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					Common Formative
Monica Burgio Daigler, Erie 1

 Look at Gaps and Trend
 Deconstruction Template
          Overview of CFAs

 Read   handout from Larry Ainsworth, the
  CFA guru
 Tossed Terms
 Discuss – how many CFA’s? Topics and
  – Content weaknesses?
  – Skill weaknesses?
Summative -- Assessment OF Learning

 Summative   assessment for unit, quarter,
  semester, grade level, or course of study
 Provides “status report” on degree of
  student proficiency or mastery relative to
  targeted standard(s)

Stephanie L. Bravmann, Assessment’s ―Fab Four.‖Education Week, March 17, 2004, p. 56
Summative -- Assessment OF Learning

 Answers question: “Have students achieved the
  goals defined by a given standard or group of
 Helps teachers judge effectiveness of their
  teaching practices
 Intended to support the assignment of grades
Formative -- Assessment FOR Learning

 Formative: given before and during the teaching
 Diagnostic: intended to be used as a guide to
  improve teaching and learning
 Answers key questions: Do students possess
  critical pre-requisite skills and knowledge? Do
  students already know some of the material that
  is to be taught?
Formative -- Assessment FOR Learning

 Provides teachers with information they
  need to create appropriate work for
  groups of learners or individual students
 Not typically used to assign grades

 Which   assessments did you rank a “1”?
 Are you administering any assessments
  that ranked a “3”?
 Are there assessments that have no
 Which of the assessments are used
 What type of remediation is given?
Step by Step….

 How to create a
   quality CFA…
       Steps to Creating a CFA

 Identify power standards from longitudinal data
 Determine topics to address with CFA
 Deconstruct test items to determine measurable
  skills, content, and big ideas
 Write essential questions matched to skills and
  big ideas
 Design CFA
General Item Writing Tips…

   Quality items should
    – Reflect higher order thinking skills (HOTS)
    – Students should not be able to answer by
      recall, the should have to apply their
    – Be brief and clear—goal is to ―test mastery of
      material, not students’ ability to figure out
      what you’re asking.‖ –Richard Stiggins
          Things to Consider…

   Design fair and bias free items (no bias
    toward gender, ethnicity, or language)

 Format   items to match district
    benchmark assessments, final
    exams, and state tests
Top 5 Roadblocks to Effective Item

1.   Unclear Directions or Ambiguous
2.   Unintentional Clues
3.   Complex Phrasing
4.   Difficult Vocabulary

W. James Popham, Test Better, Teach Better, 2003, p. 64
Two Major Types of Assessment

    Selected Response
   Constructed Response
         Selected Response

 Requires students to select one response
  from a provided list or provide very brief
 Types include: multiple choice, true-false,
  matching, short answer/fill-in
 Can be used to effectively assess students
  knowledge of factual information, basic
  concepts, and basic skills
         Selected Response

 Benefit: Student answers can be quickly
  scored and objectively scored as correct or
 Drawback: Tends to promote
  memorization of factual information,
  rather than evidence of higher-level
  understanding—unless the items are
  deliberately designed to do so.
Reasons for Selected Response

  Better content domain sampling
  Higher reliability
  Greater efficiency
  Objectivity
  Measurability for HOTS
  Mechanical Scoring

 Haladyna, Writing Test Items to Evaluate Higher Order Thinking, 1997, pp 65-
Reasons Against Selected Response

 Emphasis on learning of isolated facts
  (teaching to the test)
 Inappropriate for some writing/creative
 Lack of student writing

Haladyna, Writing Test Items to Evaluate Higher Order Thinking, 1997, pp 65-
 Multiple Choice to Assess Higher
          Level Thinking?

Common myth is that multiple
 choice items ONLY assess
 lower-level thinking skills and
 therefore will not be
 appropriate for evaluating
 students higher-level thinking
                Dispelling the Myth

―Research has not yet been done to prove
  this point. If you want to measure
  understanding and some types of mental
  skills and abilities, multiple choice formats
  can be written to measure these
  behaviors effectively.‖

Haladyna, Writing Test Items to Evaluate Higher Order Thinking, 1997, p. 98
       Criteria for Writing Selected
              Response Items

1.   Write clearly in a focused manner
2.   Ask a question with only one best
3.   Write items consistent with grade level
     reading expectation
4.   Eliminate clues leading to correct answer
5.   Make response options brief

Adapted from Richard J. Stiggins, Student-Centered Assessment, 2001.
       Constructed Response

 Includes short-and extended response
  (i.e. short answer prompts, essays, and
  problem solving requiring writing
 Requires students to organize and use
  knowledge and skills to answer a question
  or complete a task
 Requires scoring guide (rubric) to evaluate
  degree of student proficiency
     Constructed Response Items

   Benefit: Provide teachers with more valid
    inferences about student understanding
    than those derived from selected response

   Drawbacks: Take longer to score; can
    have errors in design; dependent on
    student writing proficiency; challenge to
    score accurately
    More Valid Inferences from
      Constructed Response

―Because a student really needs to
  understand something in order to
  construct a response based on that
  understanding students’ responses to
  these sort of items will better contribute to
  valid inferences than will students’
  answers to selected-response items‖

W. James Popham, Test Better, Teach Better, 2003, p. 87
    Resources for Common Formative
           Assessment Items

 Textbook Questions (that meet criteria for
  well-written items)
 Assessment or evaluation components of
  text series
 State Exams
 Check for permission to duplicate
  copyrighted material!
      Creating a Scoring Guide

   Scoring Guide (Rubric)
    – A set of general and/or specific criteria used to
      evaluate student performance on a given task
    – Descriptions of competence or proficiency
    – Identifies degree of proficiency student has
      reached in relation to particular
      standard/content area
   Proficient
    – The level of performance students must meet
      to demonstrate attainment of particular
     Avoid Subjective Language

   Such as…       – Nice
    – Complete     – Some
    – Partial      – Few
    – Adequate     – Many
    – General      – Most
    – Successful   – Little
    – Good         – Creative
    Strive for Objective Language

   Language that is
    – Specific
    – Measurable
    – Observable
    – Understandable
    – Matched to task directions
Next Steps…

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