Rocks & Minerals
A. What is a mineral (definition, 4 needed characteristics, examples)
B. What is a crystalline solid?
C. Describe and give examples of several crystal shapes in minerals.
D. What affects crystal size in magma?
E. Describe and give examples of minerals formed from solution.
F. What are a few of the most common minerals on the earth?
II. Mineral Identification
A. What is the hardness of a mineral?
B. Describe the Mohs scale and how a mineral’s hardness is used to identify
C. Describe and give examples of a mineral’s luster.
D. What is specific gravity and how is it used to identify minerals?
E. What is streak and how is it used to identify minerals (give a couple examples)?
F. What are cleavage and fracture in minerals and how are they used to identify
minerals (give a couple examples)?
III. Mineral Uses
A. What is a gem?
B. How does a gem vary from a regular mineral (give a few examples)?
C. Explain a couple interesting facts about gems.
D. Other than for their beauty give a couple examples of how gems are used (include
E. How do we get elements like aluminum, titanium or iron from minerals (explain
the terms ore and smelting in your description)?
IV. Rock Cycle
A. What is a rock (show an example, including the ingredients)?
B. Define weathering and erosion.
C. Show a diagram of the rock cycle and describe several paths that a rock can take
as it changes.
D. What is the difference in how sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks look
E. Describe the rock cycle of 2 specific rocks that each go through all 3 rock types.
F. How does the rock cycle illustrate the principal of conservation of matter?
V. Igneous Rocks
A. What is magma and what does it have to do with igneous rocks?
B. How does an igneous intrusive rock form? Illustrate and explain.
C. How does an igneous extrusive rock form? Illustrate and explain.
D. How does cooling rate affect grain size of these rocks?
E. Describe and show examples of basaltic, granitic, and andesitic rocks.
VI. Metamorphic Rocks
A. What is a metamorphic rock and how do they form?
B. How does temperature and pressure change as you go deeper into the earth?
C. How do gneiss and schist form?
D. How are metamorphic rocks classified?
E. How do foliated rocks form? (show examples)
F. How does slate form and what are a couple of its uses?
G. How do nonfoliated rocks form? (show examples)
VII. Sedimentary Rocks
A. What is a sedimentary rock and how do they form?
B. How does the age of sedimentary rocks change as you dig deeper? Why?
C. What are the 3 classifications of sedimentary rocks? How are they different?
D. Describe the processes that form detrital sedimentary rocks (compaction and
E. Compare shale, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and breccia.
F. Describe the formation of chemical sedimentary rocks and organic sedimentary
rocks. (Give examples)