; Chapter 9 Launching a New Republic part 2
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Chapter 9 Launching a New Republic part 2


  • pg 1
									Part 2
 Much of the land west
  of the Mississippi
  River belonged to
  Spain – including the
  Port of New Orleans.
 There was trouble
  between the Spanish
  and the Americans.
  Spain stirred up Native
  Americans against the
  white settlers AND
  threatened to cut the
  United States off from
  the Port of New
 In addition to the            Washington sent troops to
  problems with the Spanish,    quell the Indian uprisings.
  on the lower Mississippi,     At the Battle of Fallen
  Native Americans were at      Timbers in 1794, 2,000
  war with American settlers    Chippewa, Shawnee, and
  in the much disputed          Ottawa Indians were
  Northwest Territory.          defeated by United States
                                troops under General
                                Anthony Wayne – known
                                as “Mad Anthony” for his
                                “reckless courage.”
 The Native Americans fled
  the United States and
  retreated to British
  territory in Canada at Fort
  Miami. The British didn’t
  want more trouble with the
  United States, so they
  refused to help them.
 In 1795, the Native
  Americans signed the
  Treaty of Greenville
  surrendering all of their
  claims to the Northwest
 Whiskey was a very important source
  of income for farmers living in the
  backcountry. Paper money was scarce
  on the frontier, so farmers used
  whiskey as a form of money – trading
  it for much needed supplies like salt
  and sugar.

 Whiskey was also easier to ship than
  grain. So, farmers turned their grain
  into whiskey and shipped it in barrels
  down the Mississippi and across the
 Part of Alexander Hamilton’s
 financial plan was to raise
 government money by taxing
 products. He placed a tax on
 whiskey. Farmers in the
 backcountry didn’t have cash
 money to pay taxes. They used
 whiskey like cash – trading it
 for other goods.

 In the summer of 1794, several
 farmers staged a rebellion
 against the Whiskey Tax. The
 beat a tax collector and tarred
 and feathered him.
“ Such a resistance is treason against society, against
  liberty, against everything that ought to be dear to a
  free, enlightened, and prudent people. To tolerate it
  were to abandon your most precious interests. Not to
  subdue it were to tolerate it.”

Alexander Hamilton, The Works of Alexander

       Class Discussion: What do you think of Hamilton’s view?
Washington had to make a
 decision. If he were to allow
 the rebellious farmers to get
 away with their actions, he
 would be setting a
 dangerous precedent for the

In October 1794, General
  Henry Lee, along with
  Hamilton, marched an army
  of 13,000 men to western
  Pennsylvania to put down
  the rebellion. The farmers

Washington had made his
In 1789, the people of France
  staged a rebellion against
  their government. Many
  French people were starving
  and they felt the King and
  Queen didn’t care about their

The French had seen the
 Americans rebel and
 overthrow the English King.
 They decided to do the same.
 At first, Americans, such as
  Thomas Jefferson, supported
  the French Revolution. But,
  by 1792, the revolution had
  become grotesquely violent.
  Thousands of French citizens
  were killed and the guillotine
  severed dozens of heads daily.
 The British were afraid
 that the revolution in
 France would lead to
 revolution in England.
 France soon declared
 war on Britain,
 Holland, and Spain.
 The War between the British and the French put the
 United States in an awkward position. The French had
 helped us win our revolution against England. Now,
 they wanted our help.

 Washington declared that the United States would
 remain neutral, and Congress passed a law saying we
 wouldn’t side with one country or the other.
 In 1792, the British began harassing United States
 cargo ships. The British navy would attack the
 ships and steal their goods.
 Washington sent Chief Justice
 John Jay to England to convince
 the British to stop taking U.S.

 Afraid of more trouble with the
 United States, England signed Jay’s
 Treaty promising to leave U.S.
 ships alone AND to vacate the
 Ohio Valley completely.
 Once the problems with
 England were resolved,
 Washington turned his
 attention to the problems
 with Spain.

 Thomas Pinckney arranged
 a treaty with Spain in which
 the Spanish promised not to
 interfere with United States
 access to the Port of New
 By the end of his second term, Washington had
 decided that eight years as president was enough. He
 wanted to go home.

 In 1797, George Washington retired. In his farewell
 speech he warned of two things: “foreign
 entanglements” and “the spirit of party.”
“ Let me now. . . warn you. . .
   against the [harmful]
   effects of the spirit of party.
   . . . this spirit,
   unfortunately. . . . Exists in
   different shapes in all
   governments. . . but in
   those of the popular form,
   it is seen in its’ greatness
   rankness and is truly their
   worst enemy.”

Class discussion: Do you think party
politics are a positive or a negative in the
United States ?
 In addition to warning against party politics,
  Washington warned against “foreign entanglements.”

 He urged the nation to stay neutral: “steer clear of
  permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign

   Class Discussion: Who are our allies today? Do our alliances help or
   hurt us?
 Following Washington, John Adams was elected
  president. Adams was a Federalist. His ideas differed
  from the anti-federalists on many issues.
 Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were anti-
  federalists. They joined with others to form the
  Democratic – Republican Party.
 In spite of Washington’s warning, two parties emerged.
        Federalists             Democratic Republicans
 Strong national government     Limited national government

 Fear of mob rule               Fear of rule by one person or a
                                  powerful few.

 Loose interpretation of the    Strict interpretation of the
  Constitution                    Constitution

 Economy based on               Opposed the National Bank
  manufacturing and shipping
                                 Economy based on farming
 Supporters: lawyers,
  merchants, manufacturers,      Supporters: farmers and
  and clergy                      tradespeople
 The election of 1796, was
  the first in which party
  politics were involved.
 The Federalists wanted
  John Adams for
 The Democratic
  Republicans wanted
  Thomas Jefferson.
 The electoral votes came in: Adams
 received 71, and Jefferson 68. Before
 the Constitution was amended to set
 things up the way we do them today,
 the first place winner became
 president and the second place vice –

 This means we had a Federalist
 President and a Democratic
 Republican Vice President.

 Why do you think we changed this
 system with an amendment to the
France was under a new
  government after the
  revolution. The
  relationship with the
  French and the United
  States was not good.
  French naval vessels had
  begun capturing
  American vessels at sea to
  keep them from trading
  with the British.

Many people thought the
 United States should go to
 war with France.
 To avoid war, Adams sent Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry,
    and John Marshall to France to meet with the French
    minister of foreign affairs.
   For many weeks, the French minister refused to see the
   Finally, three men approached the American ambassadors
    and said the minister would see them but only if America
    would lend France 10 million dollars and give a bribe of
   The American ambassadors refused: “Millions for defense,
    not one cent for tribute.”
   When citizens of the United states found out about this,
    they were enraged with the new French government.
 The Democratic Republicans
  were very critical of John
  Adams. Adams was angry
  over the criticism. Many new
  immigrants to America joined
  the Democratic Republican
 To slow the rise of the
  Democratic Republicans,
  Adams passed the Alien and
  Sedition Acts.
 The Alien and Sedition acts targeted immigrants.
 One act extended the waiting period to become a U.S.
  citizen from 5 to 14 years.
 Another act, said that the president could have disloyal
  aliens arrested and deported.
 The most controversial act outlawed sedition.
  Sedition is writing or saying anything false or harmful
  about the government

 Class Discussion: Were the Alien and Sedition Acts Constitutional? If not,
 which of the Bill of Rights were violated by these acts.
 The Democratic – Republicans spurred on by Thomas
  Jefferson, wanted to do something about the Alien and
  Sedition Acts. They felt they were unconstitutional.
 To fight the Alien and Sedition Acts, they came up
  with the theory of “State’s Rights”. According to this
  theory, a state didn’t have to obey a law they felt
  violated the Constitution. The state could “nullify” or
  void the law.
 This theory was important, not because it did much to
  get rid of the Alien and Sedition Acts, but because it
  came up again and again over issues such as tariffs and
 John Adams did
 manage to eventually
 work things out with
 France. The French
 agreed to leave United
 States ships alone.
 However, Adams’
  reputation was hurt
  by the Alien and
  Sedition Acts.

 In the election of
  1800, Thomas
  Jefferson and the
  Republican Party

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