The Path of Empire
I. What is Foreign Policy?
a - Read Amsco p. 400 - 414
b - Term = Xenophobia
What is Foreign Policy? Chapters: 27 and 28
Foreign Policy is how we deal with other countries!
- One country's interest, goals, and objectives in dealing
with other countries
1. U.S. Foreign Policy Agencies
- State Department
- Joint Chiefs
- Defense Department
- Secretary of State - U.S. official who implements
foreign policy (1947: National Security Act)
2. Imperialism – a form of foreign policy.
- The policy of extending the domination of one
country over another.
3. Jingos! Those who favor WAR as an instrument of foreign
policy. Terms: Realists/Nationalists/Revisionists
What is Imperialism?
The drive to create empires is as old as civilization itself. The
history of the world includes the rise and fall of vast empires - for
example, the Egyptian empire, the Persian empire, and the Roman
empire. The European nations of the 1500's and 1600's were practicing
imperialism when they established empires in the New World.
Imperialism has many motives. One motive is military
advantage. Countries often feel the need to control territories near their
borders in order to protect themselves from attack. More distant
territories may be seen as desirable because they are important to
Religion is another motive that sometimes contributes to
imperialism. The Arabs of the seventh century conquered a huge
empire in order to spread the religion of Islam. The European nations
that colonized the New World wanted to spread Christianity.
A third motive for imperialism is nationalism. In the late 1800's,
nationalism was a strong force in Europe. During this period, which is
sometimes called the Age of Imperialism, several European Nations
established empires in Africa and in the Far East. The United States
joined the ranks of imperialist powers when it won territory from Spain
in the Spanish-American War.
One of the most important motives for early twentieth-century
imperialism was economic gain. By this time the United States and
Europe had become industrialized. Industrial nations need new
markets, new sources of raw materials, and new outlets of investments.
Albert J. Beveridge, who shortly after making the following speech was
elected Senator, called for the United States to acquire overseas
But today we are raising more than we can consume. Today we
are making more than we can use. Today our industrial society is
congested; there are more workers than there is work; there is more
capital than there is investment. We do not need more money - we need
more circulation, more employment. Therefore we must find new
markets for our produce, new occupation for our capital, new work for
Imperialism was not without its critics. Many Americans asked if
the ideals of democracy were compatible with competition for empire.
Yale Professor William G. Sumner wrote:
Now, the great reason why all these enterprises which began by
saying to someone else, "We know what is good for you better than you
know yourself and we are going to make you do it," are false and
wrong is that they violate liberty; or, to turn the same statement onto
other words, the reason why liberty, of which Americans talk so much,
is a good thing is that it means leaving people to live out their lives in
their own way, while we do the same.
Imperialism has been responsible for many conflicts among the
nations of the world. Competition among European powers led to
WWI. The imperialistic designs of Germany and Japan led to WWII.
Throughout history, subjugated people all over the world have rebelled
against the rule of outside powers. As William Jennings Bryan said in
1901, "Hatred of an alien government is a natural thing, and a thing to
be expected everywhere."
Today, many former colonies have won their independence.
However, the world powers still exercise considerable influence - some
for good and some for ill - in various parts of the globe.
Americans still debate what role the United States should take in
the world. Some would like to see their country return to isolationism.
Others insist that the United States still has a responsibility to promote
its national interests, to encourage democracy and economic
development in other countries, and to fight communist aggression or
* The AmericanTradition p.414
1. What are some of the motives of imperialism?
2. How has imperialism led to conflicts?
II. Leaders and Causes for Change in US Foreign Policy: What was
American foreign policy when we first became a nation, and what
factors contributed to its’ shift toward Imperialism?
1. The Birth of Communism: 1848 Karl Marx
-“The Communists Manifesto”-which said all things were
to be shared in common, when the workers got control the
means of production.
Society was divided into two groups: *Proletariat – the
workers,* bourgeois – the owners.
- Markets: for capitalism to survive, they must have
markets (demand for goods, services, or products)
- Fate: change is inevitable
- Five Stages for History: “Communists believe that all
history is the history of warfare between classes. This is the basic
struggle which produces social change, a struggle which is always
concerned with keeping or obtaining control over the means of
production of wealth. History goes through five stages:” 1. Primitive
2. Slaveholders 3. Feudal Landholders 4.Capitalistic Society
5. Communism (Communism is utopia, heaven on earth)
- Capitalism cannot survive without markets
*Capitalism will be overthrown by communism
when the markets are gone.
2. Social Darwinism: Survival of the Fittest (p. 624)
a. A philosophy that provided a rationale for
b. Survival of the Fittest- certain racial and ethnic
groups were superior. And, Social Darwinists
proposed the idea that only the fittest in society could
or should survive.
c. Eugenics –A popular scientific idea.
3. The Industrialization of America and the “Need” for new
Markets. (market-a place to sell American manufactured
- Frederick Jackson Turner 1890: No more frontier (p. 622)
- Josiah Strong: Take Christianity overseas (p. 624)
- Alfred T Mahan: Control of the seas is key to world
dominance (p. 624)
- Yellow Press (p. 577 & 623)
III. Old U.S. foreign policy (before the Civil War): We were
Isolationists. Antebellum US foreign policy.
1. Pre-Civil War Policy-Required avoiding involvement (no
entangling alliances) with other countries.
2. Washington's Farewell Address-1793 (p. 199 and 201) – No
3. Monroe Doctrine-1823 (p. 253 - 255) – Monroe told the
Europeans to stay out of the Americas
IV. Shift in Policy
- U.S. Policy prior to Civil War
- Required avoiding involvement with other countries
2.The Changing foreign policy
- The Monroe Doctrine: 1823
* 1853 ***Commodore Mathew Perry managed to
negotiated limited trading privileges with Japan. He was a
trailblazer of our new policy. (Gun boat diplomacy)
*The purchase of Alaska1867 – William Seward
-The purchase of Midway1867 – William Seward
- Arbitration, Alabama Claims: 1869
V. American Foreign Policy following the Civil War began shifting
toward a new brand of Manifest Destiny
1. Alaska:1867 - We bought Alaska
- From Russia for $7.2 million
- Nicknamed "Seward's Icebox"
- Klondike Strike: 1898-1899 -gold discovery
2. Mexico: 1864-1867 - We did not take action against Mexico
- President Juárez vs. Napoleon III
- "Puppet regime" led by Archduke Maximilian
- Midway: 1867 –occupied by United States (map p.647)
- Dominican Republic: Seward 1869
VI. James G. Blaine: "A New Manifest Destiny"
1. 1881: American foreign policy attempts to change, but is
derailed. (Pan American Union)
- But Garfield was assassinated and CSR overshadowed
- Why did we begin to build an all steel navy?? A
disturbance in Latin America, led to a war.
- "War of the Pacific": Chile vs. Bolivia
- We learn that Chile has a stronger navy than us, President
Arthur began the construction of the steel Navy.
***President Cleveland chose to ignore Blaine’s new foreign
policy and returned to isolationism. (1884-1888)***
2. The "Big Sister" Policy: President Harrison rehires Blaine and
listens to his new ideas on foreign policy. Blaine attempts to rally the
Latin American nations behind Uncle Sam's leadership in 1891.
VII. Blaine "Again"
1. Blaine's “New Outlook” - The New Manifest Destiny
- Pan American Union: 1881 and 1889 (p. 624 or 642)
- Belligerent Diplomacy
a. Pribilof Islands - Canada is killing U.S. seals!
*America loses the arbitration paid England
b. Samoa - 1889 Pago Pago Germany and the U.S.
almost went to war over Pago Pago.
* Berlin Conference(1889)-Samoan Islands
granted Autonomy –the right to self
government under a tripartite protectorate.
c. Italy - 1891 Sicilian Blackhand
*Eleven Italians lynched in New Orleans
d. Chile - 1892 "True Blue Saloon"
*In Valparaiso, Chile
*Two Americans killed in bar fight
e. Venezuela - 1895-96 British Guiana
*Boundary Dispute (p.642)
*Boer War (p. 625) – Winston Churchill
captured as a British war correspondent.
f. Hawaii (p. 627)
* Cook – 1788 Hawaii was discovered by
Captain Cook. The port of Pearl Harbor.
* Reciprocity – 1875 President Grant signed a
trade agreement with Hawaii.
* Planters Revolt – 1887-Sanford Dole and
Americans tried to make Hawaii a territory of
the United States. Then in 1890 the
McKinley removed the duties on imported
sugar, which had applied to other countries
since 1875. This destroyed Hawiii’s
advantage in the sugar trade.
* Liliuokalani – 1891-She was strongly Anti-
American. Led a Hawaiian revolt against the
* Republic – 1894 (Cleveland is President
once again) 1892-1896 He was an Anti-
Imperialists and blocked the annexation.
* In July of 1898- the United States occupied
And took controlled the Hawaiian Islands
during the Spanish – American War.
2. New Manifest Destiny- America’s New Foreign Policy.
- The Closing of the Frontier.-Frederick Jackson Turner:
1890 “The Frontier Thesis”
a. The west was a safety valve.-“Go West young
b. In 1890 the unsettled territory in the United States
was settled. The closing of the frontier caused
Americans to look for new frontiers to settle.
- The Search for Markets: American businesses needed new
markets for American manufactured goods.
a. Expand or Explode
b. Market: demand for goods, services, or products
- Social Darwinism- This philosophy said only the strong
survive in nature. “Survival of the Fittest”
- Certain fear of Communism- When the markets are gone
capitalism will be conquered by communism.
- Other Factors
a. Yellow Press: Sensational Journalism
Machiavellian idea, sell newspapers no matter what
b. Large Policy: Alfred T. Mahan-(a naval expert)-he
said a large navy can make a country great.
*Big Navy- so America could protect our trade
with other countries of the world.
*Copied Blue Water policy of William Pitt.
3. Conclusion Reached!
- Get Colonies – “Grow or Die”!
- Naval Act of 1890 - Money for Battleships- This set the
stage for America to begin expanding our control to other
parts of the world.
VIII. The Spanish-American War-1898
*President William McKinley- President of the United
States when the War began, the war lasted 113 days. He
was a veteran of the Civil War, but he hated war.
a. The New Manifest Destiny-We needed coaling stations
for our steam driven ships to sail to China. And, we felt
we needed new markets to grow our industries. What if
Spain left Cuba and Germany moved in????? (1/4 of all
American sugar came from Cuba)
b. American sympathy for (the underdog) Cuban rebels
fighting Spanish Rule. (General Weyler, a student of
William Tecumseh Sherman, and the concentration
camps.) Jose’ Marti’(1880’s) - A writer and poet who
was passionately committed to the cause of Cuban
independence (exiled to the US)
c. American sugar growers- opposed to Spanish rule. The
1894 tariff put a heavy tax on the importation of
Cuban sugar but if Cuba belonged to the United States,
they wouldn’t have to pay that tax.
d. The Yellow Press: Hurst and Pulitzer creating
sensational lies about atrocities by Spain in Cuba. Pg 629
(Frederick Remington- “You supply the picture, I will
supply the war.” Wm R Hurst)- The DELOME letter.
e. The Code of the West
2. Precipitating Cause- The Sinking of the Maine pg. 629
IX. Events of the War
1. February 9, 1898 - Delome Letter-it’s as if this letter was
posted on WikiLeaks.
2. February 15, 1898 - The "Battleship Maine" Sunk in Havana
Harbor - (Map p.653)-Caused Americans to call for WAR!!!!!
Battle Cry: “Remember the Maine!”
3. February 25, 1898-Assistant secretary of the Navy-Teddy
Roosevelt told Admiral Dewey if we go to war you take the
4. March 12, 1898 - Voyage of the Oregon-66 days (this is the
motivation for building the Panama Canal)
5. March 12, 1898 - Oregon begins dash for Florida (arrives
May 22, 1898)
6. March 27, 1898 - Ultimatum Issued –America felt she had to
beat the Germans to Cuba.
a. Cease fighting in Cuba
b. Abolish concentration camps
c. US had no territorial ambitions in Cuba
7. April 9, 1898 - Spain agreed to US ultimatum
8. April 11, 1898 - McKinley asks Congress to declare war on
Spain (p. 631)
9. April 20, 1898 –Senator Henry Teller wrote the Teller
Amendment. It was voted into law.
* The US would withdraw from Cuba when Cuban
Independence was won.
10. April 22, 1898 - Congress authorized volunteer force of
200,000 men and drafted a regular army of 60,000 men. Many
of the veterans in the US military were veterans of the Civil
War and the Indian Wars. They knew modern Warfare better
than most Europeans.
11. April 25, 1898 - Spanish-American War!
12. May 1, 1898 - Battle of Manila Bay (p. 632) - 1st battle of
the Spanish-American War.
a. Admiral Dewey's Asiatic Fleet- sailed to the Philippines
b. Manila - Capital of the Philippines (The fortress of
Corregidor guarded the harbor) and the Spanish
Pacific fleet was stationed there.
c. Spanish lost all vessels and 170 men
d. United States’ guns had a longer range than Spanish
e. "You may fire when ready, Gridly” – Dewey
f. Dewey did not have enough men to land and seize
g. April 29 - Spain's Atlantic Fleet commanded by Admiral
Cervera starts from Cape Verde Islands near Africa to
come to America.
h. US coastal cities were panic stricken (they thought
Cervera couldn't attack US – because the Spanish navy
i. Cervera slipped into Santiago Harbor for Refueling
(May 19, 1898); harbor on southeast coast of Cuba
j. Adm. William T Sampson assigned to blockade Northern
coast of Cuba
k. Commodore Winfield S. Schley was to block Southern
coast of Cuba
l. Sampson began searching for Spanish fleet on North
m. Schley - didn't want to begin searching until May 19,
1898 - left Key West
13. May 19, 1898 - Cervera slipped into Santiago for Coal
14. June 14, 1898 - US Expeditionary Force sailed from Tampa.
a. 17,000 Regular Troops under General William Shafter
*63 years old
b. US Volunteer Calvary Regiment (Rough Riders) is led
by Leonard Wood and Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt also
arrived in Cuba
15. June 21, 1898 – US fleet sailed from the Philippines to Guam
and occupied Guam
16. June 22, 1898 - US troops began landing at Daiquiri, Cuba
and Siboney Bay, Cuba (p. 653)
17. June 30, 1898 - Force began its march on Santiago
18. July 1, 1898 - 7,000 US troops took 600 enemy forces during
the battle to capture El Caney (Gen. Lawton - p. 635)
19. July 1, 1898 - Turning Point of Spanish-American War
a. San Juan Hill (Kettle Hill) taken
b. “Rough Riders” led by Teddy Roosevelt they take high
ground East and North of Santiago (p. 624)
c. Think Chuck Norris and Delta Force
*Allows US to bombard Santiago
20. July 7, 1898 – United States Pacific Fleet sailed to Hawaii
and Hawaii was annexed (p. 633)
21. July 17, 1898 - Adm. Pasqual Cervera (under orders not to
surrender attempted to escape to from Santiago the open sea and
beat the US blockade)
a. In a 4 hour battle - American guns destroy Spanish fleet
b. "The Spanish government treated this war like a bar
fight." -James Watts, February 5, 2002
22. July 17, 1898 – Santiago, Cuba and 24,000 Spanish troops
23. July 31, 1898 - Nelson Miles captures Puerto Rico (p. 636)
24. August 12, 1898 - Protocol signed, provided for a peace
treaty to be concluded at Paris
25. August 13, 1898 – Emilio Aguinaldo, Gen. Merritt assault
and occupy the city of Manila bay
a. Faked bombardment of Manila (p. 633)
26. August 14, 1898 - Spanish surrender
27. Treaty of Paris: “The Spanish-American war made America a
a. Relinquish Cuba
b. Cede Puerto Rico
c. Cede US Guam Islands
d. US gets Philippines for $20,000,000
e. Cost of war: $250 million
Aftermath: This was the War that created an Empire!!!!
1. February 4, 1899 - Revolution in Philippines led by E. Aguinaldo
2. 1900 - Foraker Act gives Puerto Rico some independence (p. 657)
3. 1901 - Platt Amendment - US could intervene in Cuba and America
gets Guantanimo Bay (p. 647)
4. 1902 - US did what the Teller Amendment promised (left Cuba)
5. 1916 - Jones Act (First) - US planned to withdraw from the