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Gross Skeletal Muscle Anatomy

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Gross Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Powered By Docstoc
					                                       Human Anatomy and Physiology I           Spring 2010     Karin Akmal

                                                        Cartilage
Organ systems of the Body (Fig. 1.3)                    Perichondrium
Directional terms and Planes of the body: Fig. 1.10,    Type of cartilage is determined by components of
Table 1.1, Fig. 1.13                                    the matrix
Body Parts and Regions Fig. 1.11                        Characteristics of Cartilage
Subdivisions of the Abdomen Fig. 1.12                   Components of Cartilage
                                                        Types of cartilage-structure/location
4 Primary Tissue Types                                  Growth of Cartilage-2 methods
                                                        Table: Structure, Function, Location of Specialized
Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue                    Connective Tissue
Functions of Epithelial Tissue                          Membranes-Types/structure/function/location
Classification of Epithelium                            Inflammation-Definition/symptoms-
Structure/Function relationship of Epithelial Tissue    characteristics/mediators (Fig. 4.8)
Table 4.2, Table 4.3, Table 4.4                         Tissue Repair (Fig. 4.9)
Types of Epithelium: Function and Location Table        Heparin
4.5                                                     Regeneration vs. Replacement-difference/when
Basement Membrane-What cells/tissues contribute         each occurs/types of cells involved
to formation/function                                   Skin Repair -Primary union vs. Secondary union
Modifications of Free Surfaces of Epithelium            Tissue and Aging-Changes in tissues as part of
Cell Junctions/connections -                            aging
Functions/Locations/Types
Glands-what are they, types, classifications            Integumentary System-components
                                                        Layers of Integument
Connective Tissue-what is it/location                   Functions of the Integumentary System (Fig 5.1)
Functions of Connective Tissue                          Temperature Regulation in Skin
Connective Tissue Components                            Epidermal Cells
Cells of Connective Tissue                              Epidermis- location/function
    • Specialized cells produce the extracellular       Epidermal Layers -structure/characteristics/location
        matrix                                          (Fig. 5.3)
    • Descriptive word stems Blasts, Cytes, Clasts      Thick and Thin Skin
    • Other Cells of Connective Tissue                  Dermis- location/function
Extracellular Matrix Components-cells, matrix,          Layers of the Dermis
Extracellular Matrix Fibers-protein fibers-             Hypodermis -location/function
types/function/location/ properties                     Skin Color Determined by 3 Factors
Other Matrix Molecules-properties                       Hair Types
Adult Connective Tissues                                Hair Growth
Connective Tissue Proper: Types, function/location      Hair Fig. 5.6
Specialized Connective Tissue 5 Types:                  Hair Structure
Loose Connective Tissue- structure/ function            Glands of skin -types/characteristics/functions (Fig.
Loose (Areolar) Connective Tissue (Table 4.8)           5.7)
Dense Connective Tissue- structure/ function            Sebaceous Glands
Dense Regular Collagenous Connective Tissue             Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands
Dense Regular Elastic C.T.                              Ceruminous glands
Dense Irregular Collagenous Connective Tissue           Mammary glands
Dense Irregular Elastic Connective Tissue               Nails (Fig. 5.8)
Table: Structure, Function and Location of              Skin Cancer
Connective Tissue                                       Burns Fig. D Classifications
Specialized Connective Tissue                           Injections Types/When used
Adipose Tissue-cells, structure/ function
Reticular Tissue- cells, structure/ function            Components of Skeletal System
                                                                                                  2
Functions of the Skeletal System                 Naming Muscles (Nomenclature)
Organic vs. Inorganic Matrix                     Muscle: Terms to Know
Bones-shapes/structures                          Diagram 10.5a p. 325, Diagram 10.5b p.326
Periosteum vs. Endosteum                         Know all and be able to label
Bone Histology                                   Why muscles are in pairs.
Bone Classification: woven, lamellar compact
cancellous                                       Nervous System
Circulation in Bone                              Functions of the Nervous System
Structures of Compact Bone                       Basic Overview of Nervous System Function
Factors Affecting Bone Growth                    Organization of Nervous System-functions of
Vitamin D-function                               divisions/sections
Vitamin C- function                              Characteristics of divisions/sections
Bone cells-types/source/function                 Definitions(Nomenclature)
Hydroxyapatite                                   Cells of Nervous System: 2 Classes-
Components of Bone Matrix Structure-             function/location
types/structure                                  Parts of the Neuron (Fig. 11.4)-
Calcium and Bone                                 characteristics/structure/function
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)                        Nissl substance
Calcitonin                                       Axon Transport
Calcium Homeostasis-during Low blood calcium     Functional classification
And High blood Calcium                           Structural classification (Fig. 11.5)
Periods of Bone Development                      Glial Cells-CNS/PNS
Fetal Bone Development                           Blood-Brain Barrier
Direct Method -Intramembranous ossification      Unmyelinated Axons (Fig. 11.11b)
Indirect Method -Endochondral ossification       Myelinated Axons (Fig. 11.11a)
Primary ossification centers                     Myelin Sheath
Secondary ossification centers                   Nodes of Ranvier
Growth in Bone Length                            Saltatory conduction
Zones of the Epiphyseal Plate                    Reflex Arc
Epiphyseal plate: growth plate                   Reflexes
Epiphyseal line: bone stops growing in length    Concentration Differences Across the Semi-
Ossification                                     Permeable Membrane
Trabeculae                                       Charge Differences Across the Plasma Membrane
Growth at Articular Cartilage                    How does cell maintain concentration differences of
Growth in Bone Width                             Na and K?
Bone Repair                                      Resting Membrane Potential-def
Bone Remodeling                                  Potentials and Polarization
Importance of Bone Remodeling                    Depolarization
Regulation of Remodelling-Hormones/Stress        Hyperpolarization
Bone Remodeling-process in compact and           Repolarization
cancellous bone                                  Threshold Potential
Fractures                                        All-or-none principle
Osteoporosis                                     Na/K pump Fig. 3.21
                                                 Permeability Characteristics of the Plasma
Joints                                           Membrane (Fig. 11.12)
Types of Movement                                Leak Channels
Range of Motion                                  Gated Ion Channels
Gross Skeletal Muscle Anatomy                    Local potentials.
Muscle Terminology                               Ligand Gated Ion Channels
Muscle Types Based on Arrangement of Fasciculi   Voltage Gated Ion Channels
Muscle Shapes                                    Graded Potentials-3 types
                                                                                                           3
Action Potentials (Fig. 11.17)                            Contraction of Smooth Muscle
Refractory Period-Absolute vs. Relative                   Cardiac Muscle
Velocity of action potential -factors affecting           Calmodulin-
Action Potential Propagation (Fig. 11.21, Fig.            Myosin kinase
11.22)                                                    Myosin phophatase
Synapse-structure/types/function Fig. 11.23               Motor units
Presynaptic terminal                                      Muscle Twitch (Fig. 9.16)
Synaptic cleft                                            Contraction of the Whole Muscle
Postsynaptic membrane                                     Graded contraction
Acetylcholine                                             Multiple wave summation
Synaptic Transmission in Chemical                         Multiple motor unit summation (Fig. 9.18)
Synapses/Electrical Synapses                              Stimulus Frequency and Muscle Contraction Fig.
Summation-types                                           (9.19)
Autonomic System Physiology                               Treppe (Fig. 9.20)
Neurons amitotic (no centrioles)                          Length versus Tension (Fig. 9.21)
In a single axon, the diameter is constant, but not all   Action potential → Tension-use of energy
axons are the same diameter                               Comparison of Slow-twitch and Fast-Twitch
                                                          Muscle Fibers
                                                          Slow and Fast Fibers
Table 9.1                                                 Muscle Tone
Functions of the Muscular System                          Hypertonia
4 Characteristics of Muscle Tissue                        Hypotonia
Types of Muscle Tissue                                    Stimulus Strength and Muscle Contraction
Skeletal Muscle Structure                                 All-or-none law for muscle fibers
Connective Tissue Coverings of Muscle                     Active tension
Muscle Fibers                                             Passive tension
Parts of a Muscle                                         Total tension
Sarcomeres                                                Fatigue-Types
Actin (Thin) Myofilaments                                 Physiological Contracture
Actin myofilament components                              Rigor Mortis
Tropomyosin/troponin complex                              Effects of exercise
Myosin (Thick) Myofilament                                Hypertrophy
Myosin myofilament components                             Atrophy
Properties of myosin heads                                Reversability
Muscle fiber contraction-structures involved              Sub-threshold stimulus
Triad                                                     Threshold stimulus
Transverse - Tubules                                      Oxygen debt
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Terminal cisternae: enlargements of sarcoplasmic
reticulum near the T-tubule
Sliding Filament model of Muscle Contraction
Breakdown of ATP and Cross-Bridge Movement
During Muscle Contraction Fig. 9.14, 9.15
Cross-Bridge Cycling
Muscle Relaxation
How do sarcomeres lengthen during relaxation?
Cells-differences compared to skeletal
Types of Smooth Muscle
Contraction of Smooth Muscle
Structure of Smooth Muscle Cells
Functional Properties of Smooth Muscle

				
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