
                b]lvG5 . tyflk k"+hLut ah]6 nIf cg'?k vr{ geO/x]sf] cj:yf / ;/sf/sf] gub k|jfxsf]
                cj:yf cg's"n /x]sf] x'+bf o:tf dfux?nfO{ cfof]hgfx?sf] ;+efJotf cWoog, /f]huf/L
                l;h{gf, cfo cfh{g, jftfj/0fLo k|efj, If]qLo ;+t'ng, lk5l8Psf] ju{ / If]qdf k'Ug] yk
                kmfObf ;d]tnfO ljrf/ u/L ah]6sf] Joj:yf ldnfO{ ;+jf]wg ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 . o;/L ah]6sf]
                Joj:yf ubf{ k"j{ kl/R5]bdf pNn]lvt vr{sf] l:ylt / k|If]k0f cg';f/ sd vr{ ePsf /
                cfly{s jif{sf] cGTo;Dddf vr{ gx'g] sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfx? klxrfg u/L ;DalGwt If]qut
                dGqfnosf] ;d]t ;dGjodf art x'g] /sdx? cy{ ljljw ah]6df /sdfGt/ u/L ah]6
                Joj:yfkg ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 . ;fy}, C0f ldgfxf sfo{qmdaf6 >[lht bfloTj :j]lR5s cjsfz
                of]hgfsf] sf/0faf6 >[lht bfloTj, dlGqkl/ifb\sf] lg0f{ofg';f/ e'QmfgL ug'{kg{] d'cfJhf
                nufotsf sfo{qmdsf] /sd o;} jif{sf] k"FhLut ah]6af6 Joj:yfkg ug{ pko'Qm x'G5 .


&=@ cfufdL cf= j=sf] ah]6 th'{df ;DaGwdf ckgfpg' kg]{ ljz]if Joj:yfx?
    @=! ah]6 th'{df tyf ah]6 k]z x'g] ;dotflnsf nfO{ kl/jt{g ug]{
          cfly{s aif{sf] cGTodf dfq cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 k]z x'g] / cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf]
          rf}dfl;sdf dfq ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd :jLs[t ug]{ tyf cfly{s jif{sf] klxnf] rf}dfl;sdf bz}+ /
          ltxf/, 57 h:tf kj{x? ;d]t kg]{ x'bf vf; ?kdf ah]6sf] sfof{Gjog d+l;/ b]lv dfq ;'? xg]
          cj:yfnfO lg/fs/0f ug{ cfufdL aif{ b]lv ah]6 th'{df lbUbz{g, @)^$ df pNn]v eP cg';f/
          sflQssf] bf];|f] xKtfb]lv ah]6 tof/Lsf] k|lqmof ;'? u/L h]7sf] bf];|f] xKTffleq Joj:yflksf —
          ;+;bdf ah]6 k]z u/L cfiff9 d;fGtdf ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd :jLs[t ul/;Sg] u/L sfo{tflnsf agfO{
          tbg'?k sfo{ ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
    @=@ ah]6 :jLs[ltsf] ;fy ;fy} rf}dfl;s ljefhg ;lxtsf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t ug]{
          ah]6 :jLs[ltsf] ;fy;fy} rf}dfl;s ljefhg ;lxtsf] sfo{qmd :jLs[t ug]{ /0fgLlt cg'?k cfiff9
          d;fGt leq} sfo{qmd :jLs[t ug]{ u/L /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]un] cu|ufdL e"ldsf v]Ng' kg]{ b]lvG5
          eg] cy{ dGqfno / ;DalGwt dGqfnon] cfly{s jif{ z'? x'g' cufl8g} sfof{Gjog ug{] ;DalGwt
          lgsfodf clVtof/L k'¥ofO;Sg] Joj:yf ldnfpg'kg{] b]lvG5 .




                                                84
@=# ah]6 th"[{df ubf{ g} aflif{s vl/b of]hgf k]z ug]{
      ;fj{hlgsf vl/b P]g,@)^# sf] k|fjwfg cg'?k cfufdL cfly{s aif{sf] aflif{s sfo{qmd tyf ah]6
      tof/ ubf{ aflif{s vl/b of]hgf k]z ug'{ kg]{ k|fjwfg cg'?k ah]6 th'{df lbUbz{g , @)^$ sf]
      cg';"lr !) s, v / u df pNn]v eP cg';f/ vl/b u'? of]hgf / a:t'÷ lgdf{0f / k/fdz{ ;]jf
      aflif{s vl/b of]hgf k]z ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yf ul/Ptf klg rfn" cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 th'{dfsf]
      l;nl;nfdf sltko cfof]hgfx?af6 o:tf] of]hgf k]z g} gu/]sf / sltkoaf6 k]z ePsf
      of]hgfx? klg b]vfj6L ?kdf dfq k]z eO{ o;sf] sfof{Gjogsf]] cj:yfsf] oyfy{ ljZn]if0f x'g
      ;s]sf] 5}g . ctM cfufdL cfly{s jif{x?df ah]6 cg'dfg k]z ubf{ g} clgjfo{ ?kdf vl/b u'?
      of]hgf / jflif{s vl/b of]hgf k]z ug]{ Joj:yf / ;f] cg'?k vl/b sfo{ eP gePsf] af/]df cg'udg
      ug]{ Joj:yfnfO{ 7f]; ?kdf nfu" ug]{ Joj:yf ul/g' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=$ lj:t[t 8«Oª, l8hfOg, ;lxt nfe÷ nfut ljZn]if0f / cfly{s ;fdflhs tyf jftfj/0fLo k|efj
    cWoog ePsf sfo{qmd÷ cfof]hgfx? dfq ;dfj]z ug]{
      gof+ ;'?jft x'g] sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfx? lj:t[t 8«Oª, l8hfOg ;lxt nfe nfut ljZn]if0f / cfly{s
      ;fdflhs tyf jftfj/0fLo k|efj cWwog gu/L aflif{s sfo{qmddf ;dfj]z gug]{ gLlt nfO{
      s8fOsf ;fy kfngf ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=% sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfdf Bottom up approach cjnDag ug]{
      :yfgLo:t/df Jofks ;xeflutf / 5nkmn u/fO{ :yfgLo hgtfsf] rfxgf / cfsf+Iffx?nfO{ ;d]6]/
      dfq gof+ sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgf ;'?jft ul/g' kg]{ oyfy{tf x'+bfx'b} klg s]xL sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfx?
      s]Gb|af6} nfb\g] k|j[lQ klg ljutsf] cg'ejaf6 b]lvG5 . o;af6 sfof{Gjog ug]{ lgsfo tyf
      nfeu|fxLx?df ckgTjsf] efjgf l;h{gf gx'g] / o;af6 nlIft pknlJw xfl;n ug{ ;d]t sl7gfO{
      x'g] jf:tljstfnfO{ dWo]gh/ u/L sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgf ;'?jft ubf{ Bottom up approach
      cjnDag ug{ clt g} h?/L b]lvG5 .
@=^ bftfx?af6 k|ltj4 hgfO{ ;+emf}tf e};s]sf cfof]hgfx?sf] nflu dfq ah]6 ljlgof]hg ug]{
      ljlgof]hg bIftf sfod ug{ cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv bftfx?af6 k|ltj4tf hgfO;s]sf] jif{b]lv /
      ;+emf}tf eO;sf]sf cfof]hgf÷sfo{qmdx? dfq ah]6df ;dfj]z ug{] Joj:yf s8fOsf;fy kfngf
      ug'{kg{] b]lvG5 .
@=& Ps}] k|s[ltsf sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?nfO{ Plss[t ug]{
      ljutdf ah]6 pkzLif{ssf] ;+Vof 36fO ah]6 k|0ffnLnfO{ r':t kfg]{ k|of; ul/Ptf klg k'gM laleGg
      gfddf x/]s lgsfox?n] k|To]s aif{ gof+ gof+ pkzLif{s sfod ug{ cg'/f]w ug]{ kl/kf6L /x+bf ah]6
      pkzLif{sx?sf] ;+Vof a[l4 ePsf], sltko sfo{qmdx? laleGg lgsfoaLr ;dGjo geO{ bf]xf]/f]
      k/]sf h:tf ;d:ofx? ljBdfg ePsfn] o:tf pkzLif{sx?sf] k'g/fjnf]sg u/L x6fpg], Plss[t
      ug]{, Ps csf]{ lgsfodf :yfgfGt/0f u/L ah]6 pkzLif{sx?sf] ;+VofnfO{ r':t kfg'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
      gof+ sfo{qmd÷cfof]hgfsf] nflu klg ;se/ gof+ ah]6 pkzLif{s g/flv ;fljss} ldNbf]
      pkzLif{sdf g} ah]6sf] Joj:yf u/L pkzLif{s a[l4 gug]{ gLlt lng' pko'Qm x'G5 . gof++ pkzLif{s
      /fVg} kg]{ cj:yfdf rfn" tyf k"+hLut b"a} vr{ tkm{ cfjZos ah]6 5'§ofpg clgjfo{ ug]{ . o;af6
      ah]6 sfof{Gjogsf] r/0fdf k|zf;lgs vr{tkm{ ah]6 gx'g], k"+hLutaf6 rfn"tkm{ /sdfGt/ ug{
      gkfOg] JojwfgnfO{ lg/fs/0f ug{ d4t ldNg] x'G5 .




                                             85
@=* sfo{ljlw, lgb]{lzsf jf lgodfjnL kl/jt{g jf gof+ agfpg' kg]{ ePdf ah]6 vr{ ug]{ clVtof/L
    ;+u;u} tof/ ul/;Sg]
      s'g} sfo{qmd ;+rfng ubf{ e}/x]sf] sfo{ljlw, lgb]{lzsf jf lgodfjnL kl/jt{g, ug'{ kg]{ ePdf jf
      gof+ agfpg' kg]{ ePdf ah]6 th'{df s} avt vfsf k]z u/L cfufdL cfly{s jif{sf] ah]6 vr{ ug]{
      clVtof/L ;+u;u} tof/ u/L sfo{:yndf k7fpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=( clgjfo{ bfloTj, Doflrª km08, k|ltj4 sfo{qmd h:tf Obligatory vr{x?sf] nflu ljlgof]hgdf
    k|fyldstf lbg]
      ah]6 th"[{dfsf avt tnj, eQf, kf]zfs, VffBfGg tyf cfxf/, kfgL, ljh'nL / dlGqkl/ifbsf]
      lg0f{on] l;h{gf ePsf clgjfo{ bfloTjsf vr{x? / a}b]lzs ;xof]u cGtu{tsf cfof]hgfx?df g]kfn
      ;/sf/sf] tkm{af6 Joxf]g'{ kg]{ cg'kflts vr{x? tyf ah]6 l;lnª pknJw u/fp+bf lglZrt /sd
      ljlgof]hg ug'{ kg]{ elg pNn]v ul/Psf sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?df cfjZos /sd 5'§ofP/ dfq
      cGo sfo{qmdx?df l;lnª leq /x]/ ah]6 k|:tfj ug'{ kg]{ Joj:yfnfO{ s8fOsf ;fy kfngf ug'{
      u/fpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=!) u}/ ah]6/L dfunfO{ lg?T;flxt ug]{
      Psftkm{ k"+hLut vr{ tkm{ ljlgof]lht ah]6 vr{ gx'g], csf]{tkm{ ljleGg ljsf; lgdf{0fsf] nflu
      ljleGg lhNnfaf6 yk ah]6sf] dfu e} cfpg] / lj:t[t 8«Oª l8hfOg / nfut Oli6d]6 lagf
      kx"+rsf] cfwf/df yk /sd lgsf;f lbg] ljutsf] cg'ej 5 . o;af6 ah]6/L cg'zf;g g/xg],
      lhNnfdf ;dfg'kflts ?kdf ;|f]t ;fwg gk'Ug] dfq geO{ sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx?sf] u'0f:t/
      sfod gx'g] hf]lvdx? x'g] x'bf o; kl/kf6LnfO{ lg?T;flxt ug{ Plss[t lhNnf ljsf; of]hgf
      cg'?k k|fyldstfsf] cfwf/df sfo{qmd tyf cfof]hgfx? ;+rfng ug{ lhNnf ljsf; ;ldltx?nfO{
      ;Ifd kfg]{ tbg's"nsf] ah]6 aflif{s ah]6d} ;dfa]z u/L b}ljk|sf]k h:tf cfsl:ds cj:yfdf /
      /fli6«o ?kn] ;+jf]wg ug'{ kg]{ cj:yfdf afx]s cGo cj:yfdf k6s] lgsf;f / yk dfux? glbg]
      Joj:yfnfO{ gLltut ?kd} cg'z/0f ug'{ kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=!! k|ToIf e'QmfgL / a:t'ut ;xfotfsf] /sdsf] k|ltj]bg k|0ffnLnfO{ r':t agfpg]
      ah]6 k'l:tsfdf ;dfj]z ePsf k|ToIf e'QmfgL / j:t'ut ;xfotf cGtu{tsf a}b]lzs ;xfotf
      /sd k|fKtL tyf vr{sf] oyfy{ ljj/0f ;dod}} k|fKt gx'g] jf:tljstf ePsf]n] o:tf ;xfotfsf]
      Joj:yfkg ug]{ s]Gb|Lo ;dGjo O{sfO, s]Gb|Lo cfof]hgf jf ljefu s;n] k|ltj]bg ug]{ xf] :ki6
      lhDd]jf/L ls6fg ug]{ / tbg'?k k|To]s dlxgf ;DalGwt sf]if tyf n]vf lgoGqs sfof{nodf
      k|lta]bg ug]{ / ;f] geP;Dd pQm lgsfosf] cGo ah]6 lgsf;f gx'g] Joj:yf nfO{ s8fOsf ;fy
      kfngf ug'{ u/fpg' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=!@ ;f]wegf{ k|lqmofnfO{ lgsf;f ;+u cfj4 ug]{
      bft[ lgsfodf SOE k]z u/L ;f]wegf{ x'g] u/L g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;|f]taf6 vr{ u/]sf cfof]hgfx?sf]
      lgsf;f 5f]8\bf sf]if tyf n]vf lgoGqs sfof{no?n] ;f]wegf{ dfu u/]sf] /sd / k|fKtLsf] ljj/0f
      dfl;s ?kdf k]z u/]df dfq lgsf;f 5f]8\g] Joj:yf s8fOsf ;fy kfngf ug{ nufpg] / ;f]wegf{
      /sd sd x'g] cfof]hgfx?df dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{non] cg'udg u/L ;f]wegf{ lx;fj km5\of}{6
      ug{ kxn ug]{ / ;f]sf] k|ult cy{ dGqfnodf lgoldt ?kdf ug]{ Joj:yf ul/g' kg]{ b]lvG5 .
@=!# ljsf; cfof]hgf Ps} k6s ax'jlif{o vl/b k|0ffnL cjnDag ug{]
         ]
      ;|ft / ;fwg Pj+ ;do tyf k|fljlws sf/0fn] ;d]t Ps} jif{df g;lsg] cfof]hgfx? /fli6«o of]hgf
      cfof]u / cy{ dGqfnoaf6 sfo{qmd / ah]6sf] ;'lglZrttf -;xdlt_ k|fKt u/L Ps} k6s ax' jlif{o
      vl/b k|lqmof cjnDjg ubf{ cfof]hgfdf k|To]s jif{ vl/b k|lqmofdf nfUg] ;do art eO{ sfddf
      tLa|tf Nofpg d4t ldNg] b]lvG5 . ah]6 th"{[dfsf avt o; k|sf/ vl/b k|lqmofdf ;xdlt
                                             86
   lbOPsf cfof]hgfx?df vl/b u'? of]hgf cg'?ksf] /sd clgjfo{ ?kdf 5'§ofpg] Joj:yf ul/g'
   kb{5 .
@=!$ If]qut gLlt / sfo{qmdx?sf] :jfldTj :yflkt ug{]
        ah]6 th'{dfsf jvt d'n's e/sf ljleGg lgsfosf hgk|ltlglwx? /fhg}lts÷;fdflhs ;+3
  ;+u7gsf kbflwsf/Lx?af6 cfˆgf] ef}uf]lns If]qsf] ljsf;;Fu ;DalGwt dfux? l;w} /fli6«o of]hgf
  cfof]u / cy{ dGqfnodf cfpg] k/Dk/f :yflkt eO;s]sf] 5 . oL lgsfox?n] To:tf dfux?nfO{
  ah]6df plrt ;Daf]wg ubf{, ;DalGwt dGqfnon] To;sf] sfof{Gjogsf] :jfldTj (Ownership)
  glnPsf] l:ylt klg :ki6 b]lvPsf] 5 . o;n] ljlgof]hgsf / sfo{;+rfngdf s'zntf gb]lvPsf] dfq
  xf]Og, ljsf;sf] rfxgf / ;/sf/ k|ltsf] hgljZjf; ;d]t s'l07t x'Fb} uPsf] 5 . o;sf nflu
  cfufdL cfly{s jif{b]lv hgk|ltlglw / ;+3;+:yfsf kbflwsf/Ln] ;j} k|sf/sf If]qut ljsf;sf
  dfux? ;DalGwt dGqfno dfkm{t ah]6 k|:tfj u/fP/ Nofpgdf dfq ah]6df plrt ;Daf]wg ug{]
  gLlt clVtof/L ug'{kg{] b]lvG5 .


  lgisif{
  klxnf] u0ftflGqs ;/sf/sf] ah]6 .
  ;fe]mbf/x?sf] ;femf sfo{qmd / /fhg}ltssf] gLlt tyf sfo{qmd cg'?k tof/ .
  sfo{Gjog ldl>t l:ylt .
  t/ k"/} jif{Dff ;kmn x'g] nIf0f 5 .




                                         87
                                                                                                            -
                                                                                                    cgnm"rL – 1
                                   ;+zf]lwt cfo Joosf] cg'dfg
                                                                                                      œ?=nfvdf•


                         zLif{s                                                                       ;_zf]lwt
                                      2065/66 sf]     z'?   2065 kf}if;Ddsf] 2065/66 sf] ;_zf]lwt
                                                                                                       cg'dfg
                                        ah]^ cg'dfg              oyfy{              cg'dfg
                                                                                                      k|ltztdf
s'n <fhZj                                   1417221.00           594816.00           1417221.00       100.00

   s/ /fh:j                                 1165600.00           499962.00           1165600.00       100.00

   u}/s/ /fh:j                               239051.00           94854.00             239051.00       100.00

   ;fjfF lkmtf{ k|flKt                        12570.00                   0.00          12570.00       100.00


s'n vr{                                     2360159.00           638690.00          2150000.00         91.10

  rfn" vr{                                  1285165.00           437337.00           1230000.00        95.71

  k"FhLut vr{                                913101.00           107190.00            758412.00        83.06

  ;fjfF e'QmfgL vr{                          161893.00            94163.00            161588.00        99.81


cg'bfgcl#sf] art (+) jf Go"g (-)            -942938.00           -43874.00           -732779.00

cg'bfg                                       470932.00           122607.00            383087.00        81.35


cg'bfgkl%sf] art (+) jf Go"g (-)            -472006.00            78733.00           -349692.00
Go"g k"lt{ ug{] ;|f]tx?
  j}bl] zs C0f                               187006.00           48148.00             109692.00        58.66

  cfGtl/s C0f                                250000.00            87000.00            250000.00       100.00


gub df}Hbftdf kl<jt{g art (+) jf Go"g (-)    -35000.00           213881.00             10000.00




                                            88
                                                                                                                                                           -
                                                                                                                                                   cgnm"rL – 2

                                                        @)^% k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] If]qut vr{
                                                                                                                                                    -?= nfvdf_
                                                                              ah]]^                                                  vr{
 l;=g++=                 sfo{ zLif{s
                                                        @)^$.^%             @)^%.^^           j[l4 k|ltzt       @)^$.^%            @)^%.^^          j[l4 k|ltzt
   1       ;_j}wflgs c_ux?                                    35,332              27,152            -23.15           8,647                9,657          11.68
   2       ;fdfGo k|zf;g                                     35,871             42,444               18.32          20,307               20,634            1.61
   3       k|x<L                                            94,344              110,286              16.90          54,656               60,571         10.82
   4       <fh:j tyf cfly{s k|zf;g                            10,111             15,883             57.08             3,476               3,493          0.49
   5       of]hgf tyf tYof°                                    1,701                  2,362         38.89               756                779            3.03
   6       <Iff                                             107,123             120,346              12.34          49,693               56,635          13.97
   7       lzIff                                           280,720              389,773             38.85         105,140            121,506             15.57
   8       :jf:Yo                                           125,192             155,782             24.43           22,058               25,879          17.32
   9       vfg]kfgL                                          53,278              79,564             49.34           17,150               16,786           -2.12
  10       :yfgLo ljsf;                                     111,306            204,274               83.53           23,132              20,489         -11.43
   11      hg;_Vof tyf jftfj<)f                                  104                   122           17.03                 0                 4      4,705.84
   12      dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof)f                    5,119               7,806            52.48            1,085                1,267          16.73
   13      o'jf, v]ns'b tyf ;_:s[lt                           6,547               12,813            95.72            2,709                1,730         -36.11
  14       cfjf;                                             14,835              22,058             48.69            2,559                4,172          63.05
  15       cGo - ;fdflhs                                     40,963             181,564            343.24           19,606               28,936         47.59
   16      s[lif                                            40,746               59,081             45.00           32,342               12,976        -59.88
  17       l;_rfO                                            39,915               58,031            45.39             6,466               8,085         25.05
  18       e"ld;'wf< < gfkL                                    9,613              12,557             30.62           3,599                4,295          19.34
  19       jg                                                22,987               26,973             17.34           8,939               10,196         14.06
  20       pBf]u                                              11,619              15,220            30.99             2,326               2,320          -0.27
   21      ;_rf<                                              21,433             20,924              -2.37            6,519               8,663         32.88
  22       mŠs oftfoft                                       93,359             139,146            49.04             16,737               7,584        -54.68
   23      xjfO{ oftfoft                                       1,374               9,542          594.50                  13                325      2,385.65
  24       ljB't                                             76,495             126,889             65.88           22,476               33,433         48.75
  25       ko{^g                                                 632                  3,978       529.94                217                 181         -16.59
  26       xfjfkfgL                                              763                   794            4.07              295                 267          -9.40
  27       cfk"lt{                                            3,900               4,400              12.82            3,212               2,137         -33.46
  28       jfl)fHo                                             1,678                   581          -65.39              337                 221         -34.25
  29       >d                                                  1,176                  1,456         23.80               426                 512          20.13
  30       cGo - cfly{s                                      51,975               73,934            42.25             8,372               6,971         -16.74
   31      cfGtl<s C)f e'QmfgL                             119,475              130,307               9.07          54,138               63,431          17.17
   32      jfx\o C)f e'QmfgL                                109,971             129,330              17.60         45,824                57,161         24.74
  34       ljljw                                            160,299            174,785               9.04          44,021                47,394           7.66

                       hDdf                              1,689,956            2,360,159              39.66         587,232               638,690          8.76

b|i6AoM cf=j= @)^%.^^ sf]] vr{ g]kfn /fi6« a}ssf] ljj/0f cg';f/ k';sf] sf]if cj:yf / u}/–gub vr{sf] hf]8;+u ldnfO{{ k|If]k0f ul/Psf] .




                                                                                       89
                                                                                                                                                           -
                                                                                                                                                   cgnm"rL – 3

                                                         @)^% k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] zLif{sut vr{
                                                                                                                                                                 -?= nfvdf_
                                                                                            ah]6                                                   vr{
  vr{
                               zLif{ssf] gfd                                 cfly{{s aif{                  ah]6 j[l4              cfly{s aif{                      vr{ j[l4
 zLif{s
                                                                       @)^$.^%       @)^%.^^                k|ltzt            @)^$.^%      @)^%.^^                  k|ltzt
  1.01    tnj                                                           267,914             328,697              22.69            120,433             152199          26.38
  1.02    eQf                                                            14,454               16,092              11.33              6,769            6860.9            1.35
  1.03    ;?jf e|d)f vr{ tyf b}lgs eQf                                     2,248               2,492             10.87                    790          631.53        -20.08
 1.04        ]
          kf];fs                                                           9,695              10,721             10.58               4,273            1272.9          -70.21
  1.05    vfBfGg tyf cfxf<                                               47,124               53,915             14.41              23,386             25551            9.26
  1.06    cf}iflw pkrf<                                                   11,066              11,465               3.61              5,559            7015.9           26.22
  1.07    ;]jf lgj[Q ;'ljwf                                               60,281             74,240               23.16             33,052               31556         -4.53
 1.08     tflnd sfo{qmd vr{                                                 3,067               2,751           -10.30                   485          388.16         -20.00
   10     cfGtl/s C0fsf] ;fjfF e'QmfgL                                    72,816             62,845                                38,042             46920           23.34
   10     jfxØ C0fsf] ;fjfF e'QmfgL                                      82,798              99,048               19.63             35,766            47243           32.09
   11     cfGtl<s C)fsf] Jofh e'QmfgL                                     46,659              67,463            44.59               16,096               16511         2.58
   11     jfx\o C)fsf] Jofh e'QmfgL                                       27,173              30,282             11.44             10,058             9917.7           -1.39
   12     lkmtf{ vr{                                                       4,930               5,430             10.14                   2,616            1711       -34.59
  2.01    kfgL tyf ljh'nL                                                   6,307              6,470               2.59             1,548                1549          0.09
  2.02    ;_rf< dx;'n                                                      3,055              3,444               12.72              1,016            1061.9           4.50
  2.03    sfof{no ;DaGwL vr{                                              11,799              12,614               6.90              5,115            4286.5          -16.19
 2.04     efŠf                                                              6,314               7,563            19.78              4,496             4164.5           -7.37
 2.05     dd{t tyf ;Def<                                                   5,496               5,689               3.53              1,790            1462.9         -18.28
  2.06    OGwg tyf cGo OGwg                                                5,980               7,045             17.81               2,724            2933.7            7.71
 2.07     k<fdz{ tyf cGo ;]jf z'Ns                                        10,463              12,360             18.12               1,198            1307.1           9.14
 2.08     ljljw vr{                                                         3,312               3,022             -8.75              1,483            1340.6          -9.58
  3.01    ;fj{hlgs ;_:yfgnfO{ cg'bfg                                       5,128               4,916              -4.13              2,236            1854.8         -17.04
  3.02    :yfgLo lgsfo - lgzt{ cg'bfg                                     16,185             25,491              57.50               7,338            8036.5            9.53
  3.03    ;fdflhs ;]jf - lgzt{ cg'bfg                                   169,574              231,032             36.24             95,504            100815             5.56
 3.04     ;fdflhs ;'<Iff cg'bfg                                            13,327            49,550            271.80                5,827            8378.3          43.78
  3.05    ;fdflhs ;]jf - ;zt{ cg'bfg                                     59,458              125,212            110.59             16,809             29580           75.98
  3.06    :yfgLo lgsfo - ;zt{ cg'bfg                                      16,664              21,520             29.14               1,014            1314.3          29.62
  3.07    %fqj[lQ                                                          8,959               9,740               8.72              1,945            1022.5        -47.44
 4.01     pTkfbg ;fdfu|L ;]jf                                               2,260              2,429              7.47                   442              478          8.03
 4.02     cf}iflw                                                        26,824               32,393             20.76                    773         988.63          27.93
 4.03     k':ts tyf ;fdu|L vr{                                                125                  107           -14.11                       15      18.516          20.18
 4.04 sfo{qmd vr{                                                         83,257              76,672              -7.91              7,539           8947.8           18.69
 4.05     sfo{qmd e|d)f vr{                                                8,617              11,746              36.31              3,583            3995.4           11.53
 4.06     lgld{t ;fj{hlgs ;DklQsf] ;Def< vr{                                  973                549            -43.65                    291         185.42          -36.27
  5.01    hUuf vl<b                                                        4,966               7,482             50.68                   1,116        413.52          -62.93
 5.02     ejg vl<b                                                            100                  121           20.60
  6.01    kmlg{r< tyf lkmSr;{                                              1,476               2,174             47.30                    315         297.52           -5.52
  6.02    ;jf<L ;fwg                                                        7,363              7,535               2.34                   664         224.69          -66.15
  6.03    d]lzg<L cf}hf<                                                  22,293              20,031             -10.15              3,078            1485.6          -51.73
 6.04     ejg lgdf{)f                                                    30,078              52,949              76.04               1,907               5342        180.12
 6.05     ;fj{hlgs lgdf{)f                                               161,227           249,985               55.05             26,402              19518         -26.07
  6.06    k"FhLut ;'wf/                                                    2,295                3,783            64.83                    165         326.79          98.58
          cWoog tyf k¤"hLut k|fljlws k<fdz{ ;]jf
  6.07    ;DaGwL vr{                                                       9,047              12,142             34.21               1,199            3078.5         156.68
  7.01    z]o< nufgL                                                     34,714               22,676            -34.68              31,756             12965         -59.17
 7.02     C)f nufgL                                                       73,096             111,731             52.86             17,259              24327          40.95
 8.01     ;fj{hlgs ;¤:yfgnfO{ cg'bfg                                       6,955              12,347             77.54               2,610            626.52         -76.00
 8.02     :yfgLo lgsfo - lgzt{ cg'bfg                                     41,676              69,125             65.86               5,710            5798.2           1.54
 8.03     ;fdflhs ;]jf - lgzt{ cg'bfg                                    29,084               35,010             20.37              7,489             3905.9         -47.85
 8.05     ;fdflhs ;]jf - ;zt{ cg'bfg                                      74,537            189,553             154.31             22,685             22498            -0.83
 8.06     :yfgLo lgsfo ;zt{ cg'bfg                                        43,593              99,861           129.08               4,868             6383.2           31.13
 9.01     e}k<L - rfn"                                                    23,038              32,053              39.13                   -
 9.02     e}k/L – k"FhLut                                                 10,118              16,595             64.01
                               hDdf                                    1,689,956           2,360,159             39.66             587,232           638,690            8.76
b|i6AoM cf=j= @)^%.^^ sf]] vr{ g]kfn /fi6« a}ssf] ljj/0f cg';f/ k';sf] sf]if cj:yf / u}/–gub vr{sf] hf]8;+u ldnfO{{ k|If]k0f ul/Psf] .
                                                                                                    90
                                                                                                                                                                                 cg';"rL $

                                                           cf=j= @)^%÷^^ k'if dlxgf;Ddsf] /fhZj c;"nL ljj/0f
                                                                                                                                                                                  -?=xhf/df_
l;=        s/ lzif{s           aflif{s nIo         @)^$÷^% sf] c;"nL                @)^%÷^^ k'ifsf]           @)^%÷^^ k'if;Ddsf]          jflif{s nIosf @)^%÷^^ k'if @)^%÷^^ k'if ut aif{sf]
 g+=                          -@)^%÷)^^_                                                                                                  t'ngfdf Ü dlxgfsf] nIosf ;Ddsf] nIosf o; cjlwsf]
                                                   k'ifsf]         k'if;Ddsf]     nIo           c;"nL         nIo           c;"nL                         t'ngfdf       t'ngfdf    t'ngfdf
 1             2                    3                  4               5           6             7             8              9               10           11            12           13
!= e+;f/ dxz'n                    26000000        1806478            9923259     2,254,380       2159996      11721699      11106770         42.72        95.81         94.75       111.93

       k}7f/L                       22390000           1510216       7687449       1,937,366     1567737       10033946      9157787        40.90         80.92         91.27       119.13

       ef/tLo cGtMz'Ns               3000000            210136         1510671      266,603       457507       1400383       1347538        44.92         171.61        96.23       89.20

       lgsf;L                           250000          37874          180939          22,864         75555        103672     284605        113.84        330.45       274.52       157.29

       eG;f/sf] cGo cfo                 160000             27293       297705          14,496         17319        67228          86108      53.82        119.47       128.08       28.92

       s[lif ;'wf/ z'Ns                 200000             20959       246495          13,051      41878         116470        230732       115.37        320.88       198.10        93.61

@= d"No clea[l4 s/                41000000         2821061          14927930      3370550        2975338      19321293      17153528        41.84         88.27         88.78       114.91

       pTkfbg, ljqmL, ;]jf          14750000           888094         5474466      1,197,937      1106633      6976004       6588364         44.67        92.38         94.44       120.35

       k}7f/L                       26250000           1932967        9453464      2,172,613     1868705       12345289     10565164         40.25        86.01         85.58       111.76

#= cGtMz'Ns                        14173000            902062       4955402       1161483        1186792       6152466      6598464          46.56        102.18        107.25      133.16

      cfGtl/s pTkfbg                10573000            669152        3580703       862,336       826096       4466992       4596483         43.47        95.80        102.90       128.37

       k}7f/L                        3600000            232910         1374699      299,147       360696       1685474       2001981         55.61        120.57       118.78       145.63

$= cfos/                          27087000        4704011            8399033     6482583         6726680      10895395       11303567        41.73        103.77        103.75      134.58

       cfos/                        24386500           4519587         7538733    6,180,864      6408338        9604335     10100750         41.42        103.68        105.17      133.98

       3/hUuf jxfns/                    1033200            99779        342101      151,614       203773        501824        494743        47.88         134.40        98.59       144.62

       Jofhs/                           1667300            84645        518199      150,105       114569         789236       708074         42.47        76.33         89.72       136.64

%= /lhi6«]zg b:t'/                 4800000             270512         1050141      515,668        520366       1787225       2278506        47.47         100.91       127.49       216.97

^= ;jf/L ;fwg s/                    3500000             137765        842868       318,492        84600        1948584       1555394        44.44         26.56         79.82       184.54

   hDdf s/ /fhZj                  116560000       10641889          40098633     14,103,156     13653772      51826662      49996229        42.89         96.81         96.47       124.68

&= hDdf u}/ s/ /fhZj               25162110            4387311         7290867   5,112,840       2767328       8127016      9485471          37.70        54.13         116.72      130.10

   s"n /fhZj                       141722110       15029200          47389500    19,215,996     16421100      59953678      59481700         41.97        85.46         99.21       125.52

!= ljefux?af6 6]lnkmf]g÷km\ofS;af6 k|fKt ljj/0f cg';f/ .
@= s"n c;"nL g]kfn /fi6« a}+ssf] tYof+saf6 lnOPsf] .
#= u}/s/ /fh:j M g]kfn /fi6« a}+saf6 k|fKt s"n c;'nLdf ljefux?af6 k|fKt s/ /fh:j 36fO{ cfpg] /sd pNn]v ul/Psf] .
                                                                                                      91
                                                                                                                                                                                       -
                                                                                                                                                                               cgnm"rL – 5

                                                       @)^%÷^^ k'; dlxgf;Ddsf] j:t'ut tyf ;f]em} e'QmfgL ah]6 ljj/0f
                                                                                                                                                                                   -?=nfvdf_
                                                                          :jLs[t jflif{s ah]^                                                   k|fKt ljj<)f
                                                                     ;f]e}m e'QmfgL       ;f]e}m e'QmfgL                             ;f]e}m e'QmfgL        ;f]e}m e'QmfgL
l;=g_=                    cfof]hgfsf] gfd              j:t'ut          cg'bfg                C)f             hDdf         j:t'ut       cg'bfg                  C)f                hDdf
14       cbfnt                                              -                       352            -                352       -                      78              -                       78
30       k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl<ifb\sf] sfof{no               -                   205                -                205       -                  -                   -                   -
35       cy{ dGqfno                                         -               33,517                  950       34,468          -                      110             -                   110
38       pBf]u dGqfno                                       -                   640                -                640       -                      615             -                   615
40       s[lif tyf ;xsf<L dGqfno                            -               4,907                      201     5,108          -                        -             -                   -
47       hn;|f]t dGqfno                                    1,200             2,666                     225     2,891          -                      356                 532          888
48       ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{)f dGqfno                       30          19,133               26,175       45,308          -                  -                3,467              3,467
58       <Iff dGqfno                                        -                        32            -                 32       -                  -                         -             -
59       jg tyf e"-;_<If)f dGqfno                           -                1,987                 -           1,987          -                  -                         -             -
61       jftfj<)f, la!fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno                  -              13,406                  -          13,406          -                 7,011                -               7,011
65       lzIff dGqfno                                      4,413                    91             -                 91      1,189                   68              -               1,257
67       ;"rgf tyf ;~rf< dGqfno                             -                   -                  1,550       1,550          -                  -                       812             812
69       :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno                               2,016           10,038                  -          10,038          -                 1,350                -               1,350
70       :jf:Yo tyf hg;_Vof dGqfno                        15,986            13,615                 -           13,615         -                 2,351                -               2,351
87       cy{ dGqfno - nufgL ;fj{hlgs ;_:yfg                2,000            36,630               30,150       66,780          -                 7,123             8,216             15,339

                                                hDdf    25,645           137,219                59,251       196,470        1,189           19,062             13,027              33,278




                                                                                           92
                                                                                                             cg';"rL M ^
                                       dGqfnout÷lgsfout yk ah]6 dfusf] ljj/0f
                                                                                                                                 ?=xhf/df
cg'bfg                                                                       lgsf;f lbg afFsL /sd                                s}lkmot
                             dGqfno÷lgsfo
 ;+Vof                                                         rfn"          k"+hLut tyf ;f+jf e'QmfgL            hDdf
         /fi6«kltsf] sfof{no
  11
         lztnlgjf;, sf7df08f}+ .                                      1700                               0             1700
  12     pk/fi6«kltsf] sfof{no                                        800                                0                 800
  13     Joj:yflksf ;+;b ;lrjfno                                 42610                           1000                 43610
 14      ;jf{]Rr cbfnt                                            43660                                  0            43660
  16     dxfn]vf k/LIfssf] sfof{no                                     271                               0                 271
  17     nf]s ;]jf cfof]u                                        12950                                   0            12950
 18      lgjf{rg cfof]u                                           8471                                   0             8471
  19     dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no                                    1087                               0             1087
  21     /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]u                              42706                                   0           42706
 30      k|wfgdGqL tyf dGqLkl/ifb\sf] sfof{no                    28350                          11875                40225
  35     cy{ dGqfno                                             326538                     8000000                 8326538
 38      pBf]u dGqfno                                           240350                                   0          240350
  39      jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno                                   102                               0                 102
 40       s[lif tyf ;xsf/L dGqfno                               155403                          62654               218057
 45      u[x dGqfno                                            2442601                        696309               3138910
 47      hn>f]t dGqfno                                          602473                          39200                641673
 48      ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{0f dGqfno                       295549                         683619               979168
 49      ko{6g tyf gful/s p•og dGqfno                             5000                       208400                 213400
 50      k//fi6« dGqfno                                         285465                          19070               304535
 55      e"ld;'wf/ tyf Joj:yf dGqfno                             18437                                   0            18437
  56     dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f dGqfno                151821                                   0           151821
 57      o'jf tyf v]ns'b dGqfno                                  50096                            1837                51933
 58      /Iff dGqfno                                            248792                                   0          248792
 59      jg tyf e"–;+/If0f dGqfno                                     6273                       2734                  9007
 60      jfl0fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno                             250000                           7934               257934
  61     jftfj/0f, lj1fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno                       24500                            3833                28333
  62     zflGt tyf k"glg{df0f dGqfno                            813762                                   0           813762
  63     ;++:s[lt tyf /fHo k'g;+/rgf dGqfno                           6092                      13860                 19952
  65     lzIff dGqfno                                          1013102                           3000              1016102
  66     ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno                                     9244                                   0            9244
  67     ;"rgf tyf ;+rf/ dGqfno                                   21051                        45100                  66151
 69      :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno                                   2657882                        628908               3286790
 70      :jf:Yo tyf hg;+Vof dGqfno                             1007409                         74000              1081409
  71     >d tyf oftfoft Joj:yf dGqfno                             74211                                  0            74211
 72      /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno                             3945                         975                 4920
82,83 j}}b}lzs C0f e'QmfgL -ljlgdo b/ j[lw ePsf] sf/0f_
 87      nufgL ;fj{hlgs ;+:yfg                                 1657920                                   0         1657920
 90      lgj[lte/0f,pkbfg,cf}ifwf]pkrf/,gk'u tnj               3000000                                   0        3000000
 95      k|ltlglwd08n,cfly{s ;xfotf                              12000                                   0           12000
                                   hDdf                   15562623                10504308                     26066931

                                                          93
                                                           -
                                                   cgnm"rL – 7



       2065 ;fn k''; d;fGt;Dd g]kfn ;<sf<n] p&fPsf]
               cfGtl<s C)f jfktsf] s'n bfloTj



                                                      œ?= nfvdf•
 l;=g=                  C0fkqsf] gfd                  <sd
   !     ljsf; C0fkq                                   237,354
   @     gful/s artkq                                   45,835
   #     af]nsjf]]n 6«]h/L ljn                         861,523
   $     ljz]if C0fkq                                    2,878
   %     cGt/{/fli6«o d'b|f sf]if                      48,004
                                            hDdf     1,195,594

;|f]t M dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{no



                                                           -
                                                   cgnm"rL – 8



       2065 ;fn k''; d;fGt;Dd g]kfn ;<sf<n] lnPsf]]

                j}b]lzs C)f jfktsf] s'n bfloTj

                                                      œ?= nfvdf•

 l;=g=                a}b]lzs C)f                     <sd

   1     a}b]lzs C)f e'QmfgL - jx'kIfLo              2,607,982
   2     a}b]lzs C)f e'QmfgL - låkIfLo                 373,897
                          hDdf                      2,981,879

;|f]t M dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{no




                                       94
                                                                                          cg';"rL–(
                   cfly{s jif{ @)^%.^^ sf] k|yd ^ dlxgfsf] bft[ lgsfout vr{ ljj/0f
                                                                                          -?=nfvdf_
bft[ ;_s]t                  bft[ lgsfo                  cg'bfg            C)f             hDdf
   02        Pl8lj                                                17        10,694        10,712
   13        8]gdfs{                                       3,086                 -         3,086
   15        o'/f]lkog o'lgog                                     53             -               53
   16        lkmgNof08–lkmlg8f                                110                -           110
   17        lkmgNof08                                       982                 -           982
   20        hd{lg -s]=Pkm=8Jn'_                           7,056                 -         7,056
   22        cfOkmf8                                         432                441          872
   26        o'Pgl8lk                                       1,297                -         1,297
   28        o'=Pg=Pkm=lk=P                                   139                -           139
   29        o'lg;]km                                             60             -               60
   30        ljZj vfB sfo{qmd                              1,282                 -         1,282
   31        ljZj :jf:Yo ;+u7g                             2,284                 -         2,284
   32        ef/t                                            298                1,511      1,809
   35        hfkfg–l8=cf/=Pkm=                               670                 -           670
   37        hfkfg–s]=cf/=6'=                                     25             -               25
   42        sf]l/of–sf]Osf                                2,790                 -         2,790
   44        g]b/Nof08                                            0              -                0
   45        g]b/Nof08–P;=Pg=le                              398                 -           398
   46        gl8{ls ljsf; sf]if                               -                 1,132       1,132
   47        gj{]                                                113             -            113
   52        ;fpbL ljsf; sf]if                                -                       2           2
   53        j]nfot–l8=Pkm=cfO=l8                             393                -           393
   55        o'=P;=P8                                             15             -               15
   56        cf=l8=P=                                     20,609              7,256       27,865
   59        :jL6\h/Nof08–P;l8l;                                   1             -                1
   60        :jL6\h/Nof08                                         68             -               68
   71        ufle                                                  6             -                6
   72        UNff]jn km08                                         13             -               13
   75        hfkfg–Pg=lk=lh                                  575                 -           575
   81        O=Pkm=P=8f]g/                                 3,559              1,341        4,900
   85        bftfsf] ;+o'Qm sf]if–:jf:Yo                     678                     95      773
   86        hfkfg–s]=cf/=cfO{=                                  40              -               40
   90        o'=s]–l8=cf/=Pkm=                              1,616                -          1,616
  102         cGt/f{li6«o ljsf;sf] nflu cf]k]s sf]if          -               2,752        2,752
   103       Ol;–Pg=lk=l6=Pkm                                     31             -               31
  104        l8=Pkm=cfO=l8– Pg=lk=l6=Pkm                          34             -               34
  105        gj{]–Pg=lk=l6=Pkm                                    39             -               39
  106        8]gdfs{–Pg=lk=l6=Pkm                                 37             -               37
  107        lkmgNof08–Pg=lk=l6=Pkm                               12             -               12
  108        P;=l8=l;=–Pg=lk=l6=Pkm                                6             -                6
                               hDdf                      48,823             25,224        74,047

                                                   95
                                                                                                                                                 cg';"rL –!)
                                                           j}b]lzs ;xfotfsf] cfof]hgfut k|ltj4tf
                                                                    cfly{s jif{ @)^%.^^
                                                                                                                                            -?=nfvdf_
l;=g+=     ;Demf}tf ldlt             bftf                                        cfof]hgf                     ;xof]usf] k|sf/ j}b]lzs d'b|f      g]=?
     1    h'nfO{ !&, @))*            hfkfg           sf7df08f}+–eQmk'/ ;8s                                   cg'bfg              hfkfgL o]g    17747.40
                                                                                                                                      26890
    2     h'nfO{ @(, @))*            8]gdfs{         ljlhg]; 6' ljlhg];                                      cg'bfg / k|fljlws
                                                                                                             ;xof]u
     3    h'nfO{ @(, @))*            8]gdfs{         ;fj{hlgs lglh ;fem]bfl/ -lklklk_                        cg'bfg / k|fljlws
                                                                                                             ;xof]u
    4      cui6 ^, @))*               ef/t           :yfgLo lgsfo / u}/ ;/sf/L ;+:yf dfkm{t ;fgf ljsf;       cg'bfg
                                                     cfof]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] nflu ef/tLo cg'bfg ;xfotf
    5      cui6 &, @))*              hfkfg           C0fdf]rg sf]if                                          cg'bfg                hfkfgL o]g       72252.60
                                                                                                                                      116914
    6      cui6 @^,@))*        ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   cfktsflng zflGt ;xof]u of]hgf                           cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<       34875.00
                                                                                                                                         500
    7      cui6 @^,@))*        ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   :jf:Yo If]q sfo{qmd                                     cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<          34875
                                                                                                                                         500
    8      cui6 @^,@))*        ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   bf];|f] u|fld0f vfg]kfgL tyf ;/;kmfO{ cfof]hgf          cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<        18832.50
                                                                                                                                         270
    9    ;]K6]Dj/ %, @))*         blIf0f sf]l/of     sf]l/of–g]kfn k|ljlw k|lti7fg, j'6jn                    cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<         3535.00
                                                                                                                                           50
   10    ;]K6]Dj/ !^, @))*           hfkfg           ;j}sf nflu lzIff cGtu{t k|fylds lzIff ;xof]u sfo{qmd - cg'bfg                 hfkfgL o]g        6029.10
                                                                                                                                       8700
                                                     bf];|f] r/0f_
   11    cS6f]j/ @!, @))*              lrg           jg]kf–kf]lnlSnlgs lj:tf/ cfof]hgf                      cg'bfg                 o'cfg 100          1151.00
   12    cS6f]j/ @#, @))*         blIf0f sf]l/of     rd]lnof hnljB't cfof]hgf                               C0f                  cd]l<ls Šn<        35415.00
                                                                                                                                         450
   13 cS6f]j/    @&, @))*              gj{]          Plss[t ljifflb Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd                         cg'bfg                   gj{]lhog       3900.00
                                                                                                                                  qmf]gf< 270
   14     gf]e]Dj/ @, @))*     ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   ;fdflhs ;'/Iff cfof]hgf                                 cg'bfg                   cd]l<ls       11020.00
                                                                                                                                     Šn< 89
   15     gf]e]Dj/ @, @))*     ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   ;fdflhs ;'/Iff cfof]hgf                                 C0f                 cd]l<ls Šn<         2110.00
                                                                                                                                         26.7
   16     gf]e]Dj/ @, @))*     ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   l;+rfO{ tyf hn;|f]t Joj:yfkgsf nflu cltl/Qm nuflg       C0f                 cd]l<ls Šn<        11270.00

                                                     cfof]hgf                                                                           143.1

   17     gf]e]Dj/ @, @))*     ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   vfBfGg d"No ;+s6 ;Djf]wg sf]if                          cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<         3940.00
                                                                                                                                           50
   18 gf]e]Dj/   !$, @))*     j]nfot–l8=Pkm=cfO=l8   u|fld0f k'glg{df{0f tyf k'g:yf{kgf If]q ljsf; sfo{qmd   cg'bfg              j]nfotL kf})Š      12900.00
                                                                                                                                         100
   19 gf]e]Dj/   !$, @))*     j]nfot–l8=Pkm=cfO=l9   u|fld0f kx'Fr sfo{qmd–bf];|f]                           cg'bfg              j]nfotL kf})Š      21900.00
                                                                                                                                         170
   20     gfe]Dj/ !*, @)* :jL6\h/Nof08–P;=l8=l;= ;Lk k|j4{g dfkm{t o'jf /f]huf/ –t];|f] r/0f                 cg'bfg              :jL; k|mofGs         900.00
                                                                                                                                           15
   21    l8;]Dj/ $, @))* :jL6\h/Nof08–P;=l8=l;= g]kfn :jL; ;f'dbflos jg cfof]hgf –5}6f}+                     cg'bfg              :jL; k|mofGs        2100.00
                                                                                                                                        31.43
   22    l8;]Dj/ $, @))*              rLg            cfly{s tyf k|fljlws ;xof]u                              cg'bfg                 cf<=Pd=lj       11580.00
                                                                                                                                        1000
   23 l8;]Dj/    !%, @))*     PlzofnL ljsf; j}+s     :yfgLo :jzf;g tyf ;fd'bflos ljsf; sfo{qmd cGtu{t        cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<       82410.00
                                                                                                                                        1063
                                                     zf;sLo ;'wf/ sfo{qmd
   24 l8;]Dj/    @(, @))*            8]gdfs{         dfgjclwsf/ tyf z';f;g sfo{qmd–t];|f] r/0f               cg'bfg               Š]lgm qmf]g<     23800.00
                                                                                                                                        1700
   25     hgj/L @, @))(        ljZj j}+s÷cfO{=l8=P   ul/j nlIft dfWolds lzIff 5fqj[lQ cfof]hgf               cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<          1466.60
                                                                                                                                         19.1
   26    hgj/L @#, @))(           ;+=/f=cd]l/sf      sfg'gL kfngf                                            cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<         2006.80
                                                                                                                                       25.68
   27     km]j'|c/L (, @))(   PlzofnL ljsf; j}+s     ;f;]s ;"rgf nf]sdfu{ cfof]hgf                           cg'bfg              cd]l<ls Šn<         6988.50
                                                                                                                                           90
   28    km]j'|c/L !@, @))(          hfkfg           jg]kf–l;Gw'nL /f]8 – t];|f] v08 -lj:t[t l8hfOg_         cg'bfg                hfkfgL o]g          431.00
                                                                                                                                         500
                                                                                                                                        hDdf      423435.50




                                                                               96
                                                                                   cg';"rL –!!
                                 bft[ lgsfout j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|ltj4tf
                                            cf=a=@)^%.^^
                                                                                    -?=nfvdf_
l;=g+=                låkIfLo                   cg'bfg            C0f             hDdf
  1       ci6«]lnof                                      0.0                0.0           0.0
  2       Sofgf8f                                        0.0                0.0           0.0
  3       rLg                                       12731.0                 0.0      12731.0
  4       8]gdfs{                                   23800.0                 0.0     23800.0
  5       lkmgNof08                                      0.0                0.0           0.0
  6       k|mfG;                                         0.0                0.0           0.0
  7       hd{lg                                          0.0                0.0           0.0
  8       ef/t                                           0.0                0.0           0.0
  9       hfkfg                                     96460.1                 0.0      96460.1
 10       g]b/Nof08                                      0.0                0.0           0.0
 11       gj{]                                       3900.0                 0.0       3900.0
 12       ljsf;sf] nflu ;fpbL sf]if                      0.0                0.0           0.0
 13       blIf0f sf]l/of                             3535.0             35415.0     38950.0
 14       :jL6\h/Nof08                               3000.0                 0.0      3000.0
 15       j]nfot                                   34800.0                  0.0     34800.0

 16       ;+o'Qm /fHo cd]l/sf                        2006.8                 0.0       2006.8

                         hDdf                      180232.9             35415.0    215647.9



l;=g+=                ax'kIfLo                  cg'bfg            C)f             hDdf

      1   P=l8=lj                                   89398.5                 0.0     89398.5

      2   o'/f]lko o'lgog                                0.0                0.0           0.0

      3   vfB tyf s[lif ;+u7g                            0.0                0.0           0.0

      4   cfOkmf8                                        0.0                0.0           0.0
      5   cfO=Pn=cf]                                     0.0                0.0           0.0
      6   cf]k]s km08                                    0.0                0.0           0.0
      7   o=Pg=l8=lk=                                    0.0                0.0           0.0
      8   o'=Pg=Pkm=lk=P                                 0.0                0.0           0.0
      9   o'lg;]]km                                      0.0                0.0           0.0
   10     ljZj j}+s                                 105009.1            13380.0    118389.1
                                                         0.0                0.0           0.0
                       hDdf                        194407.6             13380.0    207787.6
                     s"n hDdf                      374640.5         48795.0        423435.5



                                              97
                                                                          cg';"rL–!@
                            j}b]lzs ;xfotf k|ltj4tf -If]qut_
                                     cf=j= @)^%.^^
                                                                          -?= nfvdf_
l;=g_=                   If]q                      cg'bfg       C)f       hDdf
  1      s[lif                                         3900           0      3900
  2      ;+rf/                                      6988.5            0    6988.5
  3      lzIff                                     13081.7            0   13081.7
  4      ljQ                                                0         0           0
  5      jg                                            2100           0      2100
  6      ;'zf;g                                      23800            0     23800
  7      :jf:Yo                                      34875            0     34875
  8      u[x                                        2006.8            0    2006.8
  9      dfgjclwsf/                                         0         0           0
 10      pBf]u                                              0         0           0
 11      l;+rfO{                                            0   11270       11270
 12      >d                                                 0         0           0
 13      sfg'g tyf Gofo                                     0         0           0
 14      :yfgLo ljsf;                               117210            0    117210
 15      zflGt sf]if                                        0         0           0
 16      of]hgf                                             0         0           0
 17      ljB't                                              0   35415       35415
 18      lj1fg tyf k|ljlw                                   0         0           0
 19      ;jf{]Rr cbfnt                                      0         0           0
 20      cfk"lt{                                            0         0           0
 21      oftfoft                                   18178.4            0   18178.4
 22      vfg]kfgL                                  18832.5            0   18832.5
 23      dlxnf, jfnjflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof0f                   0         0           0




                                              98
                                                                                          cg';"rL–!#
                          cy{ ah]6af6 yk lgsf;f ePsf] ljj/0f               *

                                     cf=j= @)^%.^^
                                                                                          -?= nfvdf_
                                                                        cy{ah]^af^ <sdfGt<
;_s]t                              lgsfo
                                                                               yk lgsf;f
 11       <fi^«kltsf] sfof{no                                                             100.00
 13       Joj:yflksf-;_;b ;lrjfno                                                         200.00
14        ;jf]{Rr cbfnt                                                                     35.76
 15       clVtof< b'?kof]u cg';Gwfg cfof]u                                                    -
 16       dxfn]vf k<LIfssf] sfof{no                                                          2.90
 17       nf]s ;]jf cfof]u                                                                 111.35
 18       lgjf{rg cfof]u                                                                      -
 19       dxfGofoflwjQmfsf] sfof{no                                                          8.67
 30       k|wfgdGqL tyf dlGqkl<ifb\sf] sfof{no                                             337.14
 35       cy{ dGqfno                                                                     13,123.50
 38       pBf]u dGqfno                                                                      21.47
 39       sfg"g, Gofo tyf ;_lawfg ;ef Joj:yf dGqfno                                           2.33
40        s[lif tyf ;xsf<L dGqfno                                                          509.38
45        u[x dGqfno                                                                     8,739.77
47        hn;|f]t dGqfno                                                                  990.45
48        ef}lts of]hgf tyf lgdf{)f dGqfno                                               5,848.39
49        ko{^g tyf gful<s pŠ\Šog dGqfno                                                   310.00
50        k<<fi^« dGqfno                                                                   115.32
55        e"ld;'wf< tyf Joj:yf dGqfno                                                       53.02
 56       dlxnf, afnaflnsf tyf ;dfh sNof)f dGqfno                                            4.45
 57       o'jf tyf v]ns'b dGqfno                                                          500.00
58        <Iff dGqfno                                                                      170.34
59        jg tyf e"-;_<If)f dGqfno                                                          13.00
 60       jfl)fHo tyf cfk"lt{ dGqfno                                                          -
 61       jftfj<)f lj!fg tyf k|ljlw dGqfno                                                   6.81
 62       zflGt tyf k'glg{df{)f dGqfno                                                     379.58
 63       ;_:s[lt tyf <fHo k"g;_<rgf dGqfno                                                214.10
 65       lzIff dGqfno                                                                     961.37
 66       ;fdfGo k|zf;g dGqfno                                                             123.52
 67       ;"rgf tyf ;~rf< dGqfno                                                            55.91
 69       :yfgLo ljsf; dGqfno                                                            2,223.95
70        :jf:Yo tyf hg;_Vof dGqfno                                                        649.64
 71       >d tyf oftfoft Joj:yf dGqfno                                                      18.55
 72       <fli^«o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno                                                   3.80
                                                             hDdf                   35,834.45
      *   2065-11-14 ut] ;Ddsf]

          cy{ ah]^af^ <sdfGt< lgsf;f cGtu{t ;DalGwt lgsfosf] ah]^ zLif{sdf <sdfGt< u<L
          yk lgsf;f uPsf] <sd dfq pNn]v ul<Psf] M


                                                                      99
                                                                                                                                    cg';"rL–!$
                                                        cfly{s tyf ljQLo l:ylt

                                 lja/0f                                      ;g @))&            ;g\ @))*                 ;g @))(
ljZjsf] cfly{s a[l4b/                                                             5.2              3.4                       0.5

                                 lja/0f
g]kfn                                                                     cfly{s jif{ @)^$÷^%   @)^$ dfu{       @)^% dfu{          @)^%÷^^ *
s'n ufx{:Yo pTkfbg -pTkfbssf] d"Nodf_                                            4.7                                                 4.4

s'n ufx{:Yo pTkfbg -cfwf/ d"Nodf_                                                 5.6                                                 3.8

                                                             s[lif If]q           5.7                                                2.4

                                                         u}/–s[lif If]q           5.6                                                4.6

pkef]Qmf d'b|f:kmLlt -cf}ift_                                                     7.7             5.8
                                                                                                        @
                                                                                                                 14.4
                                                                                                                         @
                                                                                                                                     9.5

lj:t[t d'b|f k|bfo                                                               25.2              9.5             9                  18

s'n cfGtl/s shf{                                                                 20.9             10.4             6.5               21.4

lghL If]qdf hfg] shf{                                                            24.3             10.9            10.1                23

v'b a}bl] zs ;Dklt -?=s/f]8df_                                                  2967.5             3.1           2277.4              2187

v'b cfGtl/s ;Dklt                                                              7018.4            3748.8          2171.8             6740.6

cfoft                                                                            16.1              8.2            32.6                20

ef/t                                                                             24.7             10.7            17.1

t]>f] d'n's                                                                       3.5              4.5            57.2

lgof{t                                                                           2.4              -4.4            30.9                8

ef/t                                                                             -7.4              -9             15.1

t]>f] d'n's                                                                      25.5              6.9             64

s'n a}b]lzs Jofkf/                                                               12.9              5.1            32.3               17.3

zf]wfgfGt/ l:ylt -?=s/f]8df_                                                    2967.5             3.1           2277.4              2188

ljk|]if0f cfk|jfx                                                                                 17.6            65.8                15

ko{6g If]qsf] cfDbfgL                                                                             67.2            60.9               27.2

s'n ljb]zL d'b|f ;l~rlt -?=cj{df_                                              21262.4            165.4          235.55             234.65

s'n ljb]zL d'b|f ;l~rltaf6 cfoft wfGg ;Sg] l:ylt
a:t' cfoft -dlxgf_                                                               11.3             10.3            10.2               10.6

a:t' tyf ;]jf cfoft -dlxgf_                                                       9.1              8              8.2                8.4

g]K;] ;"rfsf+s                                                                  963.39           958.91
                                                                                                            @
                                                                                                                659.81
                                                                                                                         @


ahf/ kF"hLs/0f -?=ca{df_                                                        366.25           301.9
                                                                                                         @
                                                                                                                 361.9@

g]kfn lwtf]kq ljlgdo s]Gb|df ;"rLs[t sDkgLx?sf] ;+Vof                            142              141@           149@

* k|If]k0f, @ k'; d;fGt




                                                                      100
                                                                      cg';"rL – !%
                          Abbreviations and Acronyms

ADB        =   Asian Development Bank
BPEP       =   Basic and Primary Education Project
CFG        =   Corporate and Financial Governance
CRO        =   Company Registrar's Office
DFID       =   Department for International Development
EARRP      =   Earthquake Affected Area Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Project
ECR        =   Electronic Cash Register
EFA        =   Education for All
EIA        =   Environment Impact Assessment
e-PAN      =   Electronic Permanent Account Number
EPZ        =   Export Promotion Zone
e-TDS      =   Electronic Tax Deduction at Source
FACD       =   Foreign Aid Co-ordination Division
HIV/AIDS   =   Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
HR         =   Human Resource
IAP        =   Immediate Action Plan
IBIS       =   Integrated Banking Information System
IFAD       =   International Fund for Agricultural Development
IT         =   Information Technology
JICA       =   Japan International Co-operation Agency
KV         =   Kilo Volt
MBBS       =   Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
MIS        =   Management Information System
MTEF       =   Medium-Term Expenditure Framework
NAST       =   Nepal Academy for Science and Technology
NCCN       =   National Construction Company of Nepal
NEPSE      =   Nepal Stock Exchange
NPA        =   Non-Performing Asset
NPPR       =   Nepal Portfolio Performance Review
NRB        =   Nepal Rastra Bank
OPEC       =   Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
PCA        =   Post Clearance Audit
PEFA       =   Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability
RAIDP      =   Rural Access Improvement Development Project
RMDP       =   Road Maintenance and Development Project
SACEP      =   South Asia Council for Environment Program
SDR        =   Special Drawing Rights
SERD       =   Seti Education Rural Development
SEZ        =   Special Economic Zone
SOE        =   Statement of Expenditure
SRC        =   Swiss Red Cross
SSI        =   Supplemental Security Income
UNCTAD     =   United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP       =   United Nations Development Program
USAID      =   United States Agency for International Development
VRS        =   Voluntary Retirement Scheme
WHO        =   World Health Organization


                                      101
                                                                                                      cg';"rL – !^
                                k|ltj]bg lgdf{0fsf ;Gbe{df ul7t ;ldltx? tyf ;xof]uLx?
                                                       lgb]{zs ;ldlt
;+of]hs                >L s[i0fxl/ af:sf]6f        ;lrj-/fh:j_             cy{ dGqfno
;b:o                   >L s[i0f 1jfnL              ;x–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, j}=;=;=dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L nfndl0f hf]zL            ;x–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, /fh:j dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L ljdn k|;fb jfUn]         ;x–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno,cf=sf=lj= dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L z+s/ clwsf/L             ;x–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno cg'= tyf d"=dxfzfvf
;b:o                   k|f=8f= >L/fd kf}8]n        jl/i7 cfly{s ;Nnfxsf/   cy{ dGqfno
;b:o                   >L lqnf]rg k+u]gL           sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs        g]kfn /fi6« a}s
;b:o ;lrj              >L /0faxfb'/ >]i7           ;x–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
                                                     sfof{Gjog ;ldlt
;+of]hs                >L /0faxfb'/ >]i7           ;x–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno
;b:o                   >L k'iknfn zfSo             pk–;lrj                 /fli6«o of]hgf cfof]usf] ;lrjfno
;b:o                   >L lzj k|;fb kl08t          pk–d=n]=lg=             dxfn]vf lgoGqs sfof{no
;b:o                   >L czf]s kf}8]n             pk–lgb]{zs              g]kfn /fi6« a}s
;b:o                   >L a'l4axfb'/ v8sf          pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L xl/z/0f k'8f;}gL         pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L b'u]{z s'df/ k|wfg       pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L s]bf/k|;fb kg]?          pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L z'es'df/ >]i7            pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
;b:o                   >L o1d"lt{ e08f/L           pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
;b:o ;lrj              >L lgd{nxl/ clwsf/L         pk–;lrj                 cy{ dGqfno, ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf
                                                       ;xof]uLx?tkm{
                                          ah]6 tyf sfo{qmd dxfzfvf, cy{ dGqfno
>L yfgk|;fb k+1fgL     zfvf clws[t               >L nj/fh yfkf                zfvf   clws[t
>L /d]z /fh uf}td      zfvf clws[t               >L o'uhtg x'dfufO{+          zfvf   clws[t
>L hgs/fh zdf{         zfvf clws[t               >L /fh]Gb|aGw' cof{n         zfvf   clws[t
>L dx]z 9'+ufgf        zfvf clws[t               >L xs{gf/fo0f >]i7           zfvf   clws[t
lji0f' k|;fb zdf{      zfvf clws[t               >L 1fg' s'Fj/                zfvf   clws[t
>L uf]kLs[i0f pk|]tL   zfvf clws[t
>L ljlkg dNn           sDKo'6/ OlGhlgo/          >L   ;'lhtf hf]zL           sDKo'6/ clws[t
>L kfs{/ clwsf/L       sDKo'6/ clws[t            >L   xl/uf]kfn dxh{g        s=c=
>L afa'sfhL sfsL{      gf=;'=                    >L   bLks Gof}kfg]          gf=;'=
>L o'j/fh hf]zL        gf=;'=                    >L   1fg]Gb| zdf{           gf=;'=
>L lqrGb| cfrfo{       gf=;'=                    >L   /3' l3ld/]             gf=;'=
>L zf]ef clwsf/L       gf=;'=                    >L   pdf >]i7               6f=gf=;'
>L zf]ef bfxfn         6f=gf=;'                  >L   Clif nfld5fg]          ;jf/L rfns
>L uf]kfn kf08]        ;jf/L rfns                >L   /lj >]i7               ;jf/L rfns
>L uf]s'n s]=;L+       ;jf/L rfns                >L   jf;' a:g]t             sfof{no ;xof]uL
>L uf]kfn v8\sf        sfof{no ;xof]uL           >L   s'naxfb'/ a:g]t        sfof{no ;xof]uL
>L gf/fo0f /fjt        sfof{no ;xof]uL




                                                           102

				
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