CAM YMLAEN by DustinHarris

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									                                                                  GWERS 2


CYFLWYNYDD:            ANN M. JONES


NOD:                  Trafod y tywydd


       Geirfa

       tanbaid         - very hot                 heulog             - sunny
       chwilboeth      - scorching hot         clòs               -  close
       crasboeth       - scorching hot         mwll               -  close
       stormus         - stormy                   gaeafol            - wintry
       hydrefol -      autumnlike              gwanwynol          - springlike
       hafaidd         - summery               main               - piercing, keen
       llithrig -      slippery                rhewllyd           - frosty
       gwlyb    -      wet                     cawodlyd      -    showery
       cyfnewidiol     - changeable

       maleithiau      -  chilblains (DC)         awel (b)        - breeze
       llosg eira         - chilblains (GC)          tymheredd       - temperature
       ysbaid (b)      - period               ysbeidiau     - periods
       llwydrew -      hoar frost         lliw haul         - suntan
       barrug          - hoar frost           lluwch(feydd) - snowdrift
       gwlith     -    dew                    cawod(-ydd) - shower(s)
       machlud -       sunset             mellten (b)       - flash of lightning
       taran (b)       - thunder bolt             mellt           - lightning
       taranau         - thunder                  rhagolygon      - forecast

       tywynnu -       to shine                rhynnu             -   to shiver
       fferru    -     to freeze (a person)    crynu              -   to tremble, shiver
       bygwth          - to threaten               llwydrewi      -   to cast hoar frost
       arllwys         - to pour                   barugo             - to cast hoar frost
       tywallt         - to pour                   codi               - to lift, brighten
       pistyllio -        to pour                    copri (DC)       - to become dull
       dadmer          - to thaw (DC)          sglefrio           - to skate
       meirioli        - to thaw (GC)          gostegu            - to subside
       lluwchio -      to drift             gwlitho          -    to form dew
       machludo        - to set (sun)              ymestyn            - to lengthen
       cymylu          - to become cloudy          glasu              - to green up




RHAN 1            -           TYWYDD BRAF
Brawddegau posibl:

             Mae hi'n boeth, on'd yw hi?
             - It's hot, isn't it?

             Mae'r haul yn danbaid yn yr Eidal.
             - The sun is scorching in Italy.

         Fe gafodd Bob liw haul yn Mallorca.
         - Bob had a suntan in Mallorca.

      Fe gawson ni dywydd crasboeth yn Sbaen.
      - We had scorching hot weather in Spain.
      Mae hi'n chwilboeth allan heddiw.
       - It's scorching hot out today.

      Roedd hi'n fwll neithiwr, on'd oedd?
      - It was close last night, wasn't it?
      'Dw i ddim yn hoffi mellt a tharanau.
      - I don't like thunder and lightning.

      Beth ydy'r rhagolygon?
      - What's the forecast?
      Glywsoch chi ragolygon y tywydd neithiwr?
      - Did you hear the weather forecast last night?

      On'd ydy hi'n wanwynol heddiw?
      - Isn't it springlike today?

      Mae'r dyddiau'n ymestyn, on'd ydyn nhw?
      - The days are lengthening aren't they?



RHAN 2           -        TYWYDD DRWG


Brawddegau posibl:

      Mae'r gwynt yn fain.
      - The wind is keen.




      Mae hi'n bwrw (glaw) yn drwm.
      - It's raining heavily.
      Roedd hi'n arllwys (tywallt) y glaw y bore 'ma ond mae hi'n codi nawr.
      - It was pouring with rain this morning but it's brightening up now.
      Mae hi'n pistyllio (bwrw) y bore 'ma.
      - It's tipping down this morning.

      Fe gawson ni gawodydd ddoe.
      - We had showers yesterday.
      Roedd hi'n gawodlyd iawn yn Ffrainc.
      - It was very showery in France.

      Fe gawson ni lwydrew neithiwr.
      - We had a frost last night.
      Mae hi'n llwydrewi heno.
      - It's freezing (casting a frost) tonight.

      Mae'r eira wedi lluwchio ond mae e'n dechrau dadmer (meirioli) nawr.
      - The snow has drifted but it is beginning to thaw now.

      Roeddwn i wedi fferru yn aros am y bws.
      - I was frozen waiting for the bus.




RHAN 3           -          PWYNTIAU GRAMADEG


  1. Remember we always refer to the weather in general as 'hi' (though it can be
  omitted)

             Mae (hi)'n braf y p'nawn 'ma, on'd ydy hi? (on'd yw hi?)
              - It's fine this afternoon, isn't it?



         But if the word 'it' refers to the word 'tywydd' (weather) then it's masculine.

             Mae'r tywydd yn gyfnewidiol, on'd ydy e (o)? Ydy, mae e (o).
              - The weather is changeable, isn't it ? Yes, it is.




  2. There is a Soft Mutation in the adjectives which follow 'yn'.
     As you know, 9 consonants can undergo Soft Mutation:

         c>g         p>b   t>d   g>-     b>f       d>dd    ll> l   rh>r     m>f

                           Mae'r tywydd yn boeth.
                      Roedd hi'n wlyb ddoe.
                 Oedd hi'n gawodlyd yno?

    but after 'yn', the consonants ll and rh are exceptions:

     slippery    -         llithrig -          yn llithrig
     frosty      -         rhewllyd        -   yn rhewllyd

                 Roedd yr heol/y ffordd yn llithrig.
                 Roedd hi'n rhewllyd neithiwr.


3. Adjectives may be modified by using the following:

     iawn            (very)    -   which follows the adjective
                                   Roedd hi'n boeth iawn ddoe.

     eitha(f)   (quite) -      which comes between 'yn' and the adjective
                                  Roedd hi'n eitha(f) poeth ddoe.

     rhy             (too) -   which comes between 'yn' and the adjective and causes
                               a Soft Mutation
                               Roedd hi'n rhy boeth ddoe.

     braidd     (rather) -     which precedes the adjective and 'yn'
                                  Roedd hi braidd yn boeth ddoe.


4. Plural adjectives

   Some adjectives have plural forms which can be used with plural nouns. All
the main colours have plural forms - together with some other adjectives.

      cymylau duon                     -   black clouds
      coed gwyrddion                   -   green trees
      cawodydd trymion                 -   heavy showers

      mynyddoedd mawrion -             big mountains
      dynion tewion                    - fat men



5. Idiomau a dywediadau            -       Idioms and sayings

      eira ˘yn bach                   snow in March
                                       -
                                         (little lambs' snow)
      Yn wlyb at fy nghroen           - soaked to my skin
         [dy groen/ei groen                   [my skin/his skin
                     ei chroen ac ati]                       her skin etc]
      mae'n gafael                    - it's biting
  yn llygad yr haul         -          in direct sun (light)
 yn bwrw hen wragedd a ffyn -          raining cats and dogs
                                           (old woman and sticks!)
     gwynt traed y meirw          -    east wind
                                           (from the feet of the dead)
     Haf Bach Mihangel                 - Indian Summer


6.     Diarhebion             -       Proverbs

     Eira mân, eira mawr.
     - Fine snow, heavy snow.

     Nid yn y bore mae canmol tywydd teg.
     - It isn't in the morning that one should praise fair weather.

     Un wennol ni wna' wanwyn.
     - One swallow doesn't make spring.

   Mawrth a ladd, Ebrill a fling.
- March slays, April flays.

								
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