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					"ID"|"PUBLICATION #"|"TITLE"|"AUTHOR(S)"|"REPORT
DATE"|"COPIES"|"SUPPLIER"|"KEYWORDS"|"ABSTRACT"
1|"FHWA-AZ-96-433"|"A Comparison of Traffic Noise from Asphalt Rubber
Asphalt Concrete Friction Courses (ARACFC) and Portland Cement Concrete
Pavements (PCCP)"|"Michael P. Henderson, Sylvester A. Kalevela"|"February
1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"noise; traffic noise; pavement noise; tire-pavement
noise; asphalt rubber; noise measurement; portland cement concrete"|"A
study was conducted by the Arizona Department of Transportation to
evaluate the potential noise reduction benefits of using Asphalt Rubber
Asphalt Concrete Friction Course (ARACFC) as an overlay for Portland
Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP). Comparative noise measurements were
performed on several ARACFC and PCCP freeway segments. Third-octave
frequency measurements were also performed to compare the frequency
content of the noise generated by the two pavement types. Two separate
measurement techniques were used to collect noise data. First, roadside
traffic noise measurements were performed on adjoining freeway segments
that consisted of different pavement types. For these measurements, two
noise meters were positioned at equal distances from the adjoining
freeway segments, and roadside traffic noise levels were measured
simultaneously. The second measurement technique consisted of on-road
tire-pavement noise measurements. For these measurements, a specially
made bracket was clamped to the frame of a test vehicle, and a noise
meter microphone was secured near the tire-pavement contact area. Noise
readings were recorded as the test vehicle travelled at highway speeds
over various pavement surfaces. Noise frequency data was collected using
both measurement techniques. The noise data collected for the study
demonstrated that the ARACFC freeway segments produced lower noise levels
than the PCCP freeway segments. The extent of the noise differences
observed between the two surfaces types depended on the specific freeway
segments being compared. In some cases, the noise level differences
would be distinguishable by human perception (differences fo 3 decibels
or greater). In other cases, the differences would not be noticeable.
The frequency data collected for the study also indicated that the ARACFC
surfaces generated less high frequency noise than the PCCP surfaces."
2|"FHWA-CA/SD-85-05"|"Highway Structure Approaches"|"Carl F.
Stewart"|"July 1985"|"1"|"FHWA"|"approaches; approach slab; fill;
embankment; slab length; sleeper slab; diaphragm abutment; seat abutment;
settlement; subsidence"|"The condition at 820 approaches to highway
structures with respect to ride comfort and maintenance performed are
compared with the parameters; age, fill height, abutment skew, fill
settlement period, geographical region and average daily traffic.
Differences in performance between seat and diaphragm type abutments,
ingress and egress approaches, and truck and other lanes are compared.
Information is given on slab lengths vs. the length of needed repairs.
An eight year history of edge of pavement elevations and separation
between slab and fill is given for sixty experimental slabs. Also the
performance of experimental slabs constructed in 1973 with length,
thickness and reinforcing steel variables is discussed, along with an
update on the performance of experimental slabs constructed in 1957. And
a new approach slab concept is introduced. Atempts to determine the
frequency of maintenance at approaches for obtaining life cycle costs,
were unsuccessful. Consequently, all references in the report to
patching and mudjacking refer to an at-least-one time activity."
3|"FHWA-CA/TL-95/12"|"A Field Procedure for Determining the Test Maximum
Density of Asphalt Concrete"|"Max L. Alexander"|"July
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"asphalt concrete; asphalt pavements; compaction;
compaction tests; relative compaction; density"|"A procedure for
determining the test maximum density of asphalt concrete in a field
laboratory was developed and then tried on several paving projects. This
test maximum density is required to determine the in-situ relative
compaction of asphalt concrete per California Test 375. The procedure
involves the use of a hydraulic jack to apply a 133 500 N static load for
compaction in lieu of using a kneading compactor. Although the test
maximum densities achieved by this static loading are normally lower than
the values determined using a kneading compactor, a correlation factor
can be determined and applied. In most cases, the test results can be
available within two hours of obtaining a sample of the material."
4|"FHWA-CT-91-983"|"Connecticut Impact-Attenuation System
(CIAS)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"22"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
5|"FHWA-DP-71-01R"|"Bridge Management Systems, Demonstration Project No.
71"|"Daniel S. O'Conner, William A. Hyman"|"October
1989"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"bridges; management; priority ranking; level of
sevice; maintenance; user cost rehabilitation; replacement; bridge
management; bridge management systems; life cycle cost; cost
analysis"|"This document is an introduction to bridge management systems.
It explores the relevant engineering and economic issues and presents an
overview of methodologies and concepts in bridge management. The methods
used by various State highway agencies to identify needs and prioritize
projects for maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement are reviewed and
compared. Included are a level of service concept for defining bridge
improvement needs methods for priority ranking of bridge projects, a
procedure for determining optimal maintenance strategies, and several
approaches to bridge service life prediction and future need projection.
Methods for evaluating the costs and benefits of bridge imporvement
alternatives considering both life cycle and user costs are presented
together with an analytical approach to network level priority
optimization. Algorithms for estimating user cost related to functional
deficiencies of bridges are suggested. The applicability of an
incremental benefit/cost analysis algorithm (INCBEN) developed by the
Texas Transportation Institute for priority ranking is discussed. This
algorithm compares and ranges bridge improvement alternatives system-wide
with the objective of maximizing net benefits."
6|"FHWA-DP-89-072-002"|"Description and Evaluation of the South Dakota
Road Profiler"|"David L. Huft"|"November 1989"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"pavement
roughness; rut depth; road profile"|"This project was conducted to
describe and evaluate the South Dakota Road Profiler for Demonstration
Project 72, ""Evaluation of Equipment for Measuring Pavement Roughness
and Rut Depth"". The Road Profiler's profile and rut depth performance
were evaluated by comparisons to surveys taken with rod and level and the
E.W. Face ""Dipstick"". For each of ten sites, the Road Profiler's
measurements at 25, 40 and 55 miles per hour were compared to the manual
surveys. Spectral analysis and the International Roughness Index were
used to compare rut depth data. The Road Profiler's profile and rut
depth measurements correlated well with Dipstick measurements. Minor
sensitivity to pavement texture was observed. No operational
difficulties were encountered."
7|"FHWA-FLP-91-006"|"Durability of Special Coatings for Corrugated Steel
Pipe"|"John C. Potter, Laurand Lewandowski, Dewey W. White, Jr."|"June
1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"corrugated steel pipe; drainage; durability;
service life; coating; polymer; galvanize; aluminum; epoxy; bituminous;
fiber bonded; concrete lined"|"This report covers a literature search and
review and a limited field study to update previous work related to
corrugated steel pipe (CSP) and durability estimation (expected service
life). This study, using plain galvanized (zinc coated) CSP as the base
line, addresses additional coatings including nonmetallic (bituminous
coated, bituminous coated and paved, polymers, fiber bonded, epoxy bonded
and concrete lined) and other metallic coatings (aluminum-zinc
(galvalume) and aluminum-coated type 2) that may be used to achieve a
desired design life of at least 50 years. This study is limited to storm
drainage systems carrying naturally occurring surface water only. The
recommendations in this report do not apply to sanitary or industrial
sewers or other conduits used to carry corrosive effluents. The
information collected in this study revealed that with additional
coatings such as bituminous coated and paved, polymer coated (ethylene
acrylic acid film) or concrete lined, under proper conditions, the
expected service life of galvanized CSP can be extended to at least 50
years. A Modified California Estimation Chart which takes into account
the scaling tendency of natural waters was used in the determination of
the expected service life of the CSP. The scaling tendency is determined
by a relationship of alkanlinity plus hardness minus the free carbon
dioxide (CO2) of water."
8|"FHWA-FLP-91-010"|"Design Risk Analysis Volume I: Final Report"|"T.R.
Neuman, C. Zegeer, K.L. Slack"|"April 1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"design risk;
federal lands; design exceptions"|"This research report was developed for
design engineers with responsibility for reconstruction and design of new
highways on Federal Lands. The report documents relationships between
guide design features of Federal Lands highways and key traffic safety
and operational analyses. Research is presented for the following
topics: horizontal and vertical alignment, stopping sight distances,
cross-section, roadside, intersections, narrow bridges and interchanges.
The research report provides backgroud on the guidelines, procedures, and
characteristics of Federal Lands highways. Volume II, the users guide,
is oriented toward problems faced by design engineers concerned with
evaluation and documentation of design exceptions for special cases where
full design standards are difficult to meet."
9|"FHWA-FLP-91-011"|"Design Risk Analysis Volume II: Users Guide"|"T.R.
Neuman, C. Zegeer, K.L. Slack"|"April 1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"design risk;
federal lands; design exceptions"|"This users information guide was
developed for design engineers with responsibility for reconstruction and
design of new highways on Federal Lands. The guide relates design
features of Federal Lands highways to key traffic safety and operational
analyses, and design guidelines for the following areas: horizontal and
vertical alignment, stopping sight distance, cross-section, roadside,
intersections, narrow bridges and interchanges. The guidelines is
oriented toward problems faced by design engineers concerned with
evaluation and documentation of design exceptions for special cases where
full design standards are difficult to meet. Volume I is the Research
Report, which provides background on the guidelines, procedures, and
characteristics of Federal Lands highways."
10|"FHWA-FLP-94-008"|"Lowell Surfacing Thickness Design Test Road"|"Mark
Truebe, Gary Evans"|"September 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"aggregate; rut
depth; tire pressure; California Bearing Ratio; dynamic cone
penetrometer"|"This study verified the STP aggregate surfacing thickness
design method to determine if the designs produced by this method are
realistic. The resultant guide presents modifications to the design
guide procedures which adjust for local conditions such as, different
soil types and climate."
11|"FHWA-GA-91-SP9010"|"Georgia Digital Faultmeter"|"Jerry Stone"|"June
1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"concrete pavement; concrete joints; faulting;
Faultmeter"|"Personnel of the Georgia Department of Transportation,
Office of Materials and Research, designed and built electronic digital
faultmeters to easily measure concrete joint faulting. The unit reads
faulting directly in thirty-seconds of an inch within one second. The
reading remains ""frozen"" in the display allowing the meter to be
removed from the road for safety before reading. The objective of this
project was to prepare an Implementation Package covering the design,
operation and maintenance of the Georgia Digital Faultmeter. Detailed
plans, parts lists and cost estimates are included in this Implementation
Package."
12|"FHWA-HI-88-046"|"Site Impact Traffic Evaluation: Methodology and
Microcomputer Methods - Workbook"|"(NONE)"|"November
1987"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
13|"FHWA-HI-89-035"|"NHI Course No. 13027: Urban Drainage Design -
Participant Notebook"|"(NONE)"|"July 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
14|"FHWA-HI-90-048"|"TRB State of the Art Report 8: Guide to Earthwork
Construction"|"(NONE)"|"1990"|"6"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"soils; geology;
foundations; highway transportation; construction; soil exploration and
classification; soil foundations; soil and rock mechanics"|"(NONE)"
15|"FHWA-HI-91-025"|"Rock and Mineral Identification for
Engineers"|"(NONE)"|"November 1991"|"4"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
16|"FHWA-HI-93-038"|"NHI Course No. 14025: Project Development and
Environmental Documentation - Student Workbook"|"(NONE)"|"April
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
17|"FHWA-HI-93-055"|"NHI Course No. 15255: Access, Location, and Design
- Participant Notebook"|"(NONE)"|"September
1993"|"3"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
18|"FHWA-HI-94-010"|"The National Highway Institute 1994 Course
Catalog"|"(NONE)"|"March 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
19|"FHWA-HI-94-013"|"""CAMINOS"" Newsletter, First Quarter
1994"|"(NONE)"|"1994"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
20|"FHWA-HI-94-020"|"National Highway Institute: Activities Report
Fiscal Year 1993"|"(NONE)"|"January 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
21|"FHWA-HI-94-031"|"NHI Course No. 13055: Safety Inspection of In-
Service Bridges - Participant Notebook Volume 1"|"(NONE)"|"May
1994"|"3"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
22|"FHWA-HI-94-032"|"NHI Course No. 13055: Safety Inspection of In-
Service Bridges - Participant Notebook Volume 2"|"(NONE)"|"May
1994"|"3"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
23|"FHWA-HI-94-033"|"NHI Course No. 13055: Safety Inspection of In-
Service Bridges - Participant Notebook Volume 3"|"(NONE)"|"May
1994"|"3"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
24|"FHWA-HI-95-012"|"NHI Course No. 38062: Safety Management System -
Participant Workbook"|"(NONE)"|"February
1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
25|"FHWA-HI-95-014"|"NHI Course No. 38062: Safety Management System -
Reference Manual"|"(NONE)"|"January 1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
26|"FHWA-IP-79-007"|"Guidelines for Selecting a Cost-Effective Small
Highway Sign Support System"|"Hayes E. Ross, Jr., Lindsay I.
Griffin"|"December 1979"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
27|"FHWA-IP-80-013"|"Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlets Design
Manual"|"(NONE)"|"December 1980"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"This report
presents equations for computing the hydraulic efficiency and discharge
for three bicycle-safe grate inlets on a continuous grade and under sump
conditions. These three grates were selected based on previous testing
of various grates conducted by the Engineering and Research Center of the
Water and Power Resources Service in Denver, Colorado. The parallel bar
with transverse rods (P-1-7/8-4), the parallel bar with transverse
spacers (P-1-1/8), and the curved vane (CV) grates showed the best
overall characteristics in safety, hydraulic efficiency, and debris
handling. The equations were derived empirically to fit the data within
+/- 10%. Computer and calculator programs are also included for the
user's convenience."
28|"FHWA-IP-80-222"|"State of the Practice in Supports for Small Highway
Signs"|"Hayes E. Ross, Jr., Jesse L. Buffington, Graeme D. Weaver, Dale
L. Schafer"|"April 1980"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
29|"FHWA-IP-82-010"|"Polymer Concrete Patching Manual"|"Jack J. Fontana,
John Bartholomew"|"June 1982"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"aggregate; bridge deck;
initiator; monomer; polymer; polymer concrete promoter"|"The practicality
of using polymer concrete to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete
bridge decks and pavements has been demonstrated. This manual outlines
the procedures for using polymer concrete as a rapid patching material to
repair deteriorated concrete. The process technology, materials,
equipment, and safety provisions used in manufacturing and placing
polymer concrete are discussed. The objective of the report is to inform
potential users of the various steps necessary to insure successful field
applications of the material."
30|"FHWA-IP-82-023"|"A Method for Wetland Functional Assessment: Volume
I - Critical Review and Evaluation Concepts"|"Paul R. Adamus, L.T.
Stockwell"|"March 1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"wetland; lake; stream; flat;
bottomland; riparian; impact; mitigation; ranking; evaluation;
classification; highway; groundwater; flood; erosion; sediment;
nutrients; fish; wildlife; recreation"|"The manual presents a state-of-
the-art review of wetland functions. Functions covered include
groundwater recharge and discharge, flood storage and desynchronization,
shoreline anchoring and dissipation of erosive forces, sediment trapping,
nutrient retention and removal, food chain support (detrital export),
habitat for fish and wildlife, and active and passive recreation. The
manual covers all wetland types in the 48 coterminous states, and uses
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service definition and classification system.
It examines the validity, interactions, and possible significance
thresholds for the functions, as well as documenting their underlying
processes. With appropriate qualifying information, wetland types are
ranked for each function. Wetland types ideal for each function are
identified and illustrated. Potential impacts of highways upon each
function are described and, where available, possible thresholds are
given. Factors which regulate impact magnitude, such as location,
design, watershed erodibility, flushing capacity, basin morphology,
biotic sensitivity (resistance and resilience), recovery capacity, and
refugia, are explained. Cumulative impacts and social factors affecting
wetland significance are discussed. Effects of the following factors on
wetland function are documented: contiguity, shape, fetch, surface area,
area of watershed and drainage area, stream order, gradient, land cover,
soils, depositional environment, climate, wetland system, vegetation
form, substrate, salinity, pH, hydroperiod, water level fluctuations,
tidal range, scouring, velocity, depth, width, circulation, pool-riffle
ratio, vegetation density, flow pattern, interspersion, human
disturbance, turbidity, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and
biotic diversity."
31|"FHWA-IP-82-024"|"A Method for Wetland Functional Assessment: Volume
II - FHWA Assessment Method"|"Paul R. Adamus"|"March
1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"wetland; lake stream; impact; mitigation; evaluation;
highway; inference network; right-of-way; groundwater; flood; erosion;
sediment; nutrients; fish; wildlife; recreation; bottomland; riparian;
flat"|"The manual provides a rapid assessment procedure for screening
functional values of wetlands. Functions covered include groundwater
recharge and discharge, flood storage and desynchronization, shoreline
anchoring and dissipation of erosive forces, sediment trapping, nutrient
retention and removal, food chain support (detrital export), habitat for
fish and wildlife, and active and passive recreation. The method can be
used for all wetland types in the 48 coterminous states, and uses the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service definition and classification scheme. The
assessment method is qualitative and not based on a series fo weights and
scores. It can be used to evaluate the importance of a single wetland or
to compare several wetlands. It may be applied to choices regarding
reasonableness of mitigation, replacement ratios for compensation
wetlands, priorities for site-specific research, and route alignment. It
may also be used for decisions regarding route widening or realignment.
It can use ""office-type"" data, data from cursory field visits, and/or
detailed data, with corresponding increase in the predictive validity.
Social as well as scientific factors are incorporated, and a framework is
also provided for inclusion of mitigation cost data. Contributions of
wetlands versus their basins are differentiated, and seasonal variablilty
is taken into account. Net primary productivity data for wetland plants
is catalogued by region. Wetland type preferences of all harvested
waterfowl, 120 species of other wetland-dependent birds, 133 marine
fishes and invertebrates of commercial or sport value, and 95 freshwater
or anadromous fishes of commercial or sport value, are described. The
method also can be used to evaluate functions of many rivers and lakes."
32|"FHWA-IP-83-001"|"Quality Assurance for Local Governments"|"William R.
Maslin, James D. Arnoult, Louis B. Stephens"|"June
1983"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"construction management; local government; tesing
programs; quality assurance; quality control"|"Poorly built and
maintained roads are both expensive and inconvenient to taxpayers. The
quality of work performed on roads and streets directly influences the
useful life of the facility, maintenance costs, levels of service and
user costs. The techniques being promoted by the Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) are primarily for State highway agency use.
Realizing that these techniques could not be implemented at the local
level without significant revisions, FHWA approved the preparation of
this manual to develop a program for improved highway construction
management, including development of a highway quality control and
testing prgram for use by local government units."
33|"FHWA-IP-83-004"|"A Procedure for Determining Frequencies to Inspect
and Repair Highway Safety Hardware"|"Joseph W. Harrison, William C.
Grenke"|"December 1983"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"maintenance planning,
scheduling; safety hardware: barriers, guardrails; signs: supports,
panels; probabilities: Poisson distribution"|"A procedure was developed
for setting time periods for inspection and repair of highway safety
hardware that would maximize highway safety benefits, subject to the
constraints of available resources. Attention was directed to traffic
barriers (road-side and median, transitions and end treatments, bridge
rail and crash cushions) and to sign supports and panels. Current
practices for maintaining safety hardware were investigated through
literature searches and visits to highway agencies. Interviews were
conducted with operations, traffic, safety, and maintenance personnel
seeking descriptions of procedures and information used in detecting,
scheduling, and completing the maintenance or repair of safety hardware.
Specific inquiries were made about the availability, levels of detail and
the use of traffic volume and accident data, with specific attention to
accidents involving safety hardware. The procedure is an application of
the Poisson statistical distribution, using traffic volume and accident
data to calculate the time interval during which no accidents would be
expected to occur at a selected location. This time interval can be used
for scheduling of inspection or repair activities. Parametric tables for
ranges of traffic volumes, accident rates, and probability levels are
included which make further calculations unnecessary for most
applications."
34|"FHWA-IP-85-015 HDS No. 5"|"Hydraulic Design of Highway
Culverts"|"Jerome M. Normann, Robert J. Houghtalen, William J.
Johnston"|"September 1985"|"1"|"FHWA"|"culverts; hydrology; storage
routing inlet control; outlet control; critical depth; tapered
inlets"|"Hydraulic Design Series No. 5 combines culvert design
information previously contained in Hydraulic Engineering Circular (HEC)
No. 5, No. 10, and No. 13 with hydrologic, storage routing, and special
culvert design information. The result is a comprehensive culvert design
publication. Hydrologic analysis methods are described, and references
cited. Culvert design methods are presented for both conventional
culverts and culverts with inlet improvements. Storage routing
techniques are included which permit the designer to account for ponding
effects upstream of the culvert. Unique culvert applications, erosion
and sediment control, debris control, structural aspects, and long span
culverts are discussed and references cited. Inlet control, outlet
control, and critical depth design charts, many of which are newly
developed, are included for a variety of culvert sizes, shapes, and
materials. New dimensionless culvert design charts are provided for the
design of culverts lacking conventional design nomographs and charts.
The appendices of the publication contain the equations and methodology
used to construct the design charts, information of the hydraulic
resistance of culverts, and methods of optimizing culvert design using
performance curves and inlet depression. Calculation forms are provided
for most of the design methodologies in the manual."
35|"FHWA-IP-86-005/ -87-007 HEC #15"|"Drainage/Design of Roadside
Channels with Flexible Linings"|"Dr. Y. H. Chen, Mr. G. K. Cotton"|"May
1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"channel lining; channel stabilization; tractive force;
resistance; permissible shear stress; vegetation; riprap; jute;
fiberglass roving; excelsior; synthetic mat; woven paper net"|"Flexible
linings provide a means of stabilizing roadside channels. Flexible
linings are able to conform to changes in channel shape while maintaining
the overall lining integrity. Permanent flexible lining such as riprap,
gravel, or vegetation reinforced with synthetic mat are suitable for
hydraulic conditions similar to those requiring rigid linings.
Vegetation or temporary linings are suited to gydraulic condition where
uniform flow exists and shear stresses are moderate. Design procedures
are given for rock riprap, wire-enclosed riprap, gravel riprap, woven
paper net, jute net, fiberglass roving, curled wood mat, synthetic mat,
and straw with net. Special design procedures are presented for
composite channels and channels with steep gradients. The design
procedures are based on the concept of maximum permissible tractive
force. Methods for determination of hydraulic resistance and permissible
shear stress for individual linings are presented. Nomographs are
provided for solution of uniform flow conditions in trapezoidal channels.
Nomographs are also provided for determination of resistance
characteristics for vegetation and permissible shear stress for soils."
36|"FHWA-IP-86-014"|"Utility Pole Accident Countermeasures Evaluation
Program and Input Processor--User's Manual"|"S. Kopperman"|"December
1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"utility pole; accident countermeasure; cost-
effectiveness analysis; microcomputer software"|"This is a user's manual
for the UPACE and UPACE1 on IBM-PC and compatible microcomputers. The
Utility Pole Accident Countermeasure Evaluation (UPACE) computer program
is a tool to facilitate the cost effectiveness analysis of utility pole
accident countermeasures. The program undertakes analysis of roadway
sections relative to utility pole accident problems and treatments, and
provides the information needed for decision making. The UPACE program
was originally developed for the mainframe computer. It has been
converted to run under the MS DOS operating system on IBM-PC and
compatible microcomputers. An input processor was developed to assist
users in creating and modifying input data files. A related report on
this subject is Selection of Cost-Effectiveness Coutermeasures for
Utility Pole Accidents: User's Manual (Report FHWA-IP-86-9)."
37|"FHWA-IP-86-022"|"Highways and Wetlands: Compensating Wetland
Losses"|"Edgar W. Garbisch"|"August 1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"wetlands; wetland
replacement; restoration; enhancement"|"This implementation Package is a
practical guide for the creation and restoration of wetlands. It
provides concepts, metnods and general specifications for compensating
unavoidable wetland losses in a cost effective manner. The manual
includes guidance for wetland establishment and enhancement and provides
information for the conceptual design of wetland systems. The site-
specific nature of wetland compensation measures precludes gibing
detailed instructions and specifications for the establishment and
enhancement of wetlands. Although much work on the establishment of
wetlands has been published within the past decade (Appendix B), the
state-of-the-art is still primitive. Consequently, this manual is far
from the last word. It is a beginning and a lot is left to the best
judgement of the users."
38|"FHWA-IP-86-025"|"Films for Highway Safety and Traffic Engineers"|"K.
Colpitts"|"December 1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"synthesis, catalog; films;
audiovisual aid; movie; vidoecassette; slides; slidetape"|"This document
provides abstracts on audiovisual aids fo potential interest to highway
safety and traffic engineers. Each film abstract includes a description
of the film's contents; the source(s) from which it is available for
purchase, rental, or loan; the format(s) in which it is available; the
length of the film (or number of slides); and, where available, the
production year and identity of the target audience. The films
abstracted in this synthesis come from a variety of sources, both public
and private. While some are very technical in nature, others would be
sutable for general audiences. For example, a number are aimed at
teaching traffic safety skills to children, others are targeted at driver
education students, and still others stress the importance of using seat
belts or the dangers of drinking and driving. A subject index of key
words is provided for all the film, which are listed in alphabetical
order. Addresses for sources from which to order films are also
provided. The index of contents appears on the back cover."
39|"FHWA-IP-88-019"|"Handbook on Planning, Design, and Maintenance of
Pedestrian Facilities"|"Brian L. Bowman, John J. Fruin, Charles V.
Zegeer"|"March 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pedestrian; pedestrian facilities;
accessible routes; elderly and handicapped; walks and corridors curb
ramps; construction zones"|"Pedestrian safety and accessibility has long
been a concern to Federal, State, and local agencies. The results has
been a wide diversity of published reports, recommended practices and
changes in accessibility standards for the planning, design and
maintenance of pedestrian facilities. Much of this information is out of
date, too technical or detailed and occasionally too confusing to provide
the necessary assistance for traffic engineering professionals and
planners to provide adequate pedestrian facilities. This handbook
consolidates the current state-of-the-art pertaining to pedestrian
facilities. It is designed to provide up-to-date information on
pedestrian facilities in one document to serve the needs of planners and
engineers in the majority of cases. In those instances where additional
in-depth information is required, the handbook serves to identify the
relevant publications from which the information can be obtained."
40|"FHWA-IP-88-026"|"Traffic Conflict Techniques for Safety and
Operations: Engineers Guide"|"M.R. Parker, Jr., C.V. Zegeer"|"January
1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"traffic conflicts; accidents; intersections; observer
training; accident surrogates; evaluation; problem diagnosis; expected
values; accident prediction"|"This guide provides basic background
information and standard procedures for using traffic conflicts to
analyze safety and operational problems at signalized and unsignalized
intersection. The guide was prepared for engineers and supervisors who
have the responsibility for analyzing conflict data and using the results
to make decisions and recommendations for improvements. Based on
previous research and experiences, the procedures describled in this
guide provide a standard, cost-effective method for using traffic
conflicts to diagnose safety and operational problems at intersections.
The guide contains definitions with illustrations and examples of
conflict types, step-by-step procedures for conducting a conflict study,
methods for analyzing and interpreting the data, and guidelines for using
conflict data to select countermeasures. Because the reliability of
conflict data is dependent upon the ability of the observers to record
conflicts accurately, a section of the guide is devoted to training data
collectors. Also available, as a training aid and reference source, is
an observer's manual (FHWA-IP-88-027)."
41|"FHWA-IP-88-027"|"Traffic Conflict Techniques for Safety and
Operations: Observers Manual"|"M.R. Parker, Jr., C.V. Zegeer"|"January
1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"traffic conflicts; accidents; intersections; manual
observations; accident surrogates; training; evasive maneuvers;
pedestrians"|"This guide provides basic background information and step-
by-step procedures for conducting traffic conflict surveys at signalized
and unsignalized intersections. The manual was prepared as a training
aid and reference source for persons who are assigned the responsibility
of conducting traffic conflict observations at intersections. Based on
previous research and experiences, the survey techniques described in
this manual provide a standard, cost-effective method for accurately
observing and recording traffic conflicts. The manual contains
definitions with illustrations and examples of conflict types, and
instructions for conducting the field activities, including time
schedules, forms, and other details. The results of traffic conflect
observations are used to diagnose safety and operational problems and to
evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Observer training techniques,
as well as procedures for analyzing and interpreting the results of
conflict surveys, are presented in the engineer's guide (FHWA-IP-88-
026)."
42|"FHWA-IP-89-016 HEC #11"|"Design of Riprap Revetment"|"Scott A. Brown,
Eric S. Clyde"|"March 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"riprap; revetments; bank
protection; gabions; grouted riprap; riprap design; pre-cast concrete
riprap; paved linings"|"This revised version of Hydraulic Engineering
Circular No. 11 (HEC-11), represents major revisions to the earlier
(1967) edition of HEC-11. Recent research findings and revised design
procedures have been incorporated. The manual has been expanded into a
comprehensive design publication. The revised manual includes
discussions on recognizing erosion potential, erosion mechanisms and
riprap failure modes, riprap types including rock riprap, rubble riprap,
gabions, preformed blocks, grouted rock, and paved linings. Design
concepts included are: design discharge, flow types, channel geometry,
flow resistance, extent of protection, and toe depth. Detailed design
guidelines are presented for rock riprap, and design procedures are
summarized in charts and examples. Design guidance is also presented for
wire-enclosed rock (gabions), precast concrete blocks, and concrete paved
linings."
43|"FHWA-IP-90-002"|"Traffic Detector Handbook"|"James H. Kell, Iris J.
Fullerton, Milton K. Mills"|"July 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"detectors; inductive
loops; magnetometers; magnetic detectors; traffic signal control; traffic
surveillance & control; vehicle detection; system sensors"|"This handbook
is a revised, updated version of the Federal Highway Administration's
(FHWA) Traffic Detector Handbook, originally published as Implementation
Package FHWA-IP-85-1. This upgraded version of the Handbook supersedes
and replaces the previous edition. It has been restructured, corrected,
and revised to update discussions of concepts and equipment to reflect
the current state of the art, particularly as it relates to the
microprocessor revolution, advances in control technology, and real-world
application experience. The overall objective of this Handbook is to
provide a single resource and basic reference to aid the practicing
engineer and technician in planning, designing, installing, and
maintaining detectors. It provides a compendium of existing detector
technology to facilitate the understanding of all aspects of detector
systems. Best current practices are described with emphasis on proper
design, applications, and installation processes and techniques."
44|"FHWA-IP-90-008"|"Asphalt Content Determination Manual"|"S.H.
Carpenter, A. L. Mueller, M. B. Stanley"|"June
1990"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"asphalt content; biodegradable; nuclear gauges;
gradations; extractions; solvents"|"This report examines the procedures
currently being used for evaluating an asphalt concrete mixture and
evaluates the suitability of replacing current procedures with newer
equipment and procedures. Current test requirements call for the asphalt
content and gradation to be determined for comparison with specifications
to certify the level of quality in the mixture. Newer techniques include
the Nuclear Asphalt Content (NAC) gauge, the use of biodegradable
solvents, and the determination of gradation from cold feed testing. The
evaluation of state experience and State special studies, and analysis of
raw data collected by various State agencies provided supporting data
that show the nuclear asphalt content gauge can be substituted for
traditional extraction tests for asphalt content determination, when
properly calibrated for each mixture being produced. Several of the new
biodegradable solvents, not all, can be substituted directly for
traditional solvents to provide the same level of accuracy in asphalt
content determination when special procedures are adopted to ensure
proper accountability of fines removed during rinsing operations. The
use of the biodegradable solvents did not produce a consistently
different gradation when the appropriate procedures were used to ensure
complete rinsing of the new solvent and accounting for the fines removed
during rinsing. It is recommended that the biodegradable solvents be
used in conjuction with the nuclear asphalt content gauges to provide a
more economical means of evaluating an asphalt concrete mixture. A
number of studies examining cold feed determination indicate that the
cold feed gradations are as accurate, and no more variable than the
determination of gradation from the truck or road. The durability of the
aggregate can alter this if it degrades during production, producing a
different gradation on the roadway."
45|"FHWA-IP-90-014 HEC #20"|"Stream Stability at Highway
Structures"|"P.F. Lagasse, J.D. Schall, F. Johnson, E.V. Richardson, J.
R. Richardson, F. Chang"|"February 1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridge design;
bridge stability; check dam; countermeasures; guide bank (spur dike);
highway structures; scour; hydraulics; sediment; spur; stream
geomorphology; stream stability"|"This document provides guidelines for
identifying stream instability problems at highway stream crossings and
for the selection and design of appropriate countermeasures to mitigate
potential damages to bridges and other highway components at stream
crossings. The HEC-20 manual covers geomorphic and hydraulic factors
that affect stream stability and provides a step-by-step analysis
procedure for evaluating stream stability problems. Guidelines and
criteria for selecting countermeasures for stream stability problems are
summarized, and the design of three countermeasures (spurs, guide banks,
and check dams) is presented in detail. Conceptual design considerations
for many other countermeasures are summarized."
46|"FHWA-IP-90-017 HEC #18"|"Evaluating Scour at Bridges"|"E.V.
Richardson, L.J. Harrison, J.R. Richardson, S.R. Davis"|"February
1993"|"3"|"FHWA"|"scour design; contraction scour; local scour; pier
scour; abutment scour; scour susceptible; scour critical; clear-water
scour; live-bed scour; superflood; bridge inspection; counter measures;
tidal scour"|"This is the second edition of HEC-18. It contains updated
material not included in the first edition dated February 1991. This
document presents the state of knowledge and practice for the design,
evaluation and inspection of bridges for scour. This document is a
revision to HEC-18 dated February 1991 which, in turn, was an update of
the publication, ""Interim Procedures for Evaluating Scour at Bridges, ""
issued in September 1988 as part of the FHWA Technical Advisory TA
5140.20, ""Scour at Bridges."" TA 5140.20 has since been superseded by
TA 5140.23, ""Evaluating Scour at Bridges,"" dated October 28, 1991.
This circular contains revisions as a result of further scour related
developments and use of the 1991 edition of HEC-18 by the highway
community. The principal changes from the 1991 edition of HEC-18 are:
the inclusion of a section on tidal scour with example problems; a
comparison between Neill's equation for beginning of motion for coarse-
bed material and an equation that results from Laursen's clear-water
scour equation; clarification and simplification of the use of the clear-
water and live-bed contraction scour equations; replacing the total scour
example problem in Chapater 4 with a problem based on the results of a
WSPRO analysis of a highway crossing; elimination of the computation of
guide bank length in the appendices (the complete procedure is contained
in HEC-20); [8] inclusion of an updated version of North Carolina's scour
evaluation procedures in Appendix D; replacing the scour analysis for
Great Pee Dee River, South Carolina with the scour analysis for the South
Platte River in colorado in Appendix F; updating the information of scour
detection equipment in the appendix G and correction of editorial and
minor errors in the text and figures."
47|"FHWA-JPO-95-001"|"Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
Projects"|"(NONE)"|"January 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
48|"FHWA-KS-95/002"|"Use of Retrofit Load Transfer Devices and
Undersealing to Rehabilitate a PCC Pavement"|"John B. Wojakowski, Marc A.
Catron"|"July 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"undersealing; load transfer device;
overlay; patching; concrete pavement rehabilitation"|"A 1986 project
evaluated bituminous undersealing and different retrofitted load transfer
devices in Chase county on U.S. 50. This report follows the progress of
the project from 1986 until 1993. The project consisted of two 305 m
(1000 ft) test sections and one 305 m (1000 ft) control section. Test
section 1 received patching and a 100 mm (4 in) overlay and no
undersealing. Test section 2 was constructed with no overlay, but it had
undersealing and also contained load transfer devices. The devices used
were: drilled and grouted dowel bars with patching, dowel bars placed on
chairs in sawed slots, and a Double V device. The control section was
constructed by regular construction techniques. The data shows that
undersealing gave the pavement added strength. It also helped to control
the deflections of the pavement. Load transfer devices distributed
forces and helped the patches last longer. The load transfer device
that worked best was the Double V device. The bituminous overlay has
given effective performance for more than eight years with a smoother
ride than the load transfer device section."
49|"FHWA-LA-94/276"|"A Parametric Evaluation of Fundamental Engineering
Properties for Louisiana Hot Mix"|"Louay N. Mohammad, Harold R. Paul,
Amar D. Raghavendra"|"June 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"asphalt mixture design and
characterization; indirect tension strength and strain test; resilient
modulus; creep compliance; dynamic modulus"|"The objectives of this
research study were to acquire a dynamic test system and to establish
engineering materials properties in both static and dynamic modes for
typical Louisiana hot mix."
50|"FHWA-LA-94/283"|"Investigation of the Use of Resilient Modulus for
Louisiana Soils in the Design of Pavement"|"Louay N. Mohammad, Anand J.
Puppala, Prasad Alavilli"|"June 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"dynamic materials
charaterization; triaxial testing; resilient modulus; California bearing
ratio; sand; clay"|"A research study was inititated to develop a
laboratory test procedure to characterize subgrade soils based on the
structural properties obtained form repeated load traxial testing. The
objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a method for determination
of the resilient modulus of Louisiana soil; (2) to evaluate the influence
of using two separate internal measurement systems on the resilient
modulus test results; (3) to provide a preliminary estimate of resilient
modulus from physical properties of soil and (4) to compare laboratory
determined resilient modulus with the one determined from field
nondestructive deflection data. A statistically designed test factorial
was used to examine the influence of the measurement system and AASHTO
testing procedure on the resilient modulus test results. Two in-cell
axial deformation measurement systems (one at the ends and the other one
at the middle one-third of the specimen height), two AASHTO tests
procredures, T-292 and T-294 , and two soil types (cohesive and granular)
were used. In addition, this study examined the influence of moisture
content and dry density variation on the test results. Three levels of
moisture content and dry density were used in both cohesive and granular
soils."
51|"FHWA-LA-95-226"|"Investigation of Nuclear Asphalt Content
Gauge"|"Harold R. Paul"|"July 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"nuclear gauge asphalt
content; moisture content tests; cold feed gradation analysis"|"The
introduction of new aggregate sources to Louisiana in the mid 1980s has
presented problems in asphalt concrete mix design and construction.
Absorptive aggregates such as reclaimed portland cement concrete and some
stones now being supplied have made asphalt content determination a
critical aspect of mix control. Current test procedures take several
hours to determine asphalt content. In addition, the use of chlorinated
solvents is being reduced nationally because of their hazardous storage,
handling and disposal problems. This study evaluated the operation and
performance of the nuclear asphalt content gauge as a replacement for
existing methods to reduce test time and eliminate the use of hazardous
solvents. The variation in test results between centrifuge, reflux and
the nuclear asphalt content gauge was evaluated for one week's production
at six asphalt plants. Three batch plants and three drum plants were
examined. Moisture content for the correction of nuclear content results
was determined using both a microwave and the ASTM D1461 distillation
method. Cold feed gradations were compared to extracted gradations from
the samples tested for asphalt content. The pooled standard deviations
for the nuclear asphalt content gauge were similar to the reflux
extraction results regardless of plant type with the batch plant
deviation slightly lower than the drum plant. Both the nuclear gauge and
the reflux had lower standard deviations than the centrifuge extractor.
All moisture contents were negligible indicating reduced need for this
test. Cold feed gradations were similar to hot mix extracted results
with occasional bias because of the type of plant emission control and
return system. The cold feed standard deviations for each sieve were
comparable to the extracted hot mix samples, historical and Materials
Test System (MATT) data bases."
52|"FHWA-LA-95/291"|"Characterization of Asphalt Cements Modified with
Crumbed Rubber from Discarded Tires"|"William H. Daly, Ioan
Negulescu"|"November 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"asphalt/rubber blends; powered
rubber; crumb rubber; dynamic mechanical analysis; CS creep and creep
recovery; PAV aging; phase separation of aged blends"|"The potential
legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt
blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber
additives on the physical properties and aging charateristics of
rubber/asphalt blends. Blends with up to 20% ground vulcanized rubber
(both crumb and 200 mesh powder particles) from recycled tires were
prepared with asphalt cements of various grades (AC5-AC30) and evaluated
using DMA. Blends produced from powdered rubber particles exhibited
Newtonian behavior at high temperatures; similar behavior was not
observed with crumb rubber blends. The mechanical properties of asphalt-
rubber blends depend upon the concentration of rubber additives, the
particle dimensions, and the chemical composition of the asphalt. some
asphalts induced excessive swelling of the rubber particles, resulting in
135 degrees Celcius viscosities greater than SHRP recommended 3 Pa*Sec.
The dynamic mechanical characteristics of all blends are discussed in
terms of G*sin delta and G""; comparative data is presented according to
the new SHRP binder specifications. Constant stress creep and creep
recovery of the polymer or rubber asphalt blends proved to be a sensitive
measure of the additive content. PAV aging of the asphalt rubber blends
revealed a significant difference between crumb rubber and powdered
rubber additives. Simple blends of crumb rubber with asphalts ranging in
grade from AC5 to AC30 exhibited phase separation during the thin film
oven aging test.   In contrast, blends with powdered rubber appeared to
remain compatible or at least partially compatible through the PAV aging
process and the blends retained the physical properties associated with
the additive. The DMA data suggest that the low temperature cracking
resistance of asphalt/powdered rubber blends is enhanced."
53|"FHWA-MC-92-005"|"Motor Carrier Act of 1991: Title IV of the
Intermodal Surface Transportation Effeciency Act of 1991"|"(NONE)"|"April
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
54|"FHWA-MT-96-8117-2"|"Fish Passage Through Culverts in Montana: A
Preliminary Investigation"|"Todd N. Tillinger, Otto R. Stein"|"February
1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"hydraulics; environmental; habitat; structures;
culvert; fish passage"|"The objective of this report is to combine, in
one document, previously reported information on factors influencing fish
passage through culverts, especially as it pertains to conditions
indicative of Montana. First, the need for considering fish passage is
discussed, followed by an investigation of biological, hydrologic and
hydraulic criteria influencing fish passage. An intergration of
biological and hydraulic criteria is presented, as is a review of
previous studies conducted in Montana. Recommendations for future
research are also presented. The major biological criteria influencing
fish passage are species and size of fish, jumping ability, and seasonal
feeding and spawning migrations as related to the hydrologic regime of
the stream requiring a culvert crossing. In general, salmonid species
and healthy adult fish are the strongest swimmers and spawning is the
major reason fish migrate. The main culvert features preventing fish
passage include; a perched outlet, too great a velocity, too shallow a
depth or too long a distance between resting pools. The major hydraulic
criteria influencing fish passage are: flow rates during fish migration
periods; and type, roughness, length and slope of the culvert. In
general, the optimum design for peak flow conveyance, a smooth pipe
flowing full, will not meet fish passage criteria at any discharge. Fish
size appears to have little influence on ability to negotiate a culvert
despite its effect on swimming performance. One theory is that smaller
fish utilize regions of low velocity near the culvert wall. Multiple
possibilities for future research to better characterize fish passage are
listed. Examples include better characterization of velocity gradient
within culverts and evaluation of fish swimming performance for poorly
characterized Montana species."
55|"FHWA-OH-95-014"|"Simulation of Hourly Temperature Gradients in
Asphalt Concrete Pavement Structures"|"R. Kenneth Wolfe, Roger J.
McNichols"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"strains; modulus of elasticity;
temperature profiles; asphalt concrete; probability"|"The design of
overlays on existing pavements requires an understanding of the strains
at the overlay-base interface. The overlay, asphaltic concrete, is a
highly temperature-sensitive viscoelastic material resulting in strains
which are dependent upon the temperature profiles that affect the modulus
of elasticity-temperature relationship. Additional input included many
weather factors such as wind velocity, cloud cover, solar radiation, air
temperature, latitude, longitude, and a host of other factors specific to
a location and time of day. The procedures, or temperature simulations,
utilize up to ten years of hourly weather data to develop the vertical
and horizontal strains at the asphalt-base interface. These strains vary
from hour to hour during the day and night as temperature gradients
change. The results therefore are reported as density and cumulative
probability histograms of strain magnitudes. Two models are presented to
make these computations. The first of the two models has been designed
to use hourly weather data and site-specific conditions to calculate
temperature profiles for each hour in a year. This was performed for up
to ten years of data for Cincinnati, Columbus, and Toledo, Ohio. The
second model uses the hourly temperature profiles to modify the pavement
moduli and then calculate the equivalent vertical and horizontal strains.
The results include numerous histograms and plots which show hourly,
maximum and minimum strains as functions of the time of day at which the
maximum and minimums occur."
56|"FHWA-OH-95-023"|"Effectiveness of Breaking and Seating of Reinforced
PCC Pavements Before Overlay"|"Issam Minkarah and Rajagopal Arudi"|"July
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pavement rehabilitation; asphalt concrete overlays;
break and seat; pavement behavior; pavement surface deflections"|"Four
sections, each a mile long, were broken and seated prior to constructing
an AC surface layer. Five control sections were constructed, adjecent to
the B/S sections. The test sections were all Jointed Reinforced Concrete
Pavements and carried a large amount of traffic. The original pavements
selected in this study were fairly uniform with respect to their
structural and surface conditions. The thickness of the concrete layer
was the same (22.5 cm or 9 in.) throughout and the subbase and subgrade
exhibited very little variation. The AC overlay thickness was the same
for the B/S and the control sections (16.5 cm (6.5 in) in one area and
21.6 cm (8.5 in) in the other area). Two types of pavement breakers were
used in this study, namely guillotine and pile hammer. The goal was to
break the slabs into segments of 0.45 m x 0.45 m (18 in. x 18 in.). The
extent of breaking was closely monitored. The performance of the test
sections was monitored for a period of about two years. Performance
evaluation was made based on (i) structural response and (ii) reflection
cracking. The results of this study confirm the previous findings
regarding (i) the effectiveness of breaking and seating in delaying
reflection cracks, and (ii) reduction in structural capacity, increase of
surface deflection and loss of flexural strength. It is observed that
type of breaking equipment and extent of breaking are the most important
factors that govern the early behavior of break and seat sections."
57|"FHWA-OH-95-025"|"Utilization of Recycled PCC Aggregates for use in
Rigid and Flexible Pavements"|"Chhote L. Saraf, Kamran Majidzadeh"|"June
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"recycling; PCC Recycling; recycled aggregate; recycled
concrete mix; recycled asphalt mix"|"The study reported herein was
conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using recycled crushed
concrete from old pavements as aggregates in new PCC and asphalt
pavements and to develop guidelines and criteria for making cost-
effective decisions concerning the recycling of PCC pavements. This
study included several activities such as : preconstruction evaluation of
recycled PCC aggregates, construction monitoring and evaluation of mixes,
post construction evaluation of mixes and data analysis."
58|"FHWA-PA-89-022 + 85-02"|"Manual for Inspecting Bridges for Fatigue
Damage Conditions"|"Ben T. Yen, TI Huang, Lung-Yang Lai, John W.
Fisher"|"January 1990"|"3"|"FHWA"|"fatigue; fatigue sensitive details;
steel bridges; concrete bridges; fatigue life; fatigue evaluation;
inspection"|"This report is intended to supplement existing inspection
and evaluation manuals and provide engineers with basic information and
guidelines for inspecting bridges for fatigue damage. A comprehensive
description of the AASHTO fatigue categories of structural details is
given in Chapter 2. In Chapters 3 to 6, color photographs and line
drawings illustrate the locations and situations which are susceptible to
fatigue cracking. Guidelines are provided on where to look and what to
look for when inspecting bridges for fatigue damage. Chapters 7 and 8
provide procedures for the estimation of fatigue life and for the
evaluation of bridge structure against risk of fatigue failure."
59|"FHWA-PD-91-015"|"Bridge Inspector's Training Manual 90"|"Raymond A.
Hartle, William J. Amrhein, Kenneth E. Wilson III, Dennis R. Baughman,
John J. Tkacs"|"May 1991"|"3"|"FHWA"|"bridge inspection; bridge
evaluation; culvert inspection; fracture critical members; underwater
inspection"|"This document, the Bridge Inspector's Training Manual (BITM)
90, is a comprehensive manual on programs, procedures, and techniques for
inspecting and evaluating a variety of in-service highway bridges. It is
intended to replace the BITM 70 which was first published in 1970 to
assist in training highway personnel for the new discipline of bridge
safety inspection. BITM 70 has been in use for 20 years and has been the
basis for several training programs varying in length from a few days to
two weeks. Comprehensive supplements to BITM 70 have been developed to
cover inspection of fracture critical bridge members, movable bridges,
and culverts."
60|"FHWA-PD-92-016"|"Third National Conference Transportation Solutions
For Small and Medium Sized Communities: Conference
Proceedings"|"Transportation Research Board Committee A1D05"|"June
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
61|"FHWA-PD-92-018"|"A Guide to Federal-Aid Programs, Projects, and Other
Uses of Highway Funds"|"(NONE)"|"September
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
62|"FHWA-PD-92-020"|"Right-of-Way Project Development Guide - Initial
Issuance"|"(NONE)"|"September 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
63|"FHWA-PD-92-022"|"A Summary: Air Quality Programs and Provisions of
the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of
1991"|"(NONE)"|"1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
64|"FHWA-PD-92-036"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#12: Incorporating Consideration of Bicyclists and Pedestrians into
Education Programs"|"Arlene M. Cleven, Richard D.
Blomberg"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
65|"FHWA-PD-92-037"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#16: A Study of Bicycle and Pedestrian Programs in European
Countries"|"George G. Wynne"|"January 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
66|"FHWA-PD-92-038"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #2:
The Training Needs of Transportation Professionals Regarding the
Pedestrian and Bicyclist"|"Everett C. Carter, David M.
Levinson"|"1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
67|"FHWA-PD-92-040"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #7:
Transportation Potential and Other Benefits of Off-Road Bicycle and
Pedestrian Facilities"|"(NONE)"|"January
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
68|"FHWA-PD-92-041"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #1:
Reasons Why Bicycling and Walking Are Not Being Used More Extensively as
Travel Modes"|"Stewart A.
Goldsmith"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
69|"FHWA-PD-93-007"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #8:
Organizing Citizen Support and Acquiring Funding for Bicycle and
Pedestrian Trails"|"(NONE)"|"April 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
70|"FHWA-PD-93-008"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #5:
An Analysis of Current Funding Mechanisms for Bicycle and Pedestrian
Programs at the Federal, State, and Local Levels"|"(NONE)"|"April
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
71|"FHWA-PD-93-009"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#11: Balancing, Engineering, Education, Law Enforcement, and
Encouragement"|"John Williams, Kathleen McLaughlin, Andy
Clarke"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
72|"FHWA-PD-93-010"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#18: Analyses of Successful Provincial, State, and Local Bicycle and
Pedestrian Programs in Canada and the United States"|"(NONE)"|"March
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
73|"FHWA-PD-93-012"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #9:
Linking Bicycle/Pedestrian Facilities with Transit"|"Michael Replogle,
Harriet Parcells"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
74|"FHWA-PD-93-014"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#23: The Role of Local Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinators"|"Peter A.
Lagerwey, Bill Wilkinson"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
75|"FHWA-PD-93-015"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#15: The Environmental Benefits of Bicycling and Walking"|"Charles
Komanoff, Cora Roelofs, Jon Orcutt, Brian Ketcham"|"January
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
76|"FHWA-PD-93-016"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#17: Bicycle and Pedestrian Policies and Programs in Asia, Australia,
and New Zealand"|"Michael Replogle"|"April
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
77|"FHWA-PD-93-017"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#21: Integrating Bicycle and Pedestrian Considerations Into State and
Local Transporation Planning, Design, and Operations"|"(NONE)"|"July
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
78|"FHWA-PD-93-018"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#13: A Synthesis of Existing Bicyclist and Pedestrian Related Laws and
Enforcement Programs"|"Brian L. Bowman, Robert L. Vecellio, David W.
Haynes"|"March 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
79|"FHWA-PD-93-024"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #6:
Analysis of Successful Grassroots Movements Relating to Pedestrians and
Bicycles and A Guide On How to Initiate A Successful Program"|"Anne
Lusk"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
80|"FHWA-PD-93-025"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#14: Benefits of Bicycling and Walking to Health"|"Edmund R.
Burke"|"June 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
81|"FHWA-PD-93-028"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#19: Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management
Techniques-Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians"|"Andrew Clarke,
Michael J. Dornfeld"|"January 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
82|"FHWA-PD-93-037"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study
#20: The Effects of Environmental Design on the Amount and Type of
Bicycling and Walking"|"(NONE)"|"April 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
83|"FHWA-PD-93-039"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case Study #3:
What Needs to be Done to Promote Bicycling and
Walking?"|"(NONE)"|"February 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
84|"FHWA-PD-93-CASE STUDY #4"|"National Bicycling and Walking Study--Case
Study #4: Measures to Overcome Impediments to Bicycling and
Walking"|"Gary H. Zehnpfenning, James Cromar, Sara Jane
Maclennan"|"August 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
85|"FHWA-PD-94-010"|"First National Access Managemet Conference, Vail,
Colorado 1993: Conference
Proceedings"|"(NONE)"|"1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
86|"FHWA-PD-94-023"|"Final Report The National Bicycling and Walking
Study: Transportation Choices for a Changing America"|"Charlie Zegeer,
Jane Stutts, Bill Hunter, Wayne Pein, C. David Feske, David Cheeney,
Pamela McCarville, Christina Geiger"|"1994"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
87|"FHWA-PD-94-025"|"Symposium Proceedings: Recovery and Effective Reuse
of Discarded Materials and By-Products for Construction of Highway
Facilities"|"(NONE)"|"1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
88|"FHWA-PD-94-031"|"Conflicts on Multiple-Use Trails: Synthesis of the
Literature and State of the Practice"|"Roger L. Moore"|"August
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"multiple-use; trail conflict; trail management; trail
sharing; recreation; motorized; nonmotorized"|"The National Recreational
Trails Advisory Committee identified trail-user conflicts on multiple-use
trails as a major concern that needs resolution. The Committee asked the
Federal Highway Administration to produce a synthesis of the existing
research to foster understanding of trail conflict, identify approaches
for promoting trail-sharing, and identify gaps in current knowledge.
This synthesis is intended to establish a baseline of the current state
of knowledge and practive and to serve as a guide for trail managers and
researchers. The goal of the report is to promote user safety, protect
natural resources, and provide high-quality user experiences. It reviews
management options such as trail design, information and education, user
involvement, and regulations and enforcement. Trail conflicts can occur
among different user groups, among different users within the same user
group, and as a result of factors not related to trail user activities at
all. Conflict has been found to be related to activity style, focus of
trip, expections, attitudes toward and perceptions of the environment,
level of tolerance for others, and diffferent norms held by different
user. The report provides 12 principles for minimizing conflicts on
multiple-use trails. Although this report is about conflicts on trails,
it is intended to promote cooperation and understanding among trail users
and to inspire ideas that will help reduce trail conflict. It is
intended to be used by trail managers, State and local trail
coordinators, researchers, and trail-user volunteer organizations."
89|"FHWA-PD-95-009"|"A Compendium of Available Bicycle and Pedestrian
Trip Generation Data in the United States: A Supplement to the National
Bicycling and Walking Study"|"(NONE)"|"October
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
90|"FHWA-PD-95-031"|"A Guide to Metropolitan Transportation Planning
Under ISTEA: How the Pieces Fit
Together"|"(NONE)"|"1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
91|"FHWA-PD-95-038"|"Metropolitan Planning Technical Report No. 6:
Evaluation of Transportation Alternatives"|"(NONE)"|"September
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
92|"FHWA-PD-95-039"|"Metropolitan Planning Technical Report No. 8:
Congestion Management Case Studies"|"Arlene Willis, Monica Francois,
William Schwartz, John H. Suhrbier, Brian Gardner"|"September
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
93|"FHWA-PD-95-Report No. 3"|"Metropolitan Planning Technical Report No.
3: Small/Medium Size Urban Area Issues/Cost Analysis"|"Patrick Decortes-
Souza, Arthur F. Gamble, et. al."|"September
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
94|"FHWA-PD-96-004"|"Subsurface Utility Engineering"|"(NONE)"|"November
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
95|"FHWA-PD-96-007"|"Linking the Delta Region with the Nation and the
World"|"(NONE)"|"December 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
96|"FHWA-PL-91-003"|"Highway Statistics 1990"|"Thomas D.
Larson"|"1991"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
97|"FHWA-PL-91-009"|"Toll Facilities in the United States: Bridges-
Roads-Tunnels-Ferries"|"(NONE)"|"February
1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
98|"FHWA-PL-91-017"|"Highway Taxes and Fees: How They Are Collected and
Distributed"|"(NONE)"|"1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
99|"FHWA-PL-92-013"|"1992 Driver License Administration Requirements and
Fees"|"(NONE)"|"May 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
100|"FHWA-PL-92-016"|"Financing Federal-Aid Highways"|"(NONE)"|"May
1992"|"24"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
101|"FHWA-PL-92-022"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 4 Assessing the Relationship Between Transportation Infrastructure
and Productivity - Summary of Current Research: Part of a Highways and
Economic Productivity Agenda"|"Michael Nienhaus, Therese McGuire"|"August
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
102|"FHWA-PL-93-008"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 6 Examining Congestion Pricing Implementation Issues - Summary of
Proceedings: Congestion Pricing Symposium"|"(NONE)"|"December
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
103|"FHWA-PL-93-010"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 7 Edge City and ISTEA - Examining the Transportation Implications of
Suburban Development Patterns - Summary of Proceedings: Seminar on Edge
City and ISTEA - So What?"|"(NONE)"|"December
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
104|"FHWA-PL-93-012"|"Travel Behavior Issues in the 90's: Based on Data
from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) and the
1985 and 1989 American Housing Surveys (AHS)"|"Alan E. Pisarski"|"July
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
105|"FHWA-PL-93-018"|"Highway Taxes and Fees: How They Are Collected and
Distributed 1993"|"(NONE)"|"1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
106|"FHWA-PL-93-019"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 8 An Examination of Transportation Industry Productivity
Measures"|"(NONE)"|"July 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
107|"FHWA-PL-93-023"|"Highway Statistics 1992"|"Rodney E.
Slater"|"1992"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
108|"FHWA-PL-93-056"|"Subsurface Utility Engineering (SUE
Handbook)"|"(NONE)"|"October 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
109|"FHWA-PL-94-004"|"Traffic Volume Trends"|"(NONE)"|"March
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
110|"FHWA-PL-94-009"|"Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act:
Section 1089 and Section 6015: Assessment of Border Crossing and
Transportation Corridors for North American Trade - Report to
Congress"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
111|"FHWA-PL-94-010B"|"1990 NPTS Databook Nationwide Personal
Transportation Survey Volume II"|"Patricia S. Hu, Jennifer Young,
Christopher Gray"|"November 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"occupancy; person
trips/person miles of travel; trips/travel; vehicle trips/vehicle miles
of travel; vehicles"|"This report presents data on the amount, nature and
characteristics of personal (non-commercial) travel by all modes of
transportation in the U. S. The data is from a survey of individuals
conducted throughout 1990. A large number of data relationships are
presented and, therefore, the report is printed in two volumes. Volume I
contains information on the survey itself, a comparison of estimates of
miles of travel taken from different portions of the survey, data on
households, drivers and vehicles, and an extensive chapter on person
trips and person miles of travel by all modes of transportation. Volume
II includes data on vehicle trips and vehicle miles of travel, journey-
to-work trips, vehicle occupancy, long trips, commercial driving and
highway accidents. To the degree possible, each chapter within the
report is organized to present results in the order of: person
characteristics, household characteristics, trip characteristics, and
temporal characteristics."
112|"FHWA-PL-94-012"|"Journey-to-Work Trends in the United States and Its
Major Metropolitan Areas, 1960-1990"|"Michael A. Rossetti, Barbara S.
Eversole"|"November 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"journey to work; census data;
travel; travel trends; travel mode; commuting; metropolitan area;
transportation statistics"|"This report identified the changes which have
occured from 1960 to 1990 in population and demographics, worker
characteristics, means of travel to work, hoursehold vehicle
availability, and geographic revisions in the United States and its large
metropolitan areas. The report is based on the U.S. Bureau of the Census
data from decennial data sets."
113|"FHWA-PL-94-014"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 9 Bond Financing and Transportation Infrastructure: Exploring
Concepts and Roles"|"(NONE)"|"February 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
114|"FHWA-PL-94-022"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 10 Metropolitan America in Transition: Implications for Land Use
and Transportation Planning"|"(NONE)"|"June
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
115|"FHWA-PL-94-026"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 11 Summary of The Federal Highway Administration's Symposium on
Overcoming Barriers to Public-Private Partnerships"|"(NONE)"|"September
1994"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
116|"FHWA-PL-94-027"|"1990 NPTS Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey: Implications of Emerging Travel Trends -- April 20-21, 1994
Conference Proceedings"|"(NONE)"|"July 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
117|"FHWA-PL-94-030"|"1994 Driver License Administration Requirements and
Fees"|"Mary K. Teets"|"June 1994"|"4"|"FHWA/LTAP/HDOT"|"driver license;
national driver register; admin per se; commercial driver license"|"This
is a biennial report covering the legal requirements and fees regarding
driver licensing as reported by State, Province, and Territory motor
vehicle agencies. This report has been published since 1967."
118|"FHWA-PL-94-035"|"Census Mapbook for Transportation
Planning"|"(NONE)"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"decennial census;
transportation planning; geographic information systems"|"Geographic
display of Census data in transportation planning and policy decisions
are compiled in a report of 49 maps, depicting use of the data in
applications such as travel demand model development and model
validation, population forecasting, corridor analysis, and transit route
planning. The report has compiled maps from many different types of
agencies. The maps were compiled from Metropolitan Planning
Organizations (MPOs), State Departments of Transporation (DOTs), transit
agencies, and others."
119|"FHWA-PL-94-039"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 13 Conference of North American Trade and Transportation--Omni
Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C., January 13-14, 1994"|"(NONE)"|"October
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
120|"FHWA-PL-95-004"|"Glossary of Transportation Terms"|"Subcommittee on
Urban Public Transportation Terms"|"1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
121|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (1)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Jobsite Safety Series: 1-Work Zone Safety Concepts (running
time: 25 min)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"4"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
122|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (2)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Traffic Control Series: 2-Markings and Islands (running time:
19 min.)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"4"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
123|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (3)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Traffic Control Series: 3-Traffic Controls for Schools, Railroad
Crossings, and Bicycle Facilities (runningt time: 24
min.)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"4"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
124|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (4)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Traffic Control Series: 4-Special Use Traffic Controls (running
time: 17 min.)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
125|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (5)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Traffic Control Series: 5-Traffic Control Signals at
Intersections (running time:
18min.)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
126|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (6)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Traffic Control Series: 6-Traffic Signs Placements and Location
(running time: 22 min.)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
127|"FHWA-PL-95-012   (7)"|"International Road Federation, Videotape
Library Traffic Control Series: 7-Traffic Signs Inspection and
Maintenance (running time: 21
min.)"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
128|"FHWA-PL-95-023"|"Rebuilding America: Partnership for
Investment"|"(NONE)"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
129|"FHWA-PL-95-032"|"1990 NPTS Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey: Demographic Special Reports"|"Steven Polzin, Sandra Rosenbloom,
Siim Soot, Ashish Sen, Joan Al-Kazily, Carole Barnes, Norman
Coontz"|"February 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
130|"FHWA-PL-95-033"|"1990 NPTS Nationwide Personal Transportation
Survey: Special Reports on Trip and Vehicle Attributes"|"Kenneth Dueker,
James Strathman, Peter Gordon, Harry Richardson, Alan Pisarski, Ryuichi
Kitamura"|"February 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
131|"FHWA-PL-95-034"|"Toll Facilities in the United States: Bridges-
Roads-Tunnels-Ferries"|"(NONE)"|"February
1995"|"2"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
132|"FHWA-PL-95-047"|"Searching for Solutions A Policy Discussion Series:
No. 15 Partnership for Investment: Symposioum Summary--Bonding and
Innovative Financing"|"(NONE)"|"June 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
133|"FHWA-PL-96-010"|"Travel Time Data Collection Field Tests - Lessons
Learned: Final Report"|"Tai K. Liu, Marsha Haines"|"January
1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"travel time; speed; traffic monitoring; performance
measure; travel time surveys; data collection; data processing; license
plate matching; video imaging; machine-recognition; probe vehicle;
automatic vehicle identification (AVI); loop detector"|"This report
summarizes the process and lessions learned from the Standardized Travel
Time and Field Test project. The field tests of travel time data
collection were conducted in Boston, Seattle, and Lexington in 1993. The
methodologies tested include; license plate matching using video cameras,
licence plate matching using portable computers, floating car, probe
vehicle (cellular phone reporting), AVI equipped buses, and volume data
collected from loop detectors. The ultimate goal is to develop a
nationally uniform program of travel time data collection and reporting
in support of congestion management, and trend and intercity comparison."
134|"FHWA-PL-96-023"|"1995 Status of the Nation's Surface Transportation
System: Condition & Performance - Report to Congress, A
Summary"|"(NONE)"|"1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
135|"FHWA-RD-73-077"|"Quality Assurance for Portland Cement
Concrete"|"John B. DiCocco"|"Septemver 1973"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"quality
control; acceptance sampling"|"Quality assurance has been successfuly
used in most industries, but the construction industry and State agencies
are only now beginning to recognize its importance. The work reported
here results from this recognition and is one attempt to show how the
elemets of quality assurance can be applied to concrete."
136|"FHWA-RD-74-005"|"Evaluation of Portland Cement Concrete for
Permanent Bridge Deck Repair"|"K.C. Clear"|"February
1974"|"1"|"FHWA"|"concrete; bridge deck; reinforcing steel; corrosion;
deicer; chloride analysis; repair; rotary hammer"|"One of the most severe
problems facing the highway industry is chloride induced reinforcing
steel corrosion and the subsequent deterioration of concrete bridge decks
and marine structures. The purpose of this report is to emphasize the
benefits of, the need for, and the procedures available for using
chloride determinations for detecting contaminated concrete when
permanent repair is planned. The effect of chloride in reinforced
concrete and the chloride content corrosion threshold are discussed.
Suggestions for determining the concrete that must be removed prior to
permanent repair by utilizing all tools available (delamination detector,
electrical potential corrosion detection device, pachometer, and chloride
analyses) are discussed. The use of a rotary hammer to obtain portland
cement concrete samples for chloride analyses is presented. Using the
portable hammer, pulverized samples are rapidly obtained thus eliminating
the need to core, section and pulverize the concrete prior to analysis.
Use of the wet chemical analysis procedure for total chloride develped by
H.A. Berman is discussed in detail. Sections on sample preparation,
equipment, the test method, checking the analysis, the effect of moisture
in the sample, a method of preventing aggregate induced distortions and
reporting of results are included. Other methods of analysis (neutron
activation analysis and various x-ray analyses) in various stages of
development are briefly discussed."
137|"FHWA-RD-74-030"|"Improved Subsurface Investigation for Highway
Tunnel Design and Construction: Vol. 2. New Acoustic Techniques
Suitable for Use in Soil"|"L.A. Rubin, D.L. Hipkins, L.A. Whitney"|"May
1974"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"subsurface investigation; highway tunnel design;
acoustic techniques in soils"|"The purpose of this study was development
of new acoustic techniques suitable for use in soil. Primary
consideration was given to determining the location of any rock that may
be present between boreholes. A secondary objective was to investigate
the potential of acoustic techniques for predicting variation of
properties between boreholes. In pursuit of these objectives, the
properties of the sonic spectrum in soil were investigated with
application to locating discontinuities. A review of potential
techniques for improving coupling to soils was also conducted. As a
result of these investigations, a pulse compression technique similar to
one used in radar was judged to be the most promising technique for
enhancement of range and resolution. This technique utilizes a swept
frequency transmission and temporal filtering of the received signal. It
is concluded that the pulse compression technique is suitable and
practical for further development."
138|"FHWA-RD-74-068"|"Determination of the In-Situ State of Stress in
Soil Masses, Final Report"|"Peter J. Huck, Howard J. Pincus, Madan M.
Singh, Y.P. Chugh"|"September 1974"|"1"|"FHWA"|"soil mechanics;
tunneling; subsurface investigation; stresses"|"The mass behavior of soil
and loadings imparted to civil engineering works by soil masses are
strongly influenced by the naturally existing in-situ soil stresses. The
determination of in-situ stresses in soil masses is a difficult problem
which, in some cases, requires extensive and subtle evaluation if even an
approximate determinidation is to be made. These studies were conducted
to review and assess techniques. Methods for estimating in-situ stress
from knowledge of the soil and assumed stress history, as well as direct
measurement methods are identified and described. All known methods for
determining in-situ stresses are summarized. Recommendations are made
for the development of (a) more sophisticated hardware, (b) transfer and
development of fabric analysis technology to soil mechanics, and (c) long
range development of magnetic resonance techniques."
139|"FHWA-RD-75-084"|"An Investigation of Precast and Prestressed
Concrete Bulb Tee Multi-Beam Bridges"|"Ronald L. Sack"|"June
1975"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridge systems; bulb tee; diaphragm action; lateral
distribution; load sharing multi-beam; prestressed bridges; pre-stressed
girders; pre-stressed tee; shear connectors and keys"|"Multi-beam
bridges, constructed from precast and prestressed concrete bulb tee
sections, were evaluated through field observations and analyzed using
the finite element method. Approximately 50 bridges were inspected in
the states of Washington and Idaho, and data for over 100 bulb tee
systems was obtained for evaluation. Personnel interviewed from agencies
constructing these bridges were very accepting of the bulb tee bridge
system. Their reasons for this acceptance included the ease of erection,
low installation costs, and low maintenance costs. The field
observations of existing bridges revealed some problems. Most of these
problems have been eliminated in later designs by careful follow up work
carried out by the producers and most agencies. Cost data on 81
bridges showed that the average cost per square foot of deck has been
reduced by about 50 percent since 1963. Several finite element models
were utilized to investigate the effect of the lateral load transfer
devices. These analyses served to quantitatively illustrate the major
role played by both the weld tie plate and the grout keyway in
transferring the load laterally; furthermore the calculations revealed
that a relatively minor amount of stiffness is contributed to the system
by the diaphragms."
140|"FHWA-RD-76-029"|"Cut-and-Cover Tunneling Volume 2 - Cost Analyses
and Systems Evaluation"|"G.E. Wickham, H.R. Tiedemann"|"December
1979"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cut-and-cover tunneling; open-trench construction;
transportation tunnels; ground support"|"This volumes summarizes the
findings of the entire study. It presents a method for comparing the
costs of alternate construction schemes for cut-and-cover tunneling in
urban areas. It considers both the cost of construction and the cost of
urban disruption, enabling the planner to choose that construction most
effective for his particular requirement."
141|"FHWA-RD-76-185"|"Urban Traffic Control and Bus Priority System
Software Manual. Vol.I. Functional Description and Flow
Charfts"|"(NONE)"|"June 1976"|"1"|"FHWA"|"networks; real time sytems;
traffic control systems; traffic operations"|"An Urban Traffic Control
and Bus Priority System has been implemented by the Sperry Systems
Management Division in the District of Columbia under Federal Highway
Administration contract No. FH-11-7605, Advanced Control Technology in
Urban Traffic Control Systems- Installation. The system includes on-
street surveillance and control elemments and a central office data
processing facility. This manual describes the software of this system."
142|"FHWA-RD-77-032"|"Vehicle Detector Placement for High-Speed, Isolated
Traffic-Actuated Intersection Control Vol. 2, Manual of Theory and
Practice"|"Harold Sackman, Bruce Monahan, Peter S. Parsonson, Alberto F.
Trevino"|"May 1977"|"1"|"FHWA"|"vehicle detectors; detectorization;
intersection; field testing; dilemma zone; traffic engineering; detector
placement; traffic conflicts"|"This study was undertaken to improve
understanding of how to place vehicle detectors at high-speed (at least
35 pmh), isolated, traffic-actuated intersections, and how to test and
evaluate alternative detector/controller configurations for intersection
traffic safety and efficiency. Drivers are often indecisive in
approaching such intersections. If a vehicle is being operated at high
speed, and a green signal changes to yellow, driver indecision may lead
to various types of accidents. Strategies that have been advanced for
detector placement to minimize the untimely display of yellow are
illustrated and reviewed in this volume. This is the first time that
available knowledge on detector placement for such intersections has been
systematically integrated within a single publication."
143|"FHWA-RD-77-158"|"Runoff Estimates for Small Rural Watersheds and
Developement of a Sound Design Method, Volume I Research Report"|"Joel E.
Fletcher, A. Leon Huber, Frank W. Haws, Calvin G. Clyde"|"October
1977"|"1"|"FHWA"|"hydrology; small watersheds; hydrophysiographic zones;
peak runoff; flood frequency; regression analysis; graphical correlation;
estimating discharge; design; nomographs"|"Potter's method for runoff
peak forecasting was examined on its original watersheds and it was found
to be soundly conceived. The method was modified to extend it to other
watersheds in the same States for which it was originally developed. The
results after modifying Potter's C parameter were found to be
satisfactory."
144|"FHWA-RD-77-159"|"Runoff Estimates for Small Rural Watersheds and
Development of a Sound Design Method., Volume II, Recommendations for
Preparing Design Manuals and Appendices B,C,D,E,F,G &H"|"Joel E.
Fletcher, A. Leon Huber, Frank W. Haws, Calvin G. Clyde"|"October
1977"|"1"|"FHWA"|"hydrology; small watersheds; hydrophysiographic zones;
peak runoff; flood frequency; regression analysis; graphical correlation;
estimating discharge; design; nomographs"|"Frequency analyses of more
than 1000 small watersheds in the United States and Puerto Rico were used
to develop the estimation method for design of peak flow for ungaged
watersheds. This method, called the Federal Highway Administration
(FHWA) method, is conceptually similar to the Bureau of Public Roads
(BRP) method developed by W. D. Potter. The FHWA method relates the
runoff peak to easily determined hydrophysiographic parameters and is
intended for use on watersheds smaller than 50 square miles. The concept
of risk is incorporated into the design procedure. The risk if the
probability that one or more events will exceed a specified peak flow
within the usable lifetime of the drainage structure. The return period
of the design flood peak can then be modified according to the risk the
designer is willing to take. Another concept dealing with the probable
maximum runoff peak derived as a function of watershed area in included.
The flow obtained from this relationship is considered to be the upper
limit of the design flow that may realistically be expected to ever
occur. As such it may be appropriate to use in situations where the
consequences of failure are extremely great."
145|"FHWA-RD-78-068"|"Fracture Mechanics for Bridge Design"|"R. Roberts,
J.M. Barsom, S.T. Rolfe, J.W. Fisher"|"July
1977"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"fracture; fatigue; bridges; bridge safety; bridge
design; bridge failure"|"This report provides an introduction to the
elements of fracture mechanics for bridge design. Fracture mechanics
concepts are introduced and used as the basis for understanding fatigue
and fracture in bridge structures. Various applications are cited."
146|"FHWA-RD-78-069"|"Student Workbook- Fracture Mechanics For Bridge
Design"|"R. Roberts, J.M. Barsom, S.T. Rolfe, J.W. Fisher"|"July
1977"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"fracture; fatigue; bridges; bridge safety; bridge
design; bridge failure"|"This workbook is a companion to the volume
FRACTURE MECHANICS FOR BRIDGE DESIGN which provides an introduction to
the elements of fracture mechanics for bridge design. Fracture mechanics
are introduced and used as the basis for understanding fatigue and
fracture in bridge structures. Various applications are cited."
147|"FHWA-RD-79-061"|"Cut-and Cover Tunneling, Executive Summary, Final
Report"|"G.E. Wickham, H.R. Tiedemann"|"December 1979"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cut-
and-cover tunneling; open trench construction; ground support"|"The
purpose of the research study was to develop a method for evaluating
alternate cut-and-cover tunneling construction systems. This brief report
summarizes the evaluation method, which is given in detail in Volume 2 of
the final report. The main parts of the final report, entitled Cut-and-
Cover Tunneling, are as follows: Volume 1, Construction Methods, Design,
and Activity Variations (FHWA-RD-76-28), Volume 2, Cost Analysis and
Systems Evaluations (FHWA-RD-76-29), Volume 3 Summary Cost Analyses
(FHWA-RD-76-30), Supplemental Volume, Construction Cost Data, Four Basic
Estimates (FHWA-RD-76-139)"
148|"FHWA-RD-79-103"|"Scour Around Bridge Piers"|"G.R. Hopkins, R.W.
Vance, B. Kasraie"|"February 1980"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pier scour; scour
formulas; scour instrumentation; scour field data collection; scour;
hydraulics"|"Available theories and prediction formulas on scour at
bridge waterways are reviewed. Formulas that offer potential for
prediction of scour around bridge piers are compared by reducing each
formula to a non-dimensional form that includes Froude Number, the ration
of scour depth to pier width, and the ratio of stage to pier width. A
field study to gather data on scour and related variables is described.
The study is aimed at collecting field data in order to furnish a basis
on which to compare scour prediction formulas. An automatic
instrumentation system that measures scour depth at three points around a
bridge pier as well as river stage is used in this study. The system is
based on a depth measuring fathometer. Also, a mobile scour measuring
system is discussed. This discussion includes the design of a prototype
and field trials. The test protocol and study philosophy are discussed.
Data gathered from the field sites are presented and compared to values
predicted from scour formulas. Recommendations are made on ways to
improved the scour research effort. These included improved
instrumentation systems, additional field studies, laboratory studies and
computer program development."
149|"FHWA-RD-79-104"|"Scour Around Circular Bridge Piers at High Froude
Numbers"|"Subhash C. Jain, Edward E. Fischer"|"April
1979"|"1"|"FHWA"|"scouring; bridge piers; sediment; hydraulics"|"The
results of laboratory experiments on scour around circular piers in
cohesionless bed material at high Froude numbers, F, up to 1.5 are
presented. The scour depths in sediment transport regime (F>Fc) first
slightly decreases and then increases with the increase in the Froude
number. A formula to predict the scour depth at Froude numbers (F-Fc)
greater then or equal to 0.15, is developed. The limitations of some of
the existing predictors of local scour are discussed, and a new formula
to predict the maximum clearwater scour is proposed."
150|"FHWA-RD-79-105"|"Scour at Bridge Piers - Field Data from Louisiana
Files"|"Fred F.M. Chang"|"January 1980"|"1"|"FHWA"|"scour; bridge;
hydraulics; pier scour; field scour data"|"Data from a total of 17
occurrences of scour at seven bridge sites in Louisiana were collected,
covering the following ranges: Pier width, 3.4 - 10.4 m; flow depth, 1.7
- 19.5 m; flow velocity, 0.46 - 1.8 m/s; Froude number, 0.067 - 0.189;
scour depth, 3.4 - 10.4 m, and bed material median diameter, 0.008 - 0.06
mm. An analysis of the relative scour depth with respect to relative
flow depth for flows with Froude numbers about 0.1 shows that the scour
depth increases rapidly with an increase in flow depth when the relative
flow depth is less than 0.5. The rate of increase then slows down to
approach a constant value of 0.8 maximum as the relative flow depth
approaches 1.3 and may tend to decrease very slightly as the relative
flow depth increases further. For the data where the Froude numbers were
about 0.1, Shen's formula II (2) yields the best agreement. Three of the
other popular formulas - Laursen's, Shen's formula I and Neill's
approximation of Laursen's design curve - tend to overpredict the scour,
and three formulas - Ingles-Poona's, Ahmad's and Chitale's - tend to
underpredict the scour for these low Froude numbers."
151|"FHWA-RD-80/021"|"Evaluation of Test Methods and Use Criteria For
Geotechnical Fabrics in Highway Applications"|"J.R. Bell, R.G. Hicks, et.
al."|"June 1980"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"fabrics; drainage; reinforcement;
subgrade stabilization; erosion control"|"This report presents results
achieved during the first year's effort to develop test methods and use
criteria for fabrics in drainage, erosion control and soil reinforcement
applications. The report does not treat fabrics for use in asphalt
pavement reinforcement."
152|"FHWA-RD-80/047"|"Slurry Walls as an Integral Part of Underground
Transportation Structures"|"M. Chi, B. Dennis, M. Basci"|"November
1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"slurry walls; cut and cover tunneling"|"The preliminary
objective of this study was to determine the advantages of using slurry
walls as a permanent part of underground transportation structures. This
report presents a summary of advantages, disadvantages, and design
problems most often encountered with slurry walls. Design alternatives
and solutions to common problems were developed. Parametric studies
allow easy comparison of various design approaches for underground
transportation structures."
153|"FHWA-RD-80/195"|"Earthquake Engineering of Large Underground
Structures, Final Report"|"G. Norman Owen, Roger E. Scholl"|"January
1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"earthquake engineering; underground structures;
earthquake effects; seismic response; submerged tunnels; tunnels in soil;
tunnels in rock; seismic design"|"This study identifies and evaluates the
current state of the art of earthquake engineering of transportation
tunnels and other large undergound structures."
154|"FHWA-RD-81/002"|"Field Study of Pile Group Action"|"M. W. O'Neill,
R. A. Hawkins, L.J. Mahar"|"March 1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"piles; clay soils;
pile groups; computer model; pile driving"|"This report is the final
report for a study involving the static vertical load testing of a full
scale, instrumented pile group. The test group consisted of nine pipe
piles instrumented for settlement , load transfer, pore pressures, total
pressures and inclination. Two similarly instrumented reference
(control) piles were also installed. Two smaller subgroups within the
main group were also tested, and uplift tests were conducted on several
of the individual piles. The soils at the test site consisted of clays
that were overconsolidated by desiccation. It was determined that the
efficiency of the maingroup and of the subgroups was essentially unity.
Settlement ratios in the working load range were found to vary from about
1.2 to about 1.7 depending on the number of piles that were loaded.
Failure was observed to be plunging of the individual piles. Unit side
load transfer varied essentially linearly with depth. Some dependence of
load transfer patterns on residual stresses that remained after driving
the piles was observed. The measured behavior of the group and subgroups
was modeled by the ""hybrid"" algorithm, by means of Program PILGP1,
which was developed for this study and documented in Appendices A and B.
Good agreement between computed and measured results were achieved when
the unit load transfer curves from the reference piles were used and when
the soil modulus of deformation was appropriately adjusted to account for
pile reinforcement of the soil and the presence of very small strains in
the mass of soil around the group. A description of the mathematical
model, the rationale for its selection and a prior analysis of group
behavior is presented in FHWA/RD-81/001. An analysis of dynamic
measurements taken during driving the 11 test piles is in FHWA/RD-81/009.
Analyses and data obtained during the conduct of this study are in
Appendixes A-F, FHWA/RD-81/003-008"
155|"FHWA-RD-81/003"|"Field Study of Pile Group Action (Appendix
A)"|"H.B. Ha, M. W. O'Neill"|"March 1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"piles; clay soils;
pile groups; computer model; pile driving"|"This report is the final
report for a study involving the static vertical load testing of a full
scale, instrumented pile group. The test group consisted of nine pipe
piles instrumented for settlement , load transfer, pore pressures, total
pressures and inclination. Two similarly instrumented reference
(control) piles were also installed. Two smaller subgroups within the
main group were also tested, and uplift tests were conducted on several
of the individual piles. The soils at the test site consisted of clays
that were overconsolidated by desiccation. It was determined that the
efficiency of the maingroup and of the subgroups was essentially unity.
Settlement ratios in the working load range were found to vary from about
1.2 to about 1.7 depending on the number of piles that were loaded.
Failure was observed to be plunging of the individual piles. Unit side
load transfer varied essentially linearly with depth. Some dependence of
load transfer patterns on residual stresses that remained after driving
the piles was observed. The measured behavior of the group and subgroups
was modeled by the ""hybrid"" algorithm, by means of Program PILGP1,
which was developed for this study and documented in Appendices A and B.
Good agreement between computed and measured results were achieved when
the unit load transfer curves from the reference piles were used and when
the soil modulus of deformation was appropriately adjusted to account for
pile reinforcement of the soil and the presence of very small strains in
the mass of soil around the group."
156|"FHWA-RD-81/004"|"Field Study of Pile Group Action (Appendix
B)"|"H.B. Ha, M.W. O'Neill"|"March 1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"piles; clay soils;
pile groups; computer model; pile driving"|"This report is the final
report for a study involving the static vertical load testing of a full
scale, instrumented pile group. The test group consisted of nine pipe
piles instrumented for settlement , load transfer, pore pressures, total
pressures and inclination. Two similarly instrumented reference
(control) piles were also installed. Two smaller subgroups within the
main group were also tested, and uplift tests were conducted on several
of the individual piles. The soils at the test site consisted of clays
that were overconsolidated by desiccation. It was determined that the
efficiency of the maingroup and of the subgroups was essentially unity.
Settlement ratios in the working load range were found to vary from about
1.2 to about 1.7 depending on the number of piles that were loaded.
Failure was observed to be plunging of the individual piles. Unit side
load transfer varied essentially linearly with depth. Some dependence of
load transfer patterns on residual stresses that remained after driving
the piles was observed. The measured behavior of the group and subgroups
was modeled by the ""hybrid"" algorithm, by means of Program PILGP1,
which was developed for this study and documented in Appendices A and B.
Good agreement between computed and measured results were achieved when
the unit load transfer curves from the reference piles were used and when
the soil modulus of deformation was appropriately adjusted to account for
pile reinforcement of the soil and the presence of very small strains in
the mass of soil around the group."
157|"FHWA-RD-81/009"|"Dynamic Pile Driving Measurements for University of
Houston Pile Group Study"|"A.R. Dover, G. E. Locke, J.M.E.
Audibert"|"March 1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bearing capacity; clays; dynamics;
field tests; pile driving; strain gages; soil mechanics;
stresses"|"Dynamic measurements of strain and acceleration were made
during pile driving operations on 11 piles using transducers attached
near the top of the pile. The objective of the program was to collect
pile driving data that could be utilized to assess hammer-pile-soil
performance and interaction. Vertical load tests were conducted on a
separate program on both a 9-pile group and two single piles as part of
the overall FHWA research effort. All piles were vertical, closed-ended
steel pipe piles. The general soil conditions at the site were
characteristically stiff to hard clays."
158|"FHWA-RD-81/073"|"Groundwater Control In Tunneling Vol. 1 -
Groundwater Control Systems for Urban Tunneling"|"J.D. Guertin, W.H.
McTigue"|"April 1982"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"groundwater control; dewatering;
transportation tunnels; tunnel construction"|"This volume is a summary of
current practice on groundwater control systems used during construction
of both cut-and-cover and bored tunnels in urban areas. Eight (8)
groundwater control methods are discussed including dewatering, recharge,
cutoff walls and trenches, grouting, freezing, compressed air, slurry and
earth pressure balance shields and electro-osmosis. Method selection
procedures, contractual and risk considerations and cost factors are also
discussed."
159|"FHWA-RD-81/074"|"Groundwater Control In Tunneling Vol. 2 -
Preventing Groundwater Intrusion into Completed Transportation
Tunnels"|"H.R. Tiedemann, J. Graver"|"April
1982"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"groundwater control; dewatering; transportation
tunnels; tunnel construction"|"This is the second volume of a three-
volume report. This Volume 2 describes various groundwater control
methods for keeping tunnels dry during the life of the structure. The
methods discussed include means employed to provide impervious structural
concrete, types of waterproofing membranes, methods used to seal
segmented tunnel linings, grouting of soils and rock, and sealing sunken
tube tunnels. Problems resulting from inadequate methods or failure of
control measures are discussed as well as maintenance programs to
maintain the integrity of various groundwater control systems. Volume 1
of this report describes the state-of-the-art of groundwater control
methods employed during the construction of transportation tunnels. It
also describes problems associated with inadequate groundwater control
during the construction stage, and methods employed in geohydrological
investigations and evaluation. Legal and contractual conditions are also
discussed. Volume 1 is Report No. FHWA/RD-81/073. Volume 3 contains
guidelines for implementing groundwater control methods under varying
site conditions, including compatibility of temporary and permanent
measures. Recommendations for improvement of traditional and innovative
control measures are also contained herein. Volume 3 is Report No.
FHWA/RD-81/075."
160|"FHWA-RD-81/075"|"Groundwater Control In Tunneling Vol. 3 -
Recommended Practice"|"J.D. Guertin, W.H. McTigue"|"April
1982"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"groundwater control; dewatering; transportation
tunnels; tunnel construction"|"This volume summarizes Volumes 1 and 2 and
presents guidelines for recommended best practice in a concise format.
Design and construction details not included in the more general
descriptive nature of Volumes 1 and 2 are included herein. The final
chapter of this volume is a discussion and recommendations for possible
implementation of innovative methods and for further research."
161|"FHWA-RD-81/076"|"Groundwater Control In Tunneling - Executive
Summary"|"J.D. Guertin, W.H. McTigue, H.R. Tiedmann"|"April
1982"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"groundwater control; dewatering; transportation
tunnels; tunnel construction"|"This Executive Summary briefly describes a
three-volume report on Groundwater Control During Tunneling and in
Completed Tunnels. The three volumes include: Volume 1: Groundwater
Control Systems for Urban Tunneling (FHWA/RD-81/073), Volume 2:
Preventing Groundwater Intrusion Into Completed Transportation Tunnels
(FHWA/RD-81/074), Volume 3: Recommended Practice (FHWA/RD-81/075)"
162|"FHWA-RD-81/081"|"Seismic Design Guidelines for Highway
Bridges"|"Ronald L. Mayes, Roland L. Sharpe"|"October
1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridges; design guidelines; bridge design; disaster
mitigation; earthquakes; engineering"|"This document contains Guidelines
for the seismic design of highway bridges. The Guidelines are the
recommendations of team of nationally recognized experts which included
consulting engineers, academicians, State highway, and Federal agency
representatives from throughout the United States. The Guidelines are
comprehensive in nature and they embody several new concepts which are
significantly departures from existing design provisions. An extensive
commentary documenting the basis for the Guidelines and an example
demonstrating their use are included. A draft of the Guidelines was used
to seismically redesign twenty-one bridges. Significant changes resulted
from the redesigns and are reflected in this report. A summary of the
redesigns is included."
163|"FHWA-RD-81/148"|"An Experimental Study of Bolted Shear
Connections"|"K.H. Frank, J.A. Yura"|"December 1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bolted
connections; creep; fatigue; bearing; fillers; paints; slip
resistance"|"A large experimental program which involved approximately
700 tests were used to develop statistically reliable slip loads for
bolted shear connections with coated contact surfaces. Four different
painting systems were evaluated for use in friction- type connections.
Variables included in the study were paint thickness, size of hole, type
of steel, and magnitude of clamping force. An efficient and reliable
slip test setup was developed to complete the research. Additional creep
and fatigue tests on bolted butt splices were used to evaluate the
suitability of the painting systems for bridges. Some large bolted
connections were tested to evaluate the applicability of the single
fastener slip test to multibolt connections. Ultimate load tests to
determine the effect of undeveloped fillers on bolt shear strength and
the interaction between bolt shearing stress and plate tensile stress are
reported. The test program is used to develop design recommendations for
friction connections for the AASHTO Bridge Specifications with coated
faying surfaces. Vinyl paints were found unsatisfactory for the contact
surface because of creep. Current provisions for undeveloped fillers are
justified but current bearing stresses should be reduced when high
tensile stresses are present."
164|"FHWA-RD-82/011"|"Scour at Culvert Outlets in Mixed Bed
Materials"|"J.F. Ruff, S.R. Abt, C. Mendoza, A. Shaikh, R.
Kloberdanz"|"September 1982"|"1"|"FHWA"|"scour; culvert; localized
erosion"|"The study of localized scour at culvert outlets has been on-
going to control and manage erosion along highway embankments. Herein is
presented an investigation of scour at culvert outlets which refines and
extends the state-of-the-art of predicting the dimensions of scour
holes."
165|"FHWA-RD-82/021"|"Stream Channel Stability Assessment"|"J.C.
Brice"|"January 1982"|"1"|"FHWA"|"streams; channel morphology; channel
erosion; scour; channel patterns; streambed degradation"|"Channel
instability is manifested as lateral bank erosion, progressive
degradation of the streambed, or natural scour and fill of the streambed.
Lateral stability is related to stream type, and four major stream types
having different stability characteristics are distinguished: equiwidth,
wide-bend point bar, braided point-bar, and braided. Measurements of
bank erosion on a study group of 36 streams indicate that equiwidth
streams have the lowest lateral erosion rates and braided point-bar
streams the highest. Also, erosion rates increase with stream size.
Significant degradation of the streambed can usually be detected from
indirect field evidence. The sites of greatest potential scour along a
channel can be identified from channel configuration."
166|"FHWA-RD-82/038"|"Design and Control of Chemical Grouting Volume 3 -
Engineering Practice"|"Wallace Hayward Baker"|"April
1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"chemical grouting; ground modification; soil
improvement; underpinning; excavation support"|"Recent improvement in the
engineering practice of chemical grouting have provided increased
confidence in this method of ground modification. Designers can
significantly improve the success of chemical grouting by defining their
grouting program objectives and focusing on the geotechnical conditions
controlling the process. New developments in analyzing the structural
behavior of grouted soil masses permit numerical performance predictions
prior to construction for more realistic designs and better project
economy. Detailed planning of injection locations, staging of grout
volumes and injection sequencing is required for an effective work
program and facilitates good quality control management. New geophysical
methods are explained for evaluating chemically grouted soils, utilizing
subsurface radar and cross-hole acoustic velocity profiling.
Illustrative case histories and guide specifications are also presented."
167|"FHWA-RD-82/039"|"Design and Control of Chemical Grouting Volume 4 -
Executive Summary"|"Wallace Hayward Baker"|"April
1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"chemical grouting; ground modification; soil
improvement; underpinning; excavation support; monitoring; geophysical
techniques; acoustic emissions"|"This report focuses on the engineering
practice of chemical grouting, summarizing the findings of a study to
improve design and control techniques for chemical grouting in soils.
Improved methods for the planning, control and evaluation of chemical
grouting are now available. These included a better understanding of
injection behavior, grouted materails, electronic process monitoring for
better field performance and improved geophysical testing methods to
measure grouting quality."
168|"FHWA-RD-82/046"|"TIEBACKS, Executive Summary"|"D.E. Weatherby"|"July
1982"|"1"|"FHWA"|"tieback; ground anchors; foundation construction;
creep; corrosion; performace; proof and creep testing;
specification"|"This report contains a summary of recommendations for the
design, specification, corrosion protection, and testing of permanent and
temporary tiebacks. The main report ""TIEBACKS"" is FHWA/RD-82/047."
169|"FHWA-RD-82/063"|"Local Design Storm: Vol. I. Executive
Summary"|"Ben Chie Yen, Ven Te Chow"|"May 1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"design;
*drainage design; highway drainage; *hydrology; *hyetographs; *rainfall;
storm drainage; storm patterns; storms"|"Recently developed improved
methods for highway storm water drainage require information on the
temporal destribution of rainfall (i.e., hyetograph in addition to the
average rain intensity. The traingular design hyetograph method is
developed as a practical method to provide the local storm hyetograph for
design of highway storm drainage facilities. The method is based on the
methods of moments, using and preserving the statistical mean of the
first time moment of rainstorms. The method is proposed as a trade-off
between theoretical sophistication and practical simplicity. A total of
293, 946 rainstorms from the hourly precipitation data of 222 National
Weather Service stations and 5 to 60 minute data of 13 raingage stations
of USDA Agricultural Research service were analyzed to provide the
statistical values of the hytograph parameters for the United States.
Volume I is the executive summary of the project report. It brieftly
describes the background and objectives of the research project, the
methodology and procedure of the first-moment traingular design
hyetograph method, and results of statistical analysis of the rainfall
data."
170|"FHWA-RD-82/065"|"Local Design Storm: Vol. II. User's Manual"|"Bih-
Ling Monica Cheng, Shui-Tuang Cheng"|"May 1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"design;
*drainage design; highway drainage; *hydrology; *hyetographs; *rainfall;
storm drainage; storm patterns; storms"|"Recently developed improved
methods for highway storm water drainage require information on the
temporal destribution of rainfall (i.e., hyetograph in addition to the
average rain intensity. The traingular design hyetograph method is
developed as a practical method to provide the local storm hyetograph for
design of highway storm drainage facilities. The method is based on the
methods of moments, using and preserving the statistical mean of the
first time moment of rainstorms. The method is proposed as a trade-off
between theoretical sophistication and practical simplicity. A total of
293, 946 rainstorms from the hourly precipitation data of 222 National
Weather Service stations and 5 to 60 minute data of 13 raingage stations
of USDA Agricultural Research service were analyzed to provide the
statistical values of the hytograph parameters for the United States. In
this Volume, a user's guide of the procedure to establish the local
design hyetograph is presented. In addition, user's guides and listing
of two computer programs to perform statistical analysis of rainfall
moments for traingular hyetographs and for frequency analysis of rainfall
depth-duration-return period relation are also presented."
171|"FHWA-RD-82/090"|"Prestressed Pavement Joint Designs, Volume
1"|"Peter J. Nussbaum, Shiraz D. Tayabji, Adrian T. Ciolko"|"June
1983"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavements; joints; joint
design; laboratory tests; pavement design; prestress; prestressed
pavement; sealants; steel; warping"|"This report presents four transverse
joint designs for Prestressed Concrete Pavements. Designs I, II, and III
are for an 8-in (203 mm) thick pavement with main slab lengths of 250 ft
(76 m). A tied concrete shoulder is used. Gap slabs are 10 in (250 mm)
thick and are conventionally reinforced. An active joint is provided at
each end of the gap slab. Design calculations are presented in Appendix
A and results of laboratory tests are presented in Appendix B."
172|"FHWA-RD-82/091"|"Prestressed Pavement Thickness Design, Volume
2"|"Shiraz D. Tayabji, Bert E. Colley, Peter J. Nussbaum"|"June
1983"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavements; pavement design;
prestressed pavements; temperature stresses; warping stresses"|"A
computerized procedure for the thickness design of ""zero-maintenance""
prestressed pavements is prestressed. Factors considered in developing
the design procedure include traffic loading, temperature and moisture
variations in concrete slab, loss of subbase support, properties of
concrete , subbase and subgrade, and effective mid-slab prestress. The
procedure is based on flexural stress analysis and prevention of bottom
transverse cracking that may initiate from the longitudinal edge of the
slab in the vincinity of midslab. Input for the computer program include
axle load distribution, wheel placement, traffic distribution during the
day, temperature data, load transfer effectiveness, and effective
prestress at mid-slab. Program output is in terms of total fatigue
consumption at the end of design life. If the fatigue consumption is
less than 100 percent, then the thickness meets design criteria. A
design example is presented for a rural four-lane highway in Illinois."
173|"FHWA-RD-82/092"|"Prestressed Pavement Construction Manual, Volume
3"|"Peter J. Nussbaum, Bengt F. Friberg, Adrian T. Ciolko, Shiraz D.
Tayabji"|"June 1983"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"anchors; bulkheads; concrete;
concrete pavement; construction; joints; prestressed pavement; prestress;
steel; subbase"|"This manual presents information on procedures and
materials for prestressed pavement construction that differ significantly
from those used with conventional pavements. Figures illustrate details
of bulkhead construction, anchorage assemblies, jacking accessories, and
joint hardware placement. The manual may be used to supplement standard
specification for concrete pavement construction."
174|"FHWA-RD-82/113"|"Use of Improved Structural Materials Sytems in
Marine Piling"|"William J. Quinn"|"September
1982"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"marine piling; polymer concrete; polymer
impregnated concrete; internally sealed concrete; latex modified
concrete; prestressed concrete piles"|"This report contains the results
of a study to evaluate the feasibility of manufacturing precast,
prestressed marine piles from polymer concrete, polymer impregnated
concrete, internally sealed concrete and latex modified concrete.
Included in the report are (1) a description of the laboratory work that
preceded the preparation of the specifications, (2) a description of the
manufacturing process and problems with each system, and (3) the initial
results of the short term performance of the various structural
concretes."
175|"FHWA-RD-83/007"|"Seismic Retrofitting Guildlines for Highway
Bridges"|"(NONE)"|"December 1983"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridges; retrofitting
guidelines; bridge retrofitting; disaster mitigation; earthquakes;
engineering"|"This document contains guidelines for the seismic
retrofitting of highway bridges. The guidelines are the recommendations
of a team of nationally recognized experts, which includes consulting
engineers, academicians, state highway engineers, and federal agency
representatives from throughout the United States."
176|"FHWA-RD-83/032"|"Prevention and Control of Highway Tunnel Fires,
Final Report"|"Philip E. Egilsrud"|"May 1984"|"1"|"FHWA"|"highway
tunnels; risk assessment; highway tunnel fires; highway tunnel fire
prevention; highway tunnel fire ventilation; highway tunnel design;
hazardous materials"|"This study investigates steps that can be taken to
reduce the risk, damage, and fatalities from fires in existing and future
highway tunnels and the effect of unrestricted transit of hazardous
materials through them."
177|"FHWA-RD-83/038"|"Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups In Cohesionless
Soils"|"J. -L Briaud, L. Tucker, R.L. Lytton, H.M. Coyle"|"July
1985"|"1"|"FHWA"|"piles; driven; sand; residual stresses; deep
foundations; ultimate capacity; wave equation; standard penetration test;
pressuremeter; cone penetrometer"|"In order to gain a better
understanding of the behavior of piles in sand, an extensive search of
the literature has been performed to collect data on instrumented piles
driven in sand and tested under vertical loads. The load transfer
characteristics of the piles were then analyzed without considering
residual stresses. Wherever the data allowed it, the load transfer
analysis was repeated after considering residual stresses. The results
of this analysis were correlated with the available soil data to obtain a
predictive method which considers residual driving stresses. The results
of this method as well as conventional and new in site tests methods were
then compared to actual load test results. Areas of critical need for
further research are pointed out and recommendations are made for their
implemenation."
178|"FHWA-RD-83/059"|"Allowable Stresses in Piles"|"M.T. Davisson, F.S.
Manuel, R. M. Armstrong"|"December 1983"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"steel;
concrete; timber piles; allowable stresses; pile design; highway bridge
foundations"|"This study presents methods for establishing allowable
stresses in steel, concrete, and timber piles using load/resistance
factor concepts. These methods take into account not only the material
properties of the pile itself but also the individual effects of long
term loads, driving stresses and drivability, imperfections in form or
material and various environmental conditions which tend to reduce pile
capacity. Using the results of the study, changes in Section 4, Division
1 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, are
proposed. The study is limited to the design of the pile as a structural
member."
179|"FHWA-RD-83/061"|"Evaluation and Improvement of Existing Bridge
Foundations"|"Francisco S. Manuel"|"February 1984"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridges;
substructures; foundations; repair; rehabilitation; nondestructive
testing; inspection; underpinning"|"Studies were conducted to develop
recommended guidelines for: (1) techniques for evaluating, and (2) design
guides and construction methods for improving existing bridge
substructures for replacement or rehabilitated bridges. Part I of the
report deals with deterioration of bridge substructures, effects of
loading and unloading on the foundations, time effects on soil
properties, and bearing capacity and settlement of foundations. Part II
deals with current methods of inspection, substructure analysis, new
methods for evaluating soundness and bearing capacity of foundations, and
instrumenting foundations for future performance. Repair methods and
techniques to increase the capacity of exisiting foundations by
strengthening the foundation and/or soil and methods for reducing loads
on the substructure are covered in Part III. Case histories of bridge
substructures, and recommendations for research in the subject area
comprise Part IV of the report."
180|"FHWA-RD-83/105"|"Corrosion Susceptibility of Internally Reinforced
Soil Retaining Structures"|"S. Frondistou-Yannas"|"January
1985"|"1"|"FHWA"|"retaining walls, reinforced earth structures;
corrosion; soil reinforced systems"|"The current state of knowledge in
the area of metal corrosion in reinforced soil retaining walls has been
assessed. It was found that data is missing in several areas including
the performance of the metal reinforcement in a highly alkaline
environment as well as in the presence of high chloride concentrations.
Moreover, no quantitative information was found on the effect of
climatological conditions. In order to determine whether there are any
corrosion problems in completed Reinforced Earth walls, four such walls
were selected for study. All four walls are in relatively severe
environments. It was determined that two of the above walls may have
corrosion problems which could reduce their design life. It is
recommended that further field studies by undertaken in order to assess
the magnitude of the problems. It is further recommended that research
be conducted to determine the safe limits of the reinforced earth
concept."
181|"FHWA-RD-84/029"|"Bridge Formula Application Vol. I"|"M.
Chi"|"November 1984"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridge gross weight formula; bridge
formula; truck weight; bridge loading"|"A study was conducted to review
and evaluate the current practices and methods used at weigh stations in
the United States with special emphasis on identifying problems and
proposing remedies in the Bridge Formula application. Volume I reports,
in detail, the methods and the equipment used at weigh stations in
various States. A systematic analysis of the Bridge Formula is
presented, containing analytical basis for simplifications that are
possible and methods of implementing them. Volume II provides an easy-
to-follow procedure manual for the application of the proposed
streamlined formula with ample illustrative examples. Through the
simplification explained in the manual, tedious and repeated numerical
calculations and weighing procedures are either eliminated or
significantly reduced. The use of a hand-held computer for the
implementation of the Bridge Formula is also discussed and a program
written for adaptation in the field."
182|"FHWA-RD-84/030"|"Procedure Manual for Bridge Formula
Application"|"M. Chi"|"Novembr 1984"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridge gross weight
formula; bridge formula; truck weight; bridge loading"|"A study was
conducted to review and evaluate the current practices and methods used
at weigh stations in the United States with special emphasis on
identifying problems and proposing remedies in the Bridge Formula
application. Volume I reports, in detail, the methods and the equipment
used at weigh stations in various States. A systematic analysis of the
Bridge Formula is presented, containing analytical basis for
simplifications that are possible and methods of implementing them.
Volume II provides an easy-to-follow procedure manual for the application
of the proposed streamlined formula with ample illustrative examples.
Through the simplification explained in the manual, tedious and repeated
numerical calculations and wwighing procedures are either eliminated or
significantly reduced. The use of a hand-held computer for the
implementation of the Bridge Formula is also discussed and a program
written for adaptation in the field."
183|"FHWA-RD-84/064"|"Effects of Highway Runoff on Receiving Waters -
Vol. III. Resource Document for Environmental Assessments"|"T.V.
Dupuis, N.P. Kobriger, W.K. Kreutzberger, V. Trippi"|"March
1985"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"highway runoff; water pollution; environment;
water quality; biological impacts; metals; hydrocarbons; road salts;
sediments"|"This resource document is intended to serve as a user tool to
supplement the Procedural Guidelines Manual (Volume IV). State highway
agencies can use these resources to more comprehensively address the
effects of stormwater runoff in environmental documents (i.e., EIS's and
EA's). This document provides a critical summary and review of the
technical literature on hydrological, water quality, sediment, and
biological impacts of runoff from operating highways. Major pollutant
categories include oxygen - consuming materials, nutrients, bacteria,
road salt, petroleum hydrocarbons, and metals."
184|"FHWA-RD-84/065"|"Effects of Highway Runoff on Receiving Waters -
Vol. IV. Procedural Guidelines for Environmental Assessments"|"T.V.
Dupuis, N.P. Kobriger"|"July 1985"|"1"|"FHWA"|"highway runoff; water
pollution; environment; water quality; environmental assessments;
mitigation practices"|"This guidelines manual is intended to provide the
highway engineer and/or agency responsible for preparation of
environmental assessments with the necessary procedures to evaluate
potential impact from stormwater runoff from operating highways.
Included are descriptions of institutional factors such as water uses,
standards, and other regulations pertaining to nonpoint source programs;
and technical considerations such as effects of highway type and
documented or potential impacts (including information from Vols. II and
III below). Mitigation strategies are also described for those cases
where they are required or advisable."
185|"FHWA-RD-84/066"|"Effects of Highway Runoff on Receiving Waters -
Vol. V. Guidelines for Conducting Field Studies"|"T.V. Dupuis, W.K.
Kreutzberger, J. Kaster, T. Harris"|"March 1985"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"highway
runoff; water pollution; environment; water quality; benethic
invertebrates; runoff; sediments; macrophytes"|"Guidelines for conducting
comprehensive field monitoring programs are provided in this volume.
Included are detailed descriptions of site selection, planning aspects,
station location, equipment installation and maintenance, sampling
methodology, physical/chemical analytical methods, data analyses and
glossary. All aspects of field practices are covered for surface water
impact evaluation including hydrologic, chemical, sediment and biological
components."
186|"FHWA-RD-84/099"|"Streambank Stabilization Measures for Highway
Stream Crossings - Executive Summary"|"Scott A. Brown"|"July
1985"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"streambank erosion; river training; streambank
stabilization; flow control; bank protection; revetments; retardance;
structures; spurs; groins; jetties"|"A summary of two reports resulting
from a review of the applicability and usefulness of countermeasures used
to stabilize eroding streambanks in the vicinity of roadways and at
bridge crossing is given. The first report discuesses erosion processes
in channel bends and methods of controlling this erosion, identifies
useful flow control and streambank stabilization structures, and provides
guidelines for selection of an appropriate flow control or streambank
stabilization countermeasure for a particular field design condition.
Some design information for specific countermeasure types is also
included. The second report looks in detail at the applicability and
design of spur-type-flow control and streambank stabilization structures.
The report alerts engineers to the utility of spurs, including economic
and other advantages, and provides a treatment of the effectivenesss and
limitations of spur-type structuring. Design guidelines for these spur-
type structures are developed based on field and laboratory experience."
187|"FHWA-RD-84/100"|"Streambank Stabilization Measures for Highway
Engineers"|"Scott A. Brown"|"July 1985"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"streambank
erosion; revetments; river training; retardance structures; streambank
stabilization; spurs; bank protection; longitudinal dikes; flow control;
bulkheads"|"A study of erosion process in channel bends and methods of
controlling channelbank erosion in bends is reported on. Flow and
erosion processes in channel bends are categorized and discussed to aid
in identifying the erosion mechanisms and processed active at the
particular site. Knowledge of the active erosion processes is important
to the selection of an appropriate streambank stabilization measure, as
well as to considerations in the final design of the structure. Flow
control and streambank stabilization structures are also identified and
classified. The categories of streambank stabilization structures
reported on include spurs, revetments, retardance structures,
longitudinal dikes, and bulkheads. Numerous individual countermasure
types are identified within each of these countermeasure groups. The
applicability of countermeasure groups and individual countermeasure
types are reviewed in terms of the countermeasures function or purpose,
erosion mechanisms countered, river characteristics, geomorphic and other
impacts of the erosion control system, vandalism and maintenance
considerations, construction related considerations, and costs. This
review provides guidelines for the selection of an individual
countermeasure for a particular site. Some design information for
individual countermeasure types is also included. This report is based
on a thorough literature search, extensive review and evaluation of field
installations, and numerous personal contacts with design engineers."
188|"FHWA-RD-84/101"|"Design of Spur-Type Streambank Stabilization
Structures"|"Scott A. Brown"|"July 1985"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"river training;
streambank stabilization; spurs; groins; jetties"|"A study of the
applicability and design and spur-type flow-control and streambank
stabilization structures has been conducted to establish design
guidelines and other criteria for the use of spurs. The recommendations
and findings are based on a thorough review of pertinent literatures,
analysis of several hundred field sites, and on a recent laboratory study
condcuted by the Federal Highway Administration. Recommendations for the
general application of spur-type structures are given in relation to
function of the spur, the erosion mechanisms that are countered by spurs,
the environmental conditions best suited for the use of spurs, and
potential negative impacts produced by spurs. An introduction to the
most common types of spurs is given, along with discussions of the
factors most important to the design of specific spur types. Design
guidelines for establishing spur permeability, the required extent of
protection, spur length, spur spacing, spur orientation, spur height,
spur crest profile, and the shape of the spur tip or head are presented.
An example outlining a recommended procedure for establishing the
geometric layout of spurs within a spur scheme is recommended."
189|"FHWA-RD-84/501"|"Methods of Effective Transfer and Implementation of
Highway Maintenance Technology"|"Robert P. Schmitt, Edward A. Seimborn,
Mary J. Mulroy"|"July 1984"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"technology transfer;
information transfer; circuit riders; highway maintenance"|"This report
describes a study funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
that examined the process of technilogy transfer in highway maintenance.
The study, conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Extensions and
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, had as its major focus the analysis of
effective methods for the transder of highway maintenance information and
technolog. Included is an analysis of selected models of technology
transder, a description of current efforts of FHWA, an analysis of the
following specific techniques: circuit riders, conference/short courses,
slide-tapes, state-of-the-art reports, technical notices, trade
publications and changeable add-on notembooks. The report recommends:
(1) technology transfer efforts, where possible, should be carried out by
full-time specialists who emphasize face-to-face communication and local
feedback; (2) that a training program should be developed for technology
transfer specialists who work with state and local officials on highway
related problems; (3) that there be a mechanism developed to improved the
quality and user utility of written materials, as well as an effort to
control the amount of information which is disseminated to local
agencies; (4) that FHWA should try to get involved with local user
networks llike professional or trade associations in order to foster
increased peer-to-peer communication; (5) that the market for maintenance
information should be viewed on a segmented basis; and (6) that research
use should be viewed as an essential component of all stages of the
research process."
190|"FHWA-RD-85/106"|"Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups Under Lateral
Load"|"L.C. Reese"|"March 1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"piles; lateral loading;
analysis; design soil response p-y curves; deflection; bending; group
effects; static loading; cyclic loading; difference-equation methods;
nondimensional curves"|"Several methods of analysis and design of piles
under lateral loadings are in use. Presumptive values that suggest
allowable loads, but very conservative ones, are included in some manuals
of practice. Batter piles may be employed with an assumption, not
entirely correct, that no lateral load is taken by vertical piles.
Several rational methods, in which the equations of mechanics are
satisfied, have been proposed. The methods of Broms of Poulos and his
coworkers are reviewed.   The rational method utilizes different
equations to solve the governing differential equation along with the use
of nonlinear curves to describe the soil response. Curves showing soil
resistance p as a function of pile deflection y have been recommended for
several types of soil and pile loading. Case studies are presented where
results from analysis are compared with those from experiment. Design
recommendations are maede and needed research is outlined."
191|"FHWA-RD-85/107"|"Tolerable Movement Criteria for Highway
Bridges"|"Lyle K. Moulton, Hota V.S. GangaRao, and Grant T.
Halvorsen"|"October 1985"|"1"|"FHWA"|"abutements; bridges; deformations;
design; foundations; piers; settlement; structural damage; tolerable
movements"|"This investigation included (a) a state-of-the-art assessment
of tolerable bridge movements based on a literature review, an appraisal
of existing design specifications and practice, the collection and
analysis of field data on foundation movements, structural damage and the
tolerance to movements for a large number of bridges (314) in the United
States and Canada, and an appraisal of the reliability of the methods
currently used for settlement prediction; (b) a series of analytical
studies to evaluate the effect of different magnitudes and rates of
differential movement on the potential level of distress produced in a
wide variety of steel and concrete bridge structures of different span
lengths and stiffnesses; and (c) the development of a methodology for
the design of bridges and their foundations that embodies a rational set
of criteria for tolerable bridge movements."
192|"FHWA-RD-86/110"|"Cost-Effective Bridge Maintenance Strategies,
Volume II: Guidelines and Recommendations"|"J.M. Kruegler, G.M. Briggs,
C.C. McMullen, G.A. Earnhart"|"June 1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridge maintenance;
strategies; prioritization; inspection; costing and service life"|"This
document provides guidelines and recommendations on developing a
systematic approach for managers of bridge maintenance. It also includes
a summary synthesis on the state of the practice of bridge maintenance
programs in the United States. The elements of cost-effective strategies
for bridge maintenance are defined as: the identification of needs, the
selection of strategies, the prioritization of strategies and the
implementation of the maintenance program."
193|"FHWA-RD-86/161"|"Improving the Dynamic Performace of Multitrailer
Vehicles: A Study of Innovative Dollies - Volume I, Technical
Report"|"C.B. Winkler, P.S. Fancher, O. Carsten, A. Mathew,
P.Dill"|"December 1987"|"1"|"FHWA"|"innovative dollies; doubles; roll
stability; rearward amplification; trailing fidelity; B-dollies"|"This
study of the dynamic performance of multitrailer articulated vehicles has
led to the development of guidelines for the design of innovative dollies
that will improve the roll stability and trailing fidelity of doubles
combinations. The major effort of this project involved identification,
analysis, and further development of innovative dolly and trailer
hitching hardware showing potential for the reduction of rearward
amplification and prevention of rollover of the second trailer."
194|"FHWA-RD-86/185"|"Spread Footings for Highway Bridges"|"D.G. Gifford,
S.R. Kraemer, J.R. Wheeler, A.F. McKown"|"October
1987"|"1"|"FHWA"|"settlement; spread footing foundations; risk analysis;
bearing capacity of rock; geotechnical instrumentation"|"A long-term
study of the settlement performance of 21 bridge foundations supported on
cohesionless soil--sand or sit-- was completed to provide a reliable data
base for engineering evaluation. The observations documented the
successful performance of the foundations where total average settlement
of 0.75 in was recorded while an average of only 0.25 in of settlement
was noted after construction of the bridge decks. Geotechnical
engineering methods for prediction of settlement of foundations on sand
were evaluated with five methods compared in detail to observed data.
Recommendations for design are provided. Geotechnical instrumentation
monitoring systems for observation of settlement and tilt and related
parameters are described along with preparation of a computerized data
base for data storage and retrieval. Design recommendations for
foundations on rock as well as risk-based design concepts are presented."
195|"FHWA-RD-87/020"|"Fracture Toughness and Weldability Tests for
Submerged-Arc-Welded Joints"|"P.J. Konkol, A.K. Shoemaker, S.T. Rolfe,
E.J. Imhof, and D.E. Sonon"|"October 1987"|"1"|"FHWA"|"weldment;
cracking; A514; A588; fracture toughness; constructional steels"|"A
literature review and laboratory studies were conducted to 1) select an
optimum test for assessing the susceptibility of structural steel to
weld-metal and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) cracking, 2) determine the
optimum test and test procedures for measuring the fracture toughness of
weldments, and 3) determine the optimum welding conditions for minimizing
cracking and maximizing fracture toughness of the weld metal and HAZ in
A514 and A588 bridge steels."
196|"FHWA-RD-87/056"|"Retention, Detention and Overland Flow for
Pollutant Removal from Highway Stormwater Runoff: Interim Guidelines for
Management Measures"|"M.E. Dorman, J. Hartigan, F. Johnson, B.
Maestri"|"March 1988"|"1"|"FHWA"|"best management practices; wetlands;
pollution mitigation; detention; highway runoff; retention; vegetative
controls; overland flow; grassed channels; infiltration"|"This report
provides interim guidelines for the design of management measures for the
removal of pollutants from highway stormwater runoff. Three general
types of management measures have been determined, through previous FHWA
studies, to be effective in treating highway runoff: vegetative controls
(overland flow and grassed channels), detention basins (wet detention
basins and wetlands), and retention measures (retention basins, trenches
and wells). These interim design guidelines have been developed based on
experience of the project team and by a thorough review of available
literature. Field and laboratory studies are currently underway to
verify the design procedures and assumptions presented in this report."
197|"FHWA-RD-87/059"|"Variable Amplitude Load Fatigue Task A - Literature
Review Volume I - Traffic Loading and Bridge Response"|"Charles B.
Schilling"|"July 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"fatigue; highway bridges; traffic;
loading; growth; trucks; field data; weigh-in-motion; impact; lateral
distribution; design; evaluation; testing; stress spectra; steel"|"This
volumes describes (a) traffic loadings that affect fatigue behavior, (b)
the response of bridge to such loadings, (c) fatigue design and
evaluation procedures, and (d) stress spectra for testing. The volume
includes extensive field data on traffic loadings and bridge responses."
198|"FHWA-RD-87/060"|"Variable Amplitude Load Fatigue Task A - Literature
Review Volume II - Constant Amplitude Fatigue Behavior"|"K.H.
Klippstein, P.A. Romito"|"July 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"fatigue; highway
bridges; specifications; test data; constant amplitude; steel"|"This
volume discusses constant amplituge fatigue behavior related to highway
bridges. It describes the development of the present AASHTO fatigue
provisions and presents graphs summarizing the fatigue data on which they
are based."
199|"FHWA-RD-87/061"|"Variable Amplitude Load Fatigue Task A - Literature
Review Volume III - Variable Amplitude Fatigue Behavior"|"P. Albrecht,
C.G. Rubeiz"|"April 1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"fatigue; highway bridges;
variable amplitude; steel; design; testing; specifications"|"This volume
(a) review present fatigue design methods, (b) summarizes variable
amplitude fatigue data, and (c) discusses the major parameters
influencing variable amplitude fatigue behavior."
200|"FHWA-RD-87/090"|"Automated Imaging System fo Bridge
Inspection"|"Joseph W. Brophy"|"March 1988"|"1"|"FHWA"|"ultrasonic; test;
imaging; holography; quality assurance; welds; defects; nondestructive
evaluation; NDE"|"This report describes the design, operation, and
capabilities of the ultrasonic imaging system developed for FHWA. The
system uses computerized data acquisition and a lightweight scanner to
obtain color-coded images of defects in metal bridge components. Several
types of images are obtained, including holographic reconstruction of
defects. Defect size, location, and type can be obtained from the
images. This volume is the second in the series. The first volume is:
Executive Summary, Report No. FHWA/RD-87/089. (This report will not be
formally published, but will be available from the the National Technical
Information Service only)."
201|"FHWA-RD-87-095"|"Relationship of Consolidation to Performace of
Concrete Pavements"|"D.A. Whiting, S.D. Tayabji"|"February
1988"|"1"|"FHWA"|"acceptance tests; bond; compressive strength;
concretes; consolidation; freeze-thaw durability; nuclear density gauges;
permeability; quality control; specifications"|"A study was made of the
influence of consolidation on properties of portland cement concrete.
Consolidation was found to have a strong influence on compressive
strenght, bond of concrete to reinforcing steel, and permeability of
concrete. There is a lesser effect of consolidation on resistance to
freezing and thawing. There is a loss of about 30 percent in compressive
strength for every 5-percent decrease in consolidation.    A variety of
nuclear density guages were evaluated for use in monitoring consolidation
of concrete. Use of these gauges has remained fairly constant, at
relatively low levels, since 1977. A combindation of techniques, such as
consolidation monitoring device (CMD) and commerical direct transmission
guages, show promise as a means of monitoring consolidation during the
paving process. A model acceptance sampling plan for concrete
consolidation is proposed. The plan is of the inspection by variable
type and requires a sample size of eight per lot. The plan provides for
buyer's and seller's risks of 5 percent. The plan was field tested in
Idaho and Iowa. Field testing indicated that monitoring concrete
pavement consolidation is practical and economically feasible."
202|"FHWA-RD-88-055"|"Trends in Highway Information"|"Z.A. Sabra, E.C.
Noel, B.V. Chatfield, R.W. Eck"|"July 1988"|"1"|"FHWA"|"accident records
systems; unreported accidents; accident countermeasures; measures of
effectiveness; high-accident locations; surrogate measures; highway
safety analysis; traffic data; highway inventory"|"This report evaluates
the quantity, quality and availability of traffic accident and other
safety-related data and their effects on the ability of Federal, State,
and local governments to successfully perform highway safety missions.
Practices in the collection, processing, and use of accident, traffic,
and roadway inventory data in a sample of States and local jurisdictions
are reviewed in terms of their impact on highway safety planning,
implementation, and evaluation. The study notes, the increasing use of
microcomputers, the increased amount and quality of traffic volume and
roadway inventory data, and the integration of traffic, roadway, and
accident databases. Other findings include reduced reporting of
property-damage-only accidents, increased numbers of tort liability
claims, insufficient local data in State files, level of police training
and interagency coordination, deficient local traffic and roadway
inventories, and errors in the use of highway location reference systems.
The study contains recommendations for accommodating and/or reversing
some of these practices."
203|"FHWA-RD-88-069"|"Pavement Friction Measurement Normalized for
Operational, Season, and Weather Effects"|"J.C. Wambold, J.J. Henry, C.E.
Antle, B.T. Kulakowski, W.E. Meyer, A.J. Stocker, J.W. Button, D.A.
Anderson"|"June 1989"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"skid resistance; skid number;
macrotexture; microtexture; normalization"|"This report describes the
validation of models previously developed to normalize pavement friction
measurements to standard environmental and operational conditions. In
addition, recommendations are reported to improve the techniques and
quipment for pavement friction measurement. Two models were examined for
normalization of weather-related and seasonal variation of pavement
friction. Their performance was found to be comparable, but the
generalized prediction model is more readily appllied than the
mechanistic model, which requires knowledge of the percent normalized
gradient of the pavements to be adjusted. The suggested procedure for
normalization requires that three pavements of each class in a
homogenuous climted be tested once per month during the testing season.
The data then can be used to develop the coefficients in the models to
adjust single measurements of all other pavements to standard conditions.
Two recommendations are made for improving pavement friction measurement
equipment and techniques. The first suggests the use of current
equipment with both smoothtreaded and ribbed standard test tires. The
second requires modification to the equipment but provides for simpler
instrumentation in that it is possible to eliminate the force transducer.
This sytem uses the acceleration of the test tire during the spinup after
being locked as the indication of pavement friction."
204|"FHWA-RD-88-071"|"Rehabilitation of Concrete Pavements Volume I -
Repair Rehabilitation Techniques"|"Mark B. Snyder, Michael J. Reiter,
Kathleen T. Hall, Michael I. Darter"|"July 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"concrete
pavement; evaluation; rehabilitation; maintenance; full-depth repairs,
grinding; load transfer restoration; partial-depth repairs; concrete
shoulders; expert system; concrete overlays; crack and seat"|"Extensive
field, laboratory and analytical studies were conducted into the
evaluation and rehabilitation of concrete pavements. Field studies
included over 350 rehabilitated pavement sections throughout the U.S.,
and the construction of two field experiments. A laboratory study was
conducted on anchoring dowels in full-depth repairs. Analyses of field
and laboratory data identified performance characteristics, improved
design and construction procedures, and provided deterioration models for
rehabilitated pavements. A concrete pavement advisory system was
developed to assist engineers in project level evaluation and
rehabilitation. The repair techniques in Volume I include full-depth
repair, partial-depth repair, load transfer restoration, edge support and
diamond grinding."
205|"FHWA-RD-88-072"|"Rehabilitation of Concrete Pavements Volume II -
Overlay Rehabilitation Techniques"|"Gerald F. Voigt, Samuel H. Carpenter,
Michael I. Darter"|"July 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"concrete pavement; evaluation;
rehabilitation; maintenance; full-depth repairs, grinding; load transfer
restoration; partial-depth repairs; concrete shoulders; expert system;
concrete overlays; crack and seat"|"Extensive field, laboratory and
analytical studies were conducted into the evaluation and rehabilitation
of concrete pavements. Field studies included over 350 rehabilitated
pavement sections throughout the U.S., and the construction of two field
experiments. A laboratory study was conducted on anchoring dowels in
full-depth repairs. Analyses of field and laboratory data identified
performance characteristics, improved design and construction procedures,
and provided deterioration models for rehabilitated pavements. A
concrete pavement advisory system was developed to assist engineers in
project level evaluation and rehabilitation. The overlay techniques in
Volume II include bonded concrete, unbonded concrete and crack and seat
with an asphalt concrete overlay."
206|"FHWA-RD-88-073"|"Rehabilitation of Concrete Pavements Volume III -
Concrete Pavement Evaluation and Rehabilitation System"|"Kathleen T.
Hall, James M. Connor, Michael I. Darter, Samuel H. Carpenter"|"July
1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"concrete pavement; evaluation; rehabilitation;
maintenance; full-depth repairs, grinding; load transfer restoration;
partial-depth repairs; concrete shoulders; expert system; concrete
overlays; crack and seat"|"Extensive field, laboratory and analytical
studies were conducted into the evaluation and rehabilitation of concrete
pavements. Field studies included over 350 rehabilitated pavement
sections throughout the U.S., and the construction of two field
experiments. A laboratory study was conducted on anchoring dowels in
full-depth repairs. Analyses of field and laboratory data identified
performance characteristics, improved design and construction procedures,
and provided deterioration models for rehabilitated pavements. A
concrete pavement advisory system was developed to assist engineers in
project level evaluation and rehabilitation. Volume III presents a
comprehensive concrete pavement evaluation and rehabilitation advisory
system for jointed plain, jointed reinforced and continuosly reinforced
concrete pavements."
207|"FHWA-RD-88-078"|"Asphalt Behavior at Low Service Temperatures"|"D.A.
Anderson, D.W. Christensen, R. Dongre, M.G. Sharma, J. Runt, P.
Jordhal"|"March 1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"asphalt; rheology; thermal
cracking; fracture mechanics; temperature susceptibility; tensile
strength; limiting stiffness; Fraass; mechancial properties"|"A general
review of methods for measuring the stiffness properties of asphalt at
temperatures below 77 degrees Farenheit (25 degrees Celcius) is
presented. Methods used traditionally for asphalt cement as well as
those used in other technologies, such as polymer science, are reviewed.
A method that is simple to conduct, suitable for specification use, and
suitable for the entire range of stiffness below room temperature was not
identified."
208|"FHWA-RD-88-195"|"Changes Occurring in Asphalts in Drum Dryer and
Batch (Pug Mill) Mixing Operations"|"B.H. Chollar, K.T. Tran, J.A.
Zenewitz, D. Kumari, J.G. Boone"|"December 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"asphalts;
drum dryer; steam distillation; thin film oven test; rolling thin film
oven test; loose mix"|"The study was designed (1) to discover whether
steam distillation of asphalt takes place in a drum dryer mixer, (2) to
compare changes induced by various laboratory conditioning (aging)
techniques versus those occurring in drum dryer mixers, and (3) to
identify possible differences in asphalts subjected to drum dryer mixing
versus batch (pug mill) mixing. Fifty-tive virgin asphalts were
subjected to various laboratory conditioning experiments including thin
film oven exposure (TFO), rolling thin film over exposure (RTFO), (small)
steam distillation (SD), forced air distillation (FAD), and rolling
forced air distillation (RFAD). Various physical and chemical properties
of these conditioned samples were measured. These properties were
compared with those of the residues recovered from drum dryer operations
for each asphalt. By comparing the laboratory conditioned residues to
the recovered residues from the drum dryer mixers were ascertained."
209|"FHWA-RD-89-013"|"Present Practices of Highway Transportation of
Hazardous Materials"|"D.W. Harwood, E.R. Russell"|"May
1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"hazardous materials transportation; truck safety; risk
assessment; routing guidelines"|"This report summarizes the state of the
art of safe management of hazardous materials transportation by highway.
The report includes a review of literature related to hazardous materials
transportaton safety; a review of the responsibilities and current
practices of Federal, State, and local agencies; a critique of current
sources of accident, incident, and exposure data; an analysis of existing
accident, incident, and exposure data bases; a review of current
methodologies for establishing safe routes for hazardous materials
transportation; recommendations for improving the current FHWA routing
guidelines; and recommendations for future research related to highway
transportation of hazardous materials."
210|"FHWA-RD-89-043"|"Reinforced Soil Structures Volume I - Design and
Construction Guidelines"|"Barry R. Christopher, Safdar A. Gill, Jean-
Pierre Giroud, Ilan Juran, James K. Mitchell, Francois Schlossser, John
Dunnicliff"|"November 1990"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"abutements; construction;
design; embankments; instumentation; nailing; reinforcement; slopes; soil
specifications; stabilization; walls"|"This report presents comprehensive
guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the
construction of retaining walls, embankments slopes, and natural or cut
slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in-
situ soil nailing are described from information assembled from published
literature and manufacturer's catalogs. Detailed guidelines are given
for design of reinforced soil structures with inextensible and extensible
reinforcements and soil nailing. Design examples are included. These
guidelines were developed from technical review of extensive laboratory
model tests, small and large scale centrifuge tests, finite element
numerical studies and full scale field tests on eight 20-foot high walls
and four 25-foot high sloping embankments. The manual contains
descriptions of construction procedures, instrumentation and
specifications for reinforced soil structures. A companion Volume II
contains a technical summary of the research supporting theory to verify
the design theory in Volume I and information on several proprietary
reinforced soil systems."
211|"FHWA-RD-89-084"|"Instrumentation for Flexible Pavements"|"Peter
Sabaaly, Nader Tabatabaee,Tom Scullion"|"August 1989"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"H-
gauges; bison coils; pressure cells; LVDT; geophone; accelerometer; SLD;
MDD; thermocouples; RTD"|"This report documents the findings of the
literature search on instrumentation used in flexible pavements. The
search covered areas such as strain, stress, deflection, temperature,
moisture, load location, load magnitude, performance models, and
backcalculation techniques. Each group of instrumentation was evaluated
in terms of the design feasibility, cost, availability, and field
performance."
212|"FHWA-RD-89-110"|"Development of Procedures for the Calibration of
Profilographs"|"Bohdan T. Kulakowski, James C. Wambold"|"August
1989"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"pavement roughness measurement; roughness
measuring equipment; profilograph evaluation; profilometer; RTRRM
systems; rideability; profile power spectral density"|"A review of
current information concerning the methods and equipment for measuring
the roughness of new pavements revealed that most States use rideability
criteria to determine the quality of newly laid pavement, with the
California profilograph as the dominant type of equipment employed. Bump
specifications, which have been used throughout the highway construction
industry for many years, are useful in controlling individual vertical
deviations of pavement profile, but provide no information on the overall
roughness over a longer distance. A full-scale testing program
investigated the basic roughness characteristics of new pavements,
represented by power spectral density functions which were then used to
generate average-profile data. Road roughness measuring devices,
including the California, Rainhart, and Ames profilographs, profilometer,
and Mays meter, were evaluted on the basis of frequency response,
precisions, repeatability, reliability, and ease of operation.
Researchers sought to determine whether correlations can be established
between the profilographs and other roughness measuring devices.
Computer simulation of a profilograph, in which the effect of varied
design parameters on profilograph performance was investigated, yieled
the formulation of an optimal profilography design as a general
optimization problem."
213|"FHWA-RD-89-127"|"Performance of Alternate Coatings in the
Environment (PACE) -- Volume I: Ten-Year Field Data"|"Bernard R.
Appleman, Joseph A. Bruno, Raymond E. Weaver"|"September
1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"paint; coatings; testing; performace; statistical
analysis; survival analysis; abrasives; inhibitive pigments; water-borne;
vinyl; corrosion; enviornmental compatibility"|"Results are presented
from a 10-year field study, which compared environmentally acceptable
coating systems for steel with standard U.S. industry and government
systems. The test included four major branches: 1. Alternate Primer
Pigments, 2. Alternate Surface Preparation Abrasives, 3. Water-Borne
Coatings and 4. Alternate Pigments and Vehicles in Vinyls. The report
compares trands among coating groups; lists top performing coatings;
assesses influence of test site, film thickness, degree of cleaning and
modoe of failure, (i.e., rust or scribe undercutting) and effect on
performance trands; and recommends implementation of the findings and and
additional studies needed."
214|"FHWA-RD-89-135"|"Evaluation of the Optimized Policies for Adaptive
Control Strategy"|"(NONE)"|"May 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"signal control; real-
time signal control; real-time control; optimized signal control; traffic
signals"|"The OPAC strategy is an on-line traffic signal control
algorithm designed to optimize the performance of traffic signals at
isolated intersections using delay as the performance criterion. OPAC-RT
is a traffic signal control system which implements the OPAC strategy in
real time. The system uses traffic data collected from detectors located
well upstream (400 to 600 ft) of the stop bar on all approaches to an
intersection. Optimum signal timing is determined using minimum and
maximum green constraints and does not require a fixed cycle length.
This report describes three field tests of the on-line OPAC strategy.
The results indicate that OPAC performs better than well timed actuated
signals, particularly at greater demand levels."
215|"FHWA-RD-89-136"|"Performance of Jointed Concrete Pavements Volume I
- Evaluation of Concrete Pavement Performance and Design Features"|"K.D.
Smith, D.G. Peshkin, M.I. Darter, A. L. Mueller, S. H. Carpenter"|"March
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavement; pavement performance;
pavement evaluation; pavement design; nondestructive testing; slab
thickness; base type; joint spacing; reinforcement; subdrainage"|"A major
national field and analytical study has been conducted into the effect of
various design features on the performance of jointed concrete pavements.
Extensive design, construction, traffic, and performance data were
obtained from numerous experimental and other concrete pavement sections
throughout the country. Field data collected and analyzed included
distress, drainage, roughnes, present serviceability rating (PSR),
deflection, destructive testing (corning and boring), and weigh-in-motion
(WIM) on selected sites. This information was compiled into a
comprehensive microcomputer database. Projects were evaluated on an
individual basis and then compared at a national level to identify
performance trends. The performance data was used to evaluate and modify
several concrete pavement design procedures and analysis models. This
volume provides a brief introduction to the data collection activities
and presents a description and performance evaluation of the 95 pavement
section included in the study. Decumentation is presented on the effects
of the following design features on concrete pavement performance: slab
thickness, base type, joint spacing, reinforcement, joint orientation,
load transfer, dowel bar coatings, longitudinal joint design, joint
sealant, tied shoulders, and subdrainage."
216|"FHWA-RD-89-137"|"Performance of Jointed Concrete Pavements Volume
II - Evaluation and Modification of Concrete Pavement Design and Analysis
Models"|"K.D. Smith, A. L. Mueller, M.I. Darter, D.G. Peshkin"|"July
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavement; pavement performance;
pavement evaluation; pavement design models; pavement analysis models;
pavement performance models"|"A major national field and analytical study
has been conducted into the effect of various design features on the
performance of jointed concrete pavements. Extensive design,
construction, traffic, and performance data were obtained from numerous
experimental and other concrete pavement sections throughout the country.
Field data collected and analyzed included distress, drainage, roughnes,
present serviceability rating (PSR), deflection, destructive testing
(corning and boring), and weigh-in-motion (WIM) on selected sites. This
information was compiled into a comprehensive microcomputer database.
Projects were evaluated on an individual basis and then compared at a
national level to identify performance trends. The performance data was
used to evaluate and modify several concrete pavement design procedures
and analysis models. This volume investigates the accuracy of several
concrete pavement performance models and shows the usefulness of several
concrete design and analysis procedures. Performance models evaluated
include AASHTO, PREDICT, PEARDARP and PFAULT; design and analysis models
evaluated include PMARP, JSLAB, ILLISLAB, CMS, Liu-Lytton, JCP, JCS, and
BERM. Based upon the data collected from this and other studies, new
prediction models were developed for selected performance indicators."
217|"FHWA-RD-89-138"|"Performance of Jointed Concrete Pavements Volume
III - Summary of Research Findings"|"K.D. Smith, A. L. Mueller, M.I.
Darter, D.G. Peshkin"|"November 1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete
pavement; pavement performance; pavement evaluation; pavement design;
nondestructive testing; slab thickness; base type; joint spacing;
reinforcement; subdrainage"|"A major national field and analytical study
has been conducted into the effect of various design features on the
performance of jointed concrete pavements. Extensive design,
construction, traffic, and performance data were obtained from numerous
experimental and other concrete pavement sections throughout the country.
Field data collected and analyzed included distress, drainage, roughnes,
present serviceability rating (PSR), deflection, destructive testing
(corning and boring), and weigh-in-motion (WIM) on selected sites. This
information was compiled into a comprehensive microcomputer database.
Projects were evaluated on an individual basis and then compared at a
national level to identify performance trends. The performance data was
used to evaluate and modify several concrete pavement design procedures
and analysis models. This volume provides a broad overview of the work
performed in this study. Summaries of the effect of various design
features on concrete pavement performance are reviewed and performance
trends identified. The accuracy of various prediction models and
analysis methods are examined using the field performance data. From
that evaluation, new prediction models were developed and a cost-
effectiveness evaluation was performed."
218|"FHWA-RD-89-139"|"Performance of Jointed Concrete Pavements Volume
IV - Appendix A Project Summary Reports and Summary Tables"|"K.D. Smith,
D.G. Peshkin, M.I. Darter, A. L. Mueller, S. H. Carpenter"|"March
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavement; pavement performance;
pavement evaluation; pavement design; nondestructive testing; slab
thickness; base type; joint spacing; reinforcement; subdrainage"|"A major
national field and analytical study has been conducted into the effect of
various design features on the performance of jointed concrete pavements.
Extensive design, construction, traffic, and performance data were
obtained from numerous experimental and other concrete pavement sections
throughout the country. Field data collected and analyzed included
distress, drainage, roughnes, present serviceability rating (PSR),
deflection, destructive testing (corning and boring), and weigh-in-motion
(WIM) on selected sites. This information was compiled into a
comprehensive microcomputer database. Projects were evaluated on an
individual basis and then compared at a national level to identify
performance trends. The performance data was used to evaluate and modify
several concrete pavement design procedures and analysis models. This
volume provides a detailed summary reports documenting the design,
construction, and performance of the 95 concrete pavement section
included in thes study. Also presented are summary tables which compile
the design and performance data from every section into a convenient
tabular format."
219|"FHWA-RD-89-140"|"Performance of Jointed Concrete Pavements Volume V
- Appendix B Data Collection and Analysis Procedures"|"K.D. Smith, D.G.
Peshkin, M.I. Darter, A. L. Mueller, S. H. Carpenter"|"March
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavement; pavement performance;
pavement evaluation; pavement design; nondestructive testing; slab
thickness; base type; joint spacing; reinforcement; subdrainage"|"A major
national field and analytical study has been conducted into the effect of
various design features on the performance of jointed concrete pavements.
Extensive design, construction, traffic, and performance data were
obtained from numerous experimental and other concrete pavement sections
throughout the country. Field data collected and analyzed included
distress, drainage, roughnes, present serviceability rating (PSR),
deflection, destructive testing (corning and boring), and weigh-in-motion
(WIM) on selected sites. This information was compiled into a
comprehensive microcomputer database. Projects were evaluated on an
individual basis and then compared at a national level to identify
performance trends. The performance data was used to evaluate and modify
several concrete pavement design procedures and analysis models. This
volume provides documentation of the data collection and analysis
procedures used in the study. The field data collection activities ,
including deflection testind and corning/boring, are discussed, as is the
weigh-in-motion (WIM) data collection procedures. Traffic computations
and backcalculation methodologies are presented, along with the basis for
the drainage is followed by an annotated bibliography of pertinent
publications."
220|"FHWA-RD-89-142"|"Structural Overlay Strategies for Jointed Concrete
Pavements - Volume I: Sawing and Sealing of Joints in AC Overlays of
Concrete Pavements"|"Walter P. Kilareski, Richard A. Bionda"|"June
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"asphalt concrete overlays (AC); joint
construction; portland cement concrete (PCC); reflection cracking; saw
and seal operations"|"A major field study and evaluation has been
conducted into the effectiveness of three structural overlay types for
portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. These include sawing and
sealing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays of PCC pavements, cracking and
seating PCC pavements prior to AC overlay, and constructing a thin bonded
PCC overlay on top of the existing PCC pavement. Condition surveys,
deflection testing, and roughness A major field study and evaluation has
been conducted into the effectiveness of three structural overlay types
for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. These include sawing and
sealing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays of PCC pavements, cracking and
seating PCC pavements prior to AC overlay, and constructing a thin bonded
PCC overlay on top of the existing PCC pavement. Condition surveys,
deflection testing, and roughness measurements were performed on a total
of 55 sections. The performance of these sections was evaluation and the
effectiveness of each overlay type analyzed. Based on the field data,
guidelines were developed for the use of structural overlays. In
addition, the results of this study were used to revise and enhance the
EXPEAR rehabilitation advisory system. This volume examines the
effectiveness of the sawing and sealing of AC overlays of PCC pavements.
Sawing and sealing is an attempt to control, not prevent, the occurrence
and severity of reflective cracks from the underlying PCC slabs. Joints
are sawed in the AC overlay directly above joints in the existing slab
and them immediately sealed. THe first part of this report examines the
literature and evaluates the performance of in-service saw and seal
overlays. Part II develips many of the recommendations from the research
effort into guidelines for techniques and specifications for sawing and
sealing operations."
221|"FHWA-RD-89-143"|"Structural Overlay Strategies for Jointed Concrete
Pavements - Volume II: Cracking and Seating of Concrete Slabs Prior to
AC Overlay"|"Walter P. Kilareski, Shelley M. Stoffels"|"June
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"reflection cracking; crack and seat; asphalt
concrete (AC) overlay; portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements"|"A major
field study and evaluation has been conducted into the effectiveness of
three structural overlay types for portland cement concrete (PCC)
pavements. These include sawing and sealing asphalt concrete (AC)
overlays of PCC pavements, cracking and seating PCC pavements prior to AC
overlay, and constructing a thin bonded PCC overlay on top of the
existing PCC pavement. Condition surveys, deflection testing, and
roughness A major field study and evaluation has been conducted into the
effectiveness of three structural overlay types for portland cement
concrete (PCC) pavements. These include sawing and sealing asphalt
concrete (AC) overlays of PCC pavements, cracking and seating PCC
pavements prior to AC overlay, and constructing a thin bonded PCC overlay
on top of the existing PCC pavement. Condition surveys, deflection
testing, and roughness measurements were performed on a total of 55
sections. The performance of these sections was evaluation and the
effectiveness of each overlay type analyzed. Based on the field data,
guidelines were developed for the use of structural overlays. In
addition, the results of this study were used to revise and enhance the
EXPEAR rehabilitation advisory system. This volume examines the
rehabilitation technique of cracking and seating PCC pavement prior to
overlay, which has been used to reduce reflection cracking. Cracking the
slabs reduces slab movement due to temperature changes; seating the slabs
stabilizes the pieces. The first part of this report examines the
literature and evaluates the performance of inservice crack and seat
overlays from several States; the second part incorporates these research
findings into guidelines for crack and seat techniques and
specifications."
222|"FHWA-RD-89-144"|"Structural Overlay Strategies for Jointed Concrete
Pavements - Volume III: Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Thin
Bonded Concrete Overlays"|"D.G. Peshkin, A.L. Mueller, K.D. Smith, M.I.
Darter"|"June 1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete pavement;
concrete overlay; bonded overlay; concrete rehabilitation; concrete
overlay performance"|"A major field study and evaluation has been
conducted into the effectiveness of three structural overlay types for
portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. These include sawing and
sealing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays of PCC pavements, cracking and
seating PCC pavements prior to AC overlay, and constructing a thin bonded
PCC overlay on top of the existing PCC pavement. Condition surveys,
deflection testing, and roughness measurements were performed on a total
of 55 sections. The performance of these sections was evaluation and the
effectiveness of each overlay type analyzed. Based on the field data,
guidelines were developed for the use of structural overlays. In
addition, the results of this study were used to revise and enhance the
EXPEAR rehabilitation advisory system. This volume provides a general
evaluation of several concrete pavement design and analysis models. This
includes RISC, ILLISLAB, JSLAB, H-51, WESLIQUID, WESLAYER, JSC-1, AASHTO,
RPS-3, PMARP, PEARDARP, PREDICT, BERM, CMS, Liu-Lytton, JRCP-4, and
California Rigid Design, Sensitivity analyses are included for each
section. This volume also provides supporting documentation for Volume
II."
223|"FHWA-RD-89-145"|"Structural Overlay Strategies for Jointed Concrete
Pavements - Volume IV: Guidelines for the Selection of Rehabilitation
Alternatives"|"M.I. Darter, K.T Hall"|"June
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"jointed concrete pavement; evaluation;
rehabilitation; overlays; expert system"|"A major field study and
evaluation has been conducted into the effectiveness of three structural
overlay types for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. These
include sawing and sealing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays of PCC
pavements, cracking and seating PCC pavements prior to AC overlay, and
constructing a thin bonded PCC overlay on top of the existing PCC
pavement. Condition surveys, deflection testing and roughness
measurements were performed on a total of 55 sections. The performance
of these sections were evaluated and the effectiveness of each overlay
type analyzed. Based on the field data, guidelines were developed for
the use of these structural overlays. This volume provides detailed
guidelines and case studies prepared specifically for the practicing
engineer as an aid in the evaluation and rehabilitation of jointed
concrete pavements. Feasibility guidelines are given for restoration,
resurfacing, and reconstruction alternatives in terms on
constructability, future life and life-cycle costs. New prediction
models are developed for bonded PCC overlyas, sawing and sealing and AC
overlay, and cracking and seating and AC overlay. The EXPEAR program was
extensively modified to include the above rehabilitation alternatives and
improved predictive models and to provide for much easier usage by the
practicing engineer for evaluation and rehabilitation. Detailed
rehabilitation case studies are presented that will be of interest to the
practicing engineer."
224|"FHWA-RD-89-146"|"Structural Overlay Strategies for Jointed Concrete
Pavements - Volume V: Summary of Research Findings"|"(NONE)"|"November
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"saw and seal; crack and seat AC overlays;
reflection cracking; concrete overlay; concrete rehabilitation; overlay
performance; pavement evaluation; expert system"|"A major field study and
evaluation has been conducted into the effectiveness of three structural
overlay types for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements. These
include sawing and sealing asphalt concrete (AC) overlays of PCC
pavements, cracking and seating PCC pavements prior to AC overlay, and
constructing a thin bonded PCC overlay on top of the existing PCC
pavement. Condition surveys, deflection testing and roughness
measurements were performed on a total of 55 sections. The performance
of these sections were evaluated and the effectiveness of each overlay
type analyzed. Based on the field data, guidelines were developed for
the use of these structural overlays. This volume provides a broad
overview of the work performed in this study. Summaries of the research
fundings for each of the overlay types (AC overlay and saw and seal;
crack and seat and AC overlay; thin bonded concrete overlay) are
presented. Also, a summary of the guidelines developed for the selection
of rehabilitation alternatives is presented."
225|"FHWA-RD-89-166"|"Fatigue Cracking of Steel Bridge Structures -
Volume I: A Survey of Localized Cracking in Steel Bridges- 1981 to
1988"|"Cornelia E. Demers, John W. Fisher"|"March
1990"|"2"|"FHWA"|"bridges; connections; cracking; fatigue; fracture;
steel welding"|"The localized failures of the structures documented in
this publication are representative of the various categories of
localized failures that have occurred between 1981 and 1988. A total of
43 categories of design details (formerly 28 categories) which contained
cracking were reviewed. The representative sample provides for each
bridge site a description of the structure, a summary of the cracking
(which includes photographs), the known characteristics of the material
and crack surface, the field measurements, and the retrofit procedures
which were used to restore the cracked section and to prevent its
reoccurrence elsewhere in the structure."
226|"FHWA-RD-89-167"|"Fatigue Cracking of Steel Bridge Structures -
Volume II: A Commentary and Guide for Design, Evaluation, and
Investigation of Cracking"|"John W. Fisher, Ben T. Yen, Dayi Wang"|"March
1990"|"2"|"FHWA"|"bridges; connections; cracking; fatigue; fracture;
steel; welding"|"The phenomena of fatigue failure at various common
structural details in steel bridges is presented with suggested
improvements for future design and fabrication. Fatigue damage has
resulted from larges numbers of cyclic stresses at structural details
which ahve low fatigue resistance. Procedures are presented for the
estimate of live load stresses at bridge details and for the estimate of
fatigue damages. Guidelines for examination of detected cracks are
given, and procedures for the evaluation of crack propagation and
fracture is suggested. The report provdies background information on the
historical development of experimental data, summarizes the theoretical
and experimental treatment of structural details, and review the primary
factors contributing to fatigue damage."
227|"FHWA-RD-89-168"|"Fatigue Cracking of Steel Bridge Structures -
Volume III: Executive Summary"|"John. W. Fisher"|"March
1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridges; connections; cracking; fatigue; fracture;
steel; welding"|"Fatigue cracking steel bridges has become more frequent
in its occurence during this decade.   Among the early occurences of
cracking in the 1960's, was distortion related cracking in the stringers
of suspension bridges. The 1970's resulted in fatigue cracking at a
large number of details. They included low fatigue resistant welded
details (categories E and E') such as cover-plated beams and equivalent
lateral gusset plates, defective groove welds in secondary attachments
such as longitudinal stiffener, lack-of-fusion in cover plate and flange
groove welds and at flange penetrations of intersecting web members.
These resulted from an inadequate experimental base and overly optimistic
specification provision developed from the experimental data in the
1960's. Subsequent laboratory data has verified the low fatigue strength
in the high cycle region. The assumption of a fatigue limit at 2 x 10^6
cycles proved to be incorrect. Cracking due to distortion has continued
to increase, afflicting nearly every type of bridge. It results from
small web gaps which were more frequently used with welded structures.
These factors are reviewed, evaluated and assessed in this report and its
companion volumes."
228|"FHWA-RD-89-193"|"Soil Nailing for Stabilization of Highway Slopes
and Excavations"|"Victor Elias, Ilan Juran"|"June
1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"construction; design; instrumentation; kinematical;
nailing; reinforcement; slopes; stabilization; walls"|"This report
presents the findings of a comprehensive research study to evaluate,
summarize, interpret and extend the state of the art in soil nailing
design and technology. The report also provides construction control
guidelines and specifications for projects utilizing this technology on
the highway system. Design based on local stability considerations using
the Kinematical method is developed and design charts provided for
implementation."
229|"FHWA-RD-89-211"|"Development of Performance-Related Specifications
for Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction"|"P.E. Irick, S.B.
Seeds, M.G. Myers, E.D. Moody"|"May 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"performance-related
specifications; portland cement concrete (or PCC); rigid pavement;
economic life; PCC properties"|"The primary product of this study was a
demonstration performance-related specification (PRS) system for PCC
pavement construction. The system is designed to consider three key
factors (i.e., PCC strenght, slab thickness and initial serviceability)
in assessing an as-constructed pavement delivered by a constractor and
calculating an appropriate reward (bonus/incentive) or penalty
(disincentive). Many pavement performance prediction relationships and
PPC property prediction equations were evaluated to develop the
performance-related aspects of the new system. In addition, a rather
intensive experimental laboratory study of PCC material properties was
conducted to develop better multi-factor prediction relationships. The
demonstration PRS was developed using a computerized spreadsheet program.
It was designed to be parallel to the demonstration PRS system developed
under NCHRP Project 10-26A for asphalt concrete pavements. As a results
of the study, recommendations were made for further research in several
key areas related to PRS systems and field and laboratory studies."
230|"FHWA-RD-89-226"|"Truck Characteristics For Use In Highway Design
and Operation, Volume I: Research Report"|"D.W. Harwood, J.M. Mason,
W.D. Glauz, B.T. Kulakowski, K. Fitzpatrick"|"August
1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"trucks; geometric desgin; traffic operations; sight
distance; intersections; horizontal curves"|"Highway geometric design and
traffic operations are based in part on consideration of vehicle
characteristics. However, many of the current highway design and
operational criteria are based on passenger car characteristics, even
though truck characteristics may be more critical. This report reviews
existing data for the truck characteristics that need to be considered in
highway design, including truck dimensions, braking distance, driver eye
height, acceleration capabilities, speed-maintenance capabilities on
grades, turning radius and offtracking characteristics, suspension
characteristics, and rollover threshold. The report also includes these
truck characteristics. The highway design and operational criteria
evaluated include sight distance, vertical curve length, intersection
design, critical length of grade, lane width, horizontal curve design,
vehicle change intervals at traffic signals, sign placement, and highway
capacity. An assessment has been made of the need to change the current
highway design and operational criteria to accomodate trucks. The cost
effectiveness of proposed changes in design and operational criteria has
been evaluated."
231|"FHWA-RD-89-235"|"Performance of Alternate Coatings in the
Environment (PACE) -- Volume II: Five-Year Field and Bridge Data of
Improved Formulations"|"Bernard R. Appleman, Raymond E.F. Weaver, Joseph
A. Bruno, Jr."|"September 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"paints; coatings; testing;
performance; statistical analysis; survival analysis; abrasives;
inhibitive pigments; water-borne; vinyl; corrosion; environmental
compatibility"|"Results are presented from a 5-year field study on
advanced formulations and surface cleaning techniques for coating systems
for steel bridges. The test branches included: (1) alternate blast and
non-blast cleaning methods, (2) new experimental coatings and (3) bridge
site exposure."
232|"FHWA-RD-89-236"|"Performance of Alternate Coatings in the
Environment (PACE) -- Volume III: Executive Summary"|"Bernard R.
Appleman, Raymond E.F. Weaver, Joseph A. Bruno, Jr."|"July
1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"paints; coatings; testing; performance; statistical
analysis; survival analysis; abrasives; inhibitive pigments; water-borne;
vinyl; corrosion; environmental compatibility; bridge; steel;
rusting"|"The report summarizes the conclusions and recommendations of
two previous reports on the SSPC PACE Program (Performance of Alternate
Coatings in the Environment).   The PACE program consists of outdoor test
fence evaluations of over 200 coatings systems evaluated over various
hand tool, power tool, blast cleaning, and chemical surface preparation
methods."
233|"FHWA-RD-90-005"|"Electronically Conductive Polymer Concrete Overlay
As Secondary Anode for Cathodic Protection"|"J.J. Fontana, W. Reams, W.
Scannell, M. Sprinkel"|"May 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cathodic protection;
electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay; bridge decks;
reinforcing steel; corrosion"|"This report describes the development of a
premixed electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay for use on
bridge decks and other concrete members, in conjunction with cathodic
protection systems. A field demonstration was performed on a bridge deck
(with corroding reinforcing steel) in Pulaski, Virginia where an active
cathodic protection system uses the electrically conductive overlay as
the secondary anode to uniformly distribute the current across the bridge
deck surface. The performance of the overlay cathodic protection system
was monitored for 18 months. The data shows that corrosion of the
reinforcing steel embedded in the bridge deck was arrested. The overlay
is soundly bonded, and there are no indications that the overlay is
wearing due to traffic. This report is the conclusion of the research
study."
234|"FHWA-RD-90-019"|"Moisture Damage in Asphalt Mixtures - A State-of-
the-Art Report"|"K.D. Stuart"|"August 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"moisture damage;
stripping; adhesion moisture susceptibility; antistripping additives;
hydrated lime; amines; retained ratio; asphalt mixtures; moisture
sensitivity; moisture conditioning"|"This state-of-the-art report is on
the moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures used in highway
pavements. It addresses the known causes of moisture damage, methods for
controlling damage such as antistripping additives, and moisture damage
tests. Several current research studies such as antistripping additives,
and moisture damage tests. Several current research studies are also
given in the report. Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures is a complex
mechanism which is not well understood and has many interacting factors.
This report is mainly concerned with dense-graded hot asphalt mixtures as
most of the literature discusses these types of mixtures. Some
information on chip seals and emulsion mixtures is also included."
235|"FHWA-RD-90-021"|"Cost-Effective Geometric Improvements for Safety
Upgrading of Horizontal Curves"|"C. Zegeer, R. Stewart, D. Reinfurt, F.
Council, T. Neuman, E. Hamilton, T. Miller, W. Hunter"|"October
1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"horizontal curve; degree of curve superelevation;
spiral transition; roadway width; prediction model; accident reduction
factors; economic analysis"|"The purpose of this study was to determine
the horizontal curve features which affect safety and traffic operations
and to quantify the effects on accidents of various curve-related
improvements. The primary data base developed and analyzed consisted of
10,900 horizontal curves in Washington State. Three existing Federal
data bases on curves were also analyzed."
236|"FHWA-RD-90-074"|"Safety Improvements on Horizontal Curves for Two-
Lane Rural roads - Informational Guide"|"C. Zegeer, D. Reinfurt, T.
Neuman, R. Stewart, F. Council"|"October
1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"horizontal curve; superelevation; spiral
transition; accident prevention; economic evaluation; benefits; costs;
accident prevention"|"This guide provides guidance for the design of
horizontal curves on new highway sections and for the reconstruction and
upgrading of existing curves on two -lane rural roads. Information is
also provided in this guide for computing the expected benefits and costs
for a variety of curve improvements, such as curve flattening, roadway
widening, providing spiral transitions to curves, improving
superelevation, sideslope flattening, and other roadside improvements.
Thus, this guide should be useful to highway designers and safety
officials responsible for the design of 3R projects, improvements to
high-hazard locations, and highway reconstruction as it relates to
horizontal curves."
237|"FHWA-RD-90-082"|"Evaluation of the Supplemental Procedure of the
Maximum Specific Gravity Test for Bituminous Paving Mixtures"|"K.D.
Stuart"|"June 1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"maximum specific gravity; rice
gravity; effective specific gravity; air voids; asphalt mixtures; asphalt
mixture design; asphalt absorption; AASHTO T 209; ASTM D 2041;
stripping"|"The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of
performing the supplemental procedure of AASHTO T 209 (or ASTM D 2041) on
the percent air voids, the effective aggregate specific gravity, and the
maximum specific gravity of a bituminous paving mixture, using both
thoroughly coated aggregates and partially coated aggregates. The
supplemental procesure should correct the test data for water absorbed
into the aggregate during the test. Although the supplemental procedure
can be used when designing mixtures, it is most often used for
determining the maximum specific gravities of moisture damaged pavement
samples, or cores or specimens where sawing has exposed a significant
amount of aggregate. The majoriy of aggregates used in thi study had
water absorptions below 2.5 percent and thus were not highly absorptive.
It is recommended that the supplemental procedure not be performed on
laboratory mixtures or pavement cores having aggregates with water
absorptions below 2.5 percent. When testing any mixture prepared in the
laboratory during the mixture design process, the procedure for
determining the maximum specific gravity should not be performed on well
coated mixtures so that the supplemental procedure does not have to be
used. For highly absorptive aggregates, it is recommended that the test
only be performed at high binder contents which provide thick coatings.
Only binder contents close to or slightly above the optimal binder
content should be used. The maximum specific gravities for the lower
binder contents can be calculated using the effective specific gravity of
the aggregate. For laboratory mixtures containing highly absorptive
aggregates, the supplemental procedure may indicate whether the coating
is sufficient."
238|"FHWA-RD-90-091"|"Application of New Accident Analysis Methodologies:
Volume I - General Methodology"|"Olga J. Pendleton"|"September
1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"regression-to-mean; accident analysis safety
treatment evaluation; empirical Bayes; before-after studies; meta-
analysis; synthesis studies; high hazard location ranking"|"Researchers
in the field of accident analysis have long been aware of the problems
associated with drawing statistical inference on safety using accident
data. Aside from the problems of accessibility and quality, accident
data present a real challenge when it comes to statistical analysis. One
of the most serious problems in accident analysis is the regression-to-
the-mean bias which occurs due to the non-random site selection process
in safety measure evaluation studies. This study presents a new
empirical Bayes method (EBEST) which adjusts for regression-to-the-mean
bias. Three typical applications in accident analysis are considered for
regression-to-the-mean bias, namely: 1. the evaluation of safety
treatments, 2. the identification of high hazard locations, and 3. the
assimilation of information from multiple safety measure studies (meta-
analysis). A computer program was developed to execute these analyses as
a part of this study. This manuscript describes the EBEST (Empirical
Bayes Estimation of Safety and Transportation) methodology and presents
examples of how the methods works for each of the three accident analysis
applications. This report appears in three volumes. Volume I, General
Methodology, FHWA-RD-91-014, is a user's manual for BEATS computer
program, and Volume III, Theoretical Development of New Accident Analysis
Methodology, FHWA-RD-91-015, contains the theoretical development of the
procedure."
239|"FHWA-RD-90-103"|"Operational Impacts of Wider Trucks On Narrow
Roadways"|"D.L. Harkey, C.V. Zegeer, D.W. Reinfurt, S.E. Davis, J.R.
Stewart, F.M. Council"|"June 1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"wide truck; traffic stream
trucks; truck operations; control trucks; truck safety; encroachment;
lateral placement"|"This study was conducted to determine the differences
in performance between 102-in (259 cm) wide and 96 in (244 cm) wide
trucks and the impact that these trucks have on other traffic. Trucks
which were studied primarily included random trucks in the traffic
stream, although a limited amount of control truck data were also
collected to account for driver differences. Truck data were collected
on rural two-lane and multilane roads which included curve and tangent
sections and a variety of roadway widths and traffic conditions. The
data collection effort resulted in approximately 100 hours of videotape
and 9000 slides from which various measures of effectiveness (MOE's) were
extracted."
240|"FHWA-RD-90-110"|"Performance Evaluation of Sulfur-Extended Asphalt
Pavements - Laboratory Evaluation"|"K.D. Stuart"|"November
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"sulfur extended asphalt; SEA; creep test;
resilient modulus; moisture susceptibility; ashpalt mixtures; steric
hardening; asphalt modifiers; aggregate specific gravity"|"In 1987 the
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) completed a field study to compare
the performance of sulfur-extended asphalt (SEA) pavements to
conventional asphalt control (AC) pavements. A representative set of
pavements was chosen to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the effects
of sulfur on pavement performance. The primary conclusion was that there
was no difference in overall performance between the SEA and AC sections.
This field study is documented in the FHWA Report DP54-01, Fedearl
Highway Administration, Washinton DC, 1987. It is entitled
""Performance Evaluation of Sulfur-Extended Asphalt Pavements - Field
Survey and Assessment."" The laboratory study documented in the
accopanying report complements the field study. Cores were obtained from
many of the pavements and tested (1) to verify that the SEA and AC
sections were similar in thickness and mixture composition, except for
sulfur content, (2) to predicts whether the pavement performances of the
SEA and AC sections will remain similar, and (3) to investigate
individual pavement where the performances of the two sections were not
equal. In general, the laboratory test results supported the results of
the field study. Overall, sulfur did not increase or decrease most test
properties, and often it had no effect on a given test property of a
mixture. Sulfur did decrease the resistance to moisture susceptiblity in
the laboratory. There were also minor trends indicating that with some
mixtures, sulfur may reduce the susceptiblity to rutting and increased
the susceptiblity to fatigue cracking. This report also presents the
results of several tasks where SEA binders and mixtures prepared in the
laboratory were evaluated."
241|"FHWA-RD-90-111"|"Blowup of a Concrete Pavement Adjoining a Rigid
Structure"|"Arnold D. Kerr"|"August 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"buckling of
pavements; rigid pavements; concrete pavements; blowup of pavements"|"The
main cause of concrete pavement blowups are axial compression forces
induced into the pavement by a rise in temperature and moisture. Recent
analyses by this writer and his students were based on the notion that
blowups are caused by lift-off buckling of the pavement. The cases
analyzed were: (1) continously reinforced concrete pavement and (2)
concrete pavement weakened by a traverse joint or crack. The present
paper contains an analysis of another case, when a long continuosly
reinforced concrete pavemet adjoins a rigid structure, like a bridge
abutement. The analysis is similar to the ones described above. The
resulting formulation is non-linear and is solved exactly, in closed
form. The obtained results are evaluated numerically and are compared to
those of a long continuosly reinforced pavement, in order to show the
effect of the rigid structure on the pavement response."
242|"FHWA-RD-91-011"|"Effect of Surface Contaminants On Coating
Life"|"Bernard Appleman, Simon Boocock, Raymond Weaver, Gerald
Soltz"|"November 1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"coating; corrosion; salt
contamination; steel bridges; accelerated testing; surface analysis;
abrasives"|"This study investigated the influence of soluble salts on the
performance and lifetime of protective coatings on steel bridges.
Laboratory and field methods were established for measuring chloride ion,
sulfate ion, ferrous ion, ammonium ion, conductivity and pH, and for
extracting aqueous samples from blast cleaned steel. Aqueous smaples
were extracted from blast cleaned steel surfaces of 18 bridges and
analysed using the method established. Comparisons were made among the
level and type of salts (principally chloride and sulfate) and the type,
structure, and environment of the bridges."
243|"FHWA-RD-91-012"|"Effects on Safety of Pavement-Truck Tire
Interaction"|"B.T. Kulakowski, J.C. Wambold, D.W. Blue, R.R. Blackburn,
D.W. Harwood"|"January 1992"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"tire traction; braking;
cornering; braking distance"|"A new truck tire tester was built to
measure tire forces in braking and cornering under various speed,
vertical load, and slip angle conditions and on different pavement
surfaces. Six of the most common truck and bus tires were tested. In
general, rib tires performed better than lug tires and radial tires
performed better than bias-ply tires. Overall, the radial rib tire
performed best, both in braking and in cornering, among the six test
tires. All of the independent test variables--pavement type, vehicle
speed, axle load, and slip angle--have a significant effect on tire
traction. The experimental data were processed to derive 48 regression
models relating peak and sliding coefficients of braking and cornering
friction and critical longitudinal slip to the independent variables. A
computer simulation study using the T3DRS, Phase 4 program was also
conducted to investigate the effects of suspension type, tire type,
roadway alignment, pavement roughness, and surface wetness on truck
braking distance. The simulation results showed that trucks may require
considerably larger stopping distances than passenger cars."
244|"FHWA-RD-91-013"|"Laboratory Evaluation of Verglimit and
Plusride"|"K.D. Stuart, W.S. Mogawer"|"March
1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"Verglimit; PlusRide; deicers; asphalt additives;
creep test; repeated load test; resilient modulus; moisture
susceptibility; low temperature cracking"|"The effects of two additives,
Verglimit and PlusRide , on the laboratory properties of asphalt
mixtures, in terms of their resistance to aging, mositure damage,
rutting, and low temperature cracking, were determined. These two
additives have been used to control the formation of ice on pavement.
Field studies have mainly consisted of determining the action of the
additives on melting ice and the related changes in the number of traffic
accidents. The effects of these two additives on laboratory mixture
properties were not established in these field studies. Both Verglimit
and PlusRide are added directly to the asphalt mixture at the mixing
plant. Verglimit slightly reduced the temperature susceptibility of the
mixtures mainly by increasing the resistance to rutting at high
temperatures. Verglimit increased the susceptiblity to moisture damage,
measured by retained tensile strength and resilient modulus ratios,
because of the particles absorbed water and the specimens swelled.
However, there was a decrease in the amount of stripping determined
visually. PlusRide reduced the stiffness of the mixtures and increased
the amount of permanent deformation at all temperatures, thereby
increasing the resistance to low temperature cracking by decreasing the
resistance to rutting. PlusRide had a variable effect on moisture
susceptiblity. In some cases PlusRide may increase the retained tensile
strength and resilient modulus ratios and decrease the amount of swelling
which occurs when conditioning the specimens in water. In other cases,
PlusRide may decrease the retianed ratios and increase the amount of
swelling during conditioning."
245|"FHWA-RD-91-015"|"Application of New Accident Analysis Mehodologies:
Volume III: Theoretical Development of New Accident Analysis
Methodology"|"Carl N. Morris, Cindy L. Christiansen, Olga J.
Pendleton"|"September 1991"|"2"|"FHWA"|"regression-to-mean; accident
analysis; safety treatment evaluation; empirical Bayes; before-after
studies; meta-analysis; synthesis; synthesis studies ; high hazard
location ranking"|"Researchers in the field of accident analysis have
long been aware of the problems associated with drawing statistical
inference on safety using accident data. Aside from the problems of
accessibility and quality, accident data presents a real challenge when
it comes to statistical analysis. One of the most serious problems in
accident analysis is the regression-to-the-mean bias which occurs due to
the non- random site selection process in safety measure evaluation
studies. This study presents a new empirical Bayes method (EBEST) which
adjusts for regression-to-the-mean bias."
246|"FHWA-RD-91-029"|"Structural Characterization of Asphalt Concrete
Overlays Placed on Heavily Trafficked Concrete Pavements"|"S.H.
Carpenter"|"December 1993"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"modulus; layer coefficients;
design AASHTO coefficients; permeability"|"This report presents the
results of a study examining the structural characterization of mixes
placed as overlays on portland cement concrete Interstate pavements and
the problems associated with rapid deformation failure of these mixes."
247|"FHWA-RD-91-041"|"Trade-Off Between Delineation and Lighting on
Freeway Interchanges: Investigation of Transient Visual
Adaptation"|"R.S. Hostetter, R.G. Carter, G.W. Dauber"|"November
1993"|"3"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"transient visual adaption; interchange lighting;
partial lighting; ramp lighting; target detection"|"The objective was to
determine the extent that transient visual adaptation (TVA) affects
drivers' detection of targets along partially lighted freeway
interchanges."
248|"FHWA-RD-91-055"|"The Costs of Highway Crashes"|"T. Miller, J. Viner,
S. Rossman, N. Pindus, W. Gellert, J. Douglass, A. Dillingham, G.
Blomquist"|"October 1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"crash costs; incidence;
reporting rate; years lost; vehicle type; roadway class; drunk driving;
most harmful event; who pays"|"In 1988, an estimated 14.8 million motor
vehicle crashes involved 47,000 deaths and almost 5,000,000 injuries.
More than 4.8 million years of life and functioning were lost. Crash
costs totalled $334 billion. They included $71 billion in out-of-pocket
costs, $46 billion in wages and household production, and $217 billion in
pain, suffering, and lost quality of life. Half of the out-of-pocket
costs were property damage costs; the rest were medical, emergency
services, workplace, travel delay, legal, and administrative costs.
Employers paid 20 percent of the out-of-pocket and productivity costs.
The general public paid 48 percent. People involved in the crashes and
their families paid the remainder and suffered the pain. The
comprehensive costs presented here are appropriate for use in benefit-
cost analysis."
249|"FHWA-RD-91-056"|"The Assessment of Concrete Pavement Blowups - A
User Manual"|"Arnold D. Kerr"|"August 1993"|"3"|"FHWA"|"buckling of
pavements; rigid pavements; concrete pavements; blowup of
pavements"|"This manual is based on the analyses of pavement blowups
presented in 1984 and in 1989. The purpose of this report is to make the
recent analytical results for concrete pavement blowups accessible to
pavement engineers in a ""user friendly"" form."
250|"FHWA-RD-91-062"|"Synthesis of Shoring, Formwork and Scaffolding for
Highway Bridge Structures"|"John F. Duntemann, Neal S. Anderson, Anatol
Longinow"|"November 1991"|"2"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"shoring; formwork;
scaffolding; falsework; temporary structures"|"Following the collapse of
the Route 198 bridge over the Balitmore-Washington Parkway in 1989, the
FHWA determined that there was a need to reassess, on a national level,
the specifications currently used to design, construct, and inspect
flasework and formwork for highway bridge structures. Towards that end,
the FHWA comissioned this synthesis to identify existing information on
this subject and present it in one document. This effort has included a
survey of United States and Canadian highway departments, and a
comprehensive lierature search for related publications. The objective
of the study has been to identify the current state-of-the-practice in
the United States and abroad, based on a review of available standards,
specifications, literature, and published research."
251|"FHWA-RD-91-064"|"Impact of Truck Characteristics on Pavements:
Truck Load Equivalency Factors"|"Stuart W. Hudson, Virgil L. Anderson,
Paul E. Irick, R. Frank Carmichael III, V. Frank McCullough"|"July
1992"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"load equivalency factor; pavement response;
pavement instrumentation; strain; deflection"|"Truck load equivalency
factors relate vehicle axle loads to pavement damage and life. They
provide a method to convert the effects of mixed traffic to a standard
loading condition. Equivalent loadings for most pavement design and
evaluation procedures are currently predicted using the ASSHTO method of
equivalency factors. This study was undertaken to evaluate various types
of primary pavement response derived load equivalency factors. These use
pavement response measurements such as strain and deflection to estimate
the equivalent damaging effect of any axle loading condition. These
types of factors are also expressed in terms of a relative number of
equivalent standard axle loads. A number of primary response equivalency
factor methods were evaluated and several selected for further study.
Deflection and strain pavement response measurements were evaluated over
an experimental factorial of axle type, axle load, tire pressure, speed,
pavement thickness, and pavement temperature. Primary response load
equivalencies were calculated using the selected methods and a number of
statistical comparisions were made. Results of the study indicate that
the concept of primary response truck load equivalency factors is viable
and can be extremely useful for estimating load equivalence for pavement
design and reserach purposes. Results also indicate which of the vehicle
and pavement factors studied most significantly effect the estimate of
load equivalency. Recommendations are also made for use of primary
response load equivalencies and for further research into the project."
252|"FHWA-RD-91-065"|"Evaluation of Improvements to Breakaway Cable
Terminals"|"Leonard C. Meczhowski"|"June
1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"guardrails; terminals; end treatments; breakaway
cable terminal; BCT"|"This document identifies the results of a staff
study to develop and test modifications to the Breakaway Cable Terminal
(BCT). A new design known as the ""baffled"" nose was tested on both the
BCT and the Eccentric Loader Terminal (ELT). Four full-scale crash tests
were conducted to evaluate the safety performance of this design. The
""baffled"" nose design was unacceptable when used in the BCT. However,
performance was acceptable when used in the ELT. An alternate terminal
Modified Eccentric Loader Terminal (MELT) was developed."
253|"FHWA-RD-91-075"|"Inform Evaluation, Volume I: Techincal
Report"|"Steven A. Smith"|"January 1992"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"freeway
surveillance and control; ramp metering; variable message signs; traffic
control systems; evaluation"|"INFORM (INformation FOR Motorists, formally
known as the Integrated Motorist Information System - IMIS) is a corridor
traffic mangement system designed to obtain better utilization of
existing highway facilities in a 40-mile (64.4-km) long highway corridor
on Long Island, New York. The system includes integrated electronic
traffic monitoring, variable message signing, ramp metering, and related
strategies to optimize traffic flow through a heavily congested corridor.
The evaluation of INFORM was conducted using extensive field data,
surveys, and data collected through the system. The Technical Report
presents the overall results of the evaluation, including comparisons of
vehicle miles of travel, vehicle hours of travel, speed, occupancy, ramp
delays, and equipment failures, motorist perceptions, and other
congestion-related measures for the a.m. and p.m. peak periods. Incident
case studies were used to evaluate motorist response to and effectiveness
of variable message signing strategies. In addition to presenting the
quantitative results, the Technical Report, documents the many lessons
learned in the design, implementation, operations, evaluation of INFORM.
The volume is one of two reports on the INFORM Evaluation. The other
volume is: FHWA-RD-91-076 Volume II: Executive Summary. IMIS) is a
corridor traffic mangement system designed to obtain better utilization
of existing highway facilities in a 40-mile (64.4-km) long highway
corridor on Long Island, New York. The system includes integrated
electronic traffic monitoring, variable message signing, ramp metering,
and related strategies to optimize traffic flow through a heavily
congested corridor. The evaluation of INFORM was conducted using
extensive field data, surveys, and data collected through the system.
The Technical Report presents the overall results of the evaluation,
including comparisons of vehicle miles of travel, vehicle hours of
travel, speed, occupancy, ramp delays, and equipment failures, motorist
perceptions, and other congestion-related measures for the a.m. and p.m.
peak periods. Incident case studies were used to evaluate motorist
response to and effectiveness of variable message signing strategies. In
addition to presenting the quantitative results, the Technical Report,
documents the many lessons learned in the design, implementation,
operations, evaluation of INFORM. The volume is one of two reports on
the INFORM Evaluation. The other volume is: FHWA-RD-91-075 Volume I:
Technical Report."
254|"FHWA-RD-91-076"|"Inform Evaluation, Volume II: Executive
Summary"|"Steven A. Smith"|"January 1992"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"freeway
surveillance and control; ramp metering; variable message signs; traffic
control systems; evaulation"|"INFORM (INformation FOR Motorists, formally
known as the Integrated Motorist Information System - IMIS) is a corridor
traffic mangement system designed to obtain better utilization of
existing highway facilities in a 40-mile (64.4-km) long highway corridor
on Long Island, New York. The system includes integrated electronic
traffic monitoring, variable message signing, ramp metering, and related
strategies to optimize traffic flow through a heavily congested corridor.
The evaluation of INFORM was conducted using extensive field data,
surveys, and data collected through the system. The Technical Report
presents the overall results of the evaluation, including comparisons of
vehicle miles of travel, vehicle hours of travel, speed, occupancy, ramp
delays, and equipment failures, motorist perceptions, and other
congestion-related measures for the a.m. and p.m. peak periods. Incident
case studies were used to evaluate motorist response to and effectiveness
of variable message signing strategies. In addition to presenting the
quantitative results, the Technical Report, documents the many lessons
learned in the design, implementation, operations, evaluation of INFORM.
The volume is one of two reports on the INFORM Evaluation. The other
volume is: FHWA-RD-91-076 Volume II: Executive Summary. IMIS) is a
corridor traffic mangement system designed to obtain better utilization
of existing highway facilities in a 40-mile (64.4-km) long highway
corridor on Long Island, New York. The system includes integrated
electronic traffic monitoring, variable message signing, ramp metering,
and related strategies to optimize traffic flow through a heavily
congested corridor. The evaluation of INFORM was conducted using
extensive field data, surveys, and data collected through the system.
The Technical Report presents the overall results of the evaluation,
including comparisons of vehicle miles of travel, vehicle hours of
travel, speed, occupancy, ramp delays, and equipment failures, motorist
perceptions, and other congestion-related measures for the a.m. and p.m.
peak periods. Incident case studies were used to evaluate motorist
response to and effectiveness of variable message signing strategies. In
addition to presenting the quantitative results, the Technical Report,
documents the many lessons learned in the design, implementation,
operations, evaluation of INFORM. The volume is one of two reports on
the INFORM Evaluation. The other volume is: FHWA-RD-91-075 Volume I:
Technical Report."
255|"FHWA-RD-91-079"|"Guidelines for Timing Contraction Joint Sawing and
Earliest Loading for Concrete Pavements, Volume I-Final Report"|"P.A.
Okamoto, P.J. Nussbaum, K.D. Smith, M.I. Darter, T.P. Wilson, C.L. Wu,
S.D. Tayabji"|"February 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"concrete; concrete strength
properties; concrete pavements; contraction joints; sawcutting; restraint
stresses; traffic loading; concrete pavement construction; sawcutting
guidelines"|"A study with th objectives of providing guidelines for
timing of contraction joint sawcutting to avert uncontrolled pavement
cracking and providing guidelines for early loading of pavements by
construction traffic has been conducted. A laboratory study of early age
(4-24 hours) and early pavement loading (1 to 28 days) concrete strength
properties for a range of highway concrete mixes was made. Sawcutting
tests were made to determine earliest contraction joint sawcutting.
Earliest sawcut timing was correlated on basis of sawcut ratings to
concrete strenght properties and non-destructive test results that can be
used for determining earliest sawcutting time. Concrete pavement
placement and joint sawcutting were observed at three highway
construction sites to verify test results. Latest sawcutting time was
targeted on basis of buildup of restraint stresses attributable to slab
cooling. Guidelines for sawcut timing are presented to facilitate
construction site decision making based on nondestructive test methods."
256|"FHWA-RD-91-080"|"Guidelines for Timing Contraction Joint Sawing and
Earliest Loading for Concrete Pavements, Volume II-Appendix"|"P.A.
Okamoto, P.J. Nussbaum, K.D. Smith, M.I. Darter, T.P. Wilson, C.L. Wu,
S.D. Tayabji"|"February 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"concrete; concrete
strength properties; concrete pavements; contraction joints; sawcutting;
restraint stresses; traffic loading; concrete pavement construction;
sawcutting guidelines"|"A study with th objectives of providing
guidelines for timing of contraction joint sawcutting to avert
uncontrolled pavement cracking and providing guidelines for early loading
of pavements by construction traffic has been conducted. A laboratory
study of early age (4-24 hours) and early pavement loading (1 to 28 days)
concrete strength properties for a range of highway concrete mixes was
made. Sawcutting tests were made to determine earliest contraction joint
sawcutting. Earliest sawcut timing was correlated on basis of sawcut
ratings to concrete strenght properties and non-destructive test results
that can be used for determining earliest sawcutting time. Concrete
pavement placement and joint sawcutting were observed at three highway
construction sites to verify test results. Latest sawcutting time was
targeted on basis of buildup of restraint stresses attributable to slab
cooling. Guidelines for sawcut timing are presented to facilitate
construction site decision making based on nondestructive test methods."
257|"FHWA-RD-91-081"|"Nationally Coordinated Program of Highway Research
Development, and Technology: Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year
1991"|"(NONE)"|"December 1991"|"1"|"FHWA"|"highway research; technology
transfer; traffic operations; highway safety/intelligent vehicle-highway
systems; pavements; highway materials; highway planning; motor carriers
transportation"|"This progress report gives an overview of research being
conducted under the Nationally Coordinated Program of Highway Research,
Development, and Technology during the period from October 1, 1990
through September 30, 1991. The NCP is organized into categories,
programs, and projects; the NCP categories covered in this 1991 report
are: A. Highway Safety, B. Traffic Operations/Intelligent Vehicle-Highway
Systems, C. Pavements, D. Structures, E. Materials and Operations, F.
Policy and Planning and G. Motor Carriers Transportation."
258|"FHWA-RD-91-083"|"Diametral Tests for Bituminous Mixtures"|"K.D.
Stuart"|"January 1992"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"resilient modulus; creep test;
asphalt mixture tests; repeated load test; moisture susceptibility;
marshall stability; diametral tests"|"The first objective of this report
was to provide details on various tests performed on core specimens under
a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research study entitled
""Performance Evaluation of Sulfur-Extended Asphalt Pavement- Laboratory
Evaluation,"" This study is documented in report FHWA-RD-90-110. Under
this study, fifteen cores were obtained from various sulfur-extended
asphalt (SEA) pavement sections and asphalt control (AC) sections and
tested for properties in the laboratory. The second objective was to
correlate various test properties to each other and determine the
relationship between them. Properties were taken from the following
tests: (1) diametral (resilient) modulus, (2) diametral incremental creep
modulus and deformations, (3) indirect tensile strength, (4) Marshall
stability and flow, (5) diametral fatigue life, (6) density, (7) maximum
specific gravity, and (80) percent air void level. Most relationships
were poor and could only be considered general trends. Each test
measures a unique property. Properties from sophisticated tests could
not be predicted from less complex tests. Surrogate tests were not
found. For example, fatigue life could not be predicted directly from
tensile strength."
259|"FHWA-RD-91-087"|"Maintenance Coating of Weathering Steel, Interim
Report"|"B.R. Appleman, R.E.F. Weaver"|"March
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"weathering steel; maintenance painting; coatings;
corrosion; guidelines; chloride contamination; accelerated testing"|"This
report presents findings of a survey and laboratory evaluation of
materials and techniques for cleaning and painting chloride-contaminated
weathering steel bridges."
260|"FHWA-RD-91-094"|"Instrumentation for Flexible Pavements--Field
Performance of Selected Sensors, Volume I: Final Report"|"P. Sebaaly, N.
Tabatabaee, B. Kulakowski, T. Scullion"|"June 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"H-gauges;
pressure cells; LVDT; geophone; SLD; MDD; Hall effect sensor; inductive
gauges; thermocouples; solid state sensors"|"This report presents the
results of a research study on methods for measuring strain and stress in
bituminous pavements subjected to dynamic vehicle loading."
261|"FHWA-RD-91-122"|"Accident Data Analysis of Side-Impact Fixed-Object
Collisions"|"Lori A. Troxel, Malcolm H. Ray, John F. Carney III"|"May
1994"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"highway safety; side impact; single vehicle
accidents"|"The results of a study of accident data on side-impact, fixed
object collisions are presented in this report. The Fatal Accident
Reporting System (FARS) was used to determine basic characteristics of
this type of collision such as seating position of fatally injured
occupants, roadway type, surface conditions, and vehicle weights. The
National Accident Sampling System (NASS) was used to examine these same
characteristics for accidents of all severities. In addition, the
effects of breakaway objects, guardrails, and impact conditions on these
collisions were examined using the NASS data. Characteristics of side-
impact, fixed-object accidents such as location of impact, body region
injured, injury sources, deformation measurements, occupant age, and time
of day were also investigated using the NASS data. The characteristics
of fixed-object, side impacts were then compared to those of vehicle-to-
vehicle side impacts."
262|"FHWA-RD-91-122"|"Accident Data Analysis of Side-Impact Fixed-Object
Collisions: Technical Summary Publication Nos. FHWA-RD-91-122, FHWA-RD-
92-062, & FHWA-RD-92-079"|"(NONE)"|"May 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"side impact;
narrow hazards; roadside structure; accident data analysis; crash
testing; evaluation criteria; occupant risk"|"(NONE)"
263|"FHWA-RD-91-123"|"Chemical Modification of Asphalts"|"D. Kumari, B.H.
Chollar, J. A. Zenewitz, J. G. Boone"|"August 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"chemical
modification of asphalts; MAH; CrO3; furfural; temperature
susceptibility; stripping test"|"Prominent among the damages occurring to
asphalt cement concrete pavements are cracking and rutting. The
occurrence of such damage is dependent upon many factors including the
properties of the asphalt, which are, in turn, dependent upon its
molecular structure. Experiments to test this hypothesis have been
performed; these experiments include the modification of asphalt cements
by reacting them separately with maleic anhydride, chromium trioxide and
furfural in the presence of hydrochloric acid. Six different asphalts
were used in these exploratory reactions. The original comparative
parameters as penetration-viscosity number (PVN), penetration index (PI),
limiting stiffness temperature (LST), aging index (AI), complex
viscosity, storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), complex modulus (G)
and tan delta. These data show that the chemically modified asphalts
have potential for use in the highway pavements to help avoid cracking
and rutting in such pavements. The adhesion to modification of asphalts
improves the adhesive bond between asphalt and aggregate in an asphalt
mixture implying an increased resistance to stripping. The presence of
polar and polymerizing groups in the modified asphalts play a major role
in controlling the adhesion to aggregate. The infrared spectra (IR) and
high pressure-gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) support this
hypothesis."
264|"FHWA-RD-91-124"|"Development of Relationship Between Truck Accidents
and Geometric Design: Phase I"|"Shaw-Pin Miaou, Patricia S. Hu, Tommy
Wright, Stacy C. Davis, Ajay K. Rathi"|"August
1993"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"highway safety; truck accidents; highway geometric
design; poisson regression; negative bionomial regression; data
needs"|"The purpose of this study was to establish empirical
relationships between truck accidents and highway geometric design."
265|"FHWA-RD-92-004"|"Drilled Shafts for Bridge Foundations"|"Clyde N.
Baker, Gary Parikh, Jean-Louis Briaud, Elliott E. Drumright, Francis
Mensah"|"August 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"drilled shafts; nondestructive testing;
integrity; allowable stress; load testing; dynamic testing; acceptance
criteria"|"This study examined drilled shafts for bridge foundations in
soil and water enviroments where historically engineers have been
reluctant to specify drilled shafts because of their concern for possible
undetected construction defects. The major objectives of the study were
to evaluate existing nondestructive testing techniques for identifying
defects and/or results of adverse downhole condition that impact the load
settlement behavior and to develop a pilot acceptance criteria for
drilled shaft containing defects. The study included the construction of
a total of twenty drilled shafts with and without defects for different
soil sites located in California and Texas. The shafts were constructed
using different techniques; dry construction and wet construction using
water, controlled bentonite slurry, and controlled polymer slurry. Five
instrumented shafts were statically load tested and all shafts were
dynamically load tested to correlate with static results. All shafts
were tested non-destructively using both surface reflection and direct
transmission techniques and the results summarized and evaluated in the
report. The pilot allowable defect criteria developed consider the
design basis , the ratio of design stress to a maximum code allowable,
the type of stress, the level of quality control and the risk tolerance."
266|"FHWA-RD-92-006"|"Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) Mixture Design"|"K. D.
Stuart"|"March 1992"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"stone mastic asphalt; SMA; asphalt
mixture design; flat and elongated particles; mineral filler; crushed
particles"|"The first objective of this report is to document SMA mixture
design information obtained from Europe. Participants of the September
1990 European Asphalt Study Tour (EAST) recommended that SMA pavement
technology be evaluated in the United States. The Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) has the responsibility of evaluating, promoting,
and transferring this technology. The second objective is to document
SMA mixture design work performed by the FHWA for the Georgia Department
of Transportation ( GDOT). GDOT placed SMA experimental pavement
sections on Interstate 85, north of Route 53, in Jackson County, GA,
during July and September of 1991. The mixture designs were performed by
the FHWA to supplement GDOT's mixture design work."
267|"FHWA-RD-92-007"|"Non-Permanent Pavement Markings in Work
Zones"|"David L. Harkey, Reuben Mera, Stanley R. Byington"|"February
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"temporary (short-term) pavement markings; work zones;
lateral placement; encroachment; lane line; edgeline"|"This final report
summarizes the effects on driver performance associated with the
different marking patterns tested. The results of this study are
presented to help organizations develop guidelines for short-term
pavement marking policy."
268|"FHWA-RD-92-040"|"Case Studies and Annotated Bibliography of Truck
Accident Countermeasures on Urban Freeways"|"Dan Middleton, Kay
Fitzpatrick, Debbie Jasek, Don Woods"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"trucks;
countermeasures; accident; urban freeway; case study"|"To address the
growing problem of congestion caused by incidents, especially truck-
involved incidents, this study was undertaken to identify truck accident
countermeasures which have been used nationwide. Desired conditions
surrounding implemented countermeasures in this study included urban
freeway volumes of 95,000 vehicles per day or higher, a significant
number of trucks in the traffic stream (typically 5 percent or more), and
countermeasures invovling road design. The study omitted countermeasures
directly related to the vehicle and the driver. This project included
the following steps: literature search, telephone survey, and field
visits to selected sites. The information collected by this project is
intended to assist agencies in identifying, selecting, and implementing
truck accident countermeasures. Information was gathered on the
following truck accident countermeasures: lane restrictions, separate
truck roadways, urban inspection stations, ramp treatments, major
incident response and clearance, and truck bans/ diversion and time
restrictions. The detailed information found in this document is
summarized in the final report FHWA-RD-92-059."
269|"FHWA-RD-92-046"|"Advances in Weigh-In-Motion Using Pattern
Recognition and Prediction of Fatigue Life of Highway Bridges: Vol. I
Final Report"|"Nicolas Gagarine, Pedro Albrecht"|"September
1992"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"bridge; steel; fatigue; weigh-in-motion; pattern
recognition; structural response"|"The two main objectives of the present
study were to: (1) demonstrate the advantages of using the Weigh-in-
Motion and Response (WIM+R) system to evaluate the fatigue life of
existing bridges and (2) introduce pattern recognition methods in the
analysis of WIM+R data."
270|"FHWA-RD-92-049"|"A Systemwide Methodology For Evaluating Highway
Safety Studies"|"Olda J. Pendleton"|"October
1992"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"systemwide methodology; accident analysis; highway
safety studies; before-after studies; regression-to-the-mean; accident
migrations"|"This study developed a new, better procedure for assessing
widespread geographic effects resulting from the use of safety
treatments. Most currently used statistical methods for countermeasure
evaluation assess the spot or local changes that result from the new
treatment. The effects of the treatment on the entire system or near-by
contiguous links are seldom evaluated. The new approach is ideal for
applications where large quantities of data reside in a PC computer
format. Incorporated in the methodology are known procedures for
determining if regression-to-the-mean (RTM) problems exist and how those
problems can be minimized when they are present. A previous research
study developed a computer program - Bayesian Estimation of Accidents in
Transportation Studies (BEATS) - that identifies and corrects regression-
to-the-mean bias in highway safety studies. Step-by-step guidelines were
developed on how to plan and use the new procedure to evaluate highway
safety studies. The guidelines describe what are adequate sample sizes,
how to identify RTM problems, and how computerized data analysis
procedures can be used."
271|"FHWA-RD-92-055"|"Maintenance Coating of Weathering Steel: Field
Evaluation and Guidelines"|"B.R. Applemen, R.E.F. Weaver, Joseph A.
Bruno"|"March 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"weathering steel; maintenance painting;
coatings; corrosion; guidelines; chloride contamination; field testing; A
588"|"This report describes a 4-year bridge and test fence evaluation of
protective coatings for maintaining weathering steel bridges. The test
specimens consisted of steel panels cut from existing aged weathering
steel bridges, along with some new mill scale bearing weathering steel as
a control. The condition of the specimens ranged from extensively pitted
and corroded (from chloride exposure) to mildly corroded and non-pitted.
Specimens were cut from angle irons, stiffeners, cover plates, and web
areas of bridges."
272|"FHWA-RD-92-059"|"Truck Accident Countermeasures on Urban
Freeways"|"Dan Middleton, Kay Ftizpatrick, Debbie Jasek, Don Woods"|"May
1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"trucks, countermeasures, accident, urban
freeway"|"In addition to fatalities and injuries resulting from truck
involved accidents, excessive costs and delays caused by these accidents
and incidents have prompted several operating agencies to consider
various strategies to reduce the truck accident/incident problem. This
study was undertaken to identify truck accident countermeasures
implemented in different areas of the U.S. Issues considered when
selecting countermeasures for review in this study included urban freeway
volumes of 95,000 vehicles per day or higher, a significant number of
trucks in the traffic stream (typically 5 percent or more), and
countermeasures involving road design. The study omitted countermeasures
directly related to the vehicle and the driver. This project included
the following steps: literature search, telephone survey, and field
visits to selected sites. The information collected by this project is
intended to assist agencies in identifying, selecting, and implementing
truck accident countermeasures. Experiences with the following truck
accident countermeasures are included in this report: lane restrictions,
separate truck facilities, ramp treatments, truck diversions and bans,
reduction of shoulder parking, urban truck inspection stations, incident
response management, differential speed limit, increased enforcement,
tall barriers, and mainland treatments. Additional information on this
study is contained in Report No. FHWA-RD-92-040"
273|"FHWA-RD-92-062"|"Side-Impact Crash Test and Evaluation Procedures
for Roadside Structure Crash Tests: Technical Summary"|"(NONE)"|"May
1994"|"[See RD-91-122]"|"FHWA"|"side impact; narrow hazards; roadside
structure; accident data analysis; crash testing; evaluation criteria;
occupant risk"|"(NONE)"
274|"FHWA-RD-92-069"|"The Effects of Bicycle Accommodations on
Bicycle/Motor Vehicle Safety Traffic Operations"|"W.C. Wilkinson, A.
Clarke, B. Epperson, R. Knoblauch"|"July 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bicycles;
bicycle facilities; transportation planning; highway design"|"This report
begins with an assessment of the Federal government's policy goal for
bicycling and defines two basic types of ""design bicyclists."" It
concludes by setting forth specific recommendations for selecting roadway
design treatments to accomodate the needs and desires of all types of
bicyclists. The recommendations are based on assumption regarding policy
goals and the types of bicyclists to be accommadated, on the state-of-
the-practice, and on professional judgement. More research, testing, and
evaluation is needed to assess and refine these recommendations. The
Report describes the assumptions, principles, and approaches used to
develop the recommendations; provides a model planning process for
identifying a network of routes on which designated bicycle facilities
should be provided to accommodate bicyclists of moderate ability (casual
adult riders and children); and commends design treatments and
specifications for roadways to serve different types of bicyclists under
various sets of traffic operational factors."
275|"FHWA-RD-92-079"|"Side-Impact Crash Testing of Roadside Structures:
Technical Summary"|"(NONE)"|"May 1994"|"[See RD-91-122]"|"FHWA"|"side
impact; narrow hazards; roadside structure; accident data analysis; crash
testing; evaluation criteria; occupant risk"|"(NONE)"
276|"FHWA-RD-92-079"|"Side Impact Crash Testing of Roadside
Structures"|"M.H. Ray, J. F. Carney III"|"May
1993"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"change in velocity; FOIL; luminaire support; ESV
pole; crash testing; side impact"|"This report contains a summary of 12
side impact crash tests performed at the Federal Outdoor Impact
Laboratory (FOIL) to evaluate the performance of several types of
roadside structures. The tests are described and results presented. The
results of these tests are then combined with earlier test series and
statistical models that predict dummy responses from test results are
developed. These preliminary models could be used to evaluate the risk
to occupants based on the response of hypothetical anthropometric
dummies."
277|"FHWA-RD-92-090"|"Impact Characteristics of Glass Fiber-Reinforced
Composite Materials For Use In Roadside Safety Barriers"|"Alrik L.
Svenson"|"January 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"instrumented impact testing;
composite materials; glass fiber-reinforced plastics; roadside safety
structures"|"The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is interested in
the development of barriers composed of composite materials. Barriers,
as well as other roadside safety appurtenances are structures subjected
to dynamic loading by errant vehicles. This investigation focuses on the
understanding of the impact behavior of fiber-reinforced composites when
subjectsed to low-velocity impacts, such as an automobile collision into
a fixed roadside object. This study attempts to characterize the
relative impact performance of several different fiber architecture types
in glass fiber-reinforced composites. This dynamic characterization of
materials compared to test specimens cut from standard, commerically
available glass fiber-reinforced pultruded composites shapes with
laboratory-fabricated composites of four different fiber geometries.
Composite plates were fabricated by a hand lay-up vacuum bag process and
were then cut into impact test specimens approximately 178 mm long by 25
mm wide (7.0 in long by 1.0 in wide). These test specimens were used to
evaluate the impact characteristics of the various types of materials.
This report discusses the drop weight testing procedures, important data
analysis paramters, and material fabrication methods used in this study.
The results of impacts tests on both pultruded and laboratory-fabricated
composite sample are presented and compared. Also, design considerations
and possibilities for further investigations are recommended."
278|"FHWA-RD-92-092"|"Traffic Maneuver Problems of Older Drivers: Final
Technical Report"|"Loren Staplin, Kathy Lococo, James Sim"|"August
1993"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"driver performance; age; capability; traffic
maneuver; accidents; motion perception; gap judgement; simulation"|"This
project includes a literature review and accident analysis that supported
the hypothesis that age differences in motion perception capabilities
represent a likely source of difficulty for specific traffic maneuver
problems experienced by older drivers. A feasibility study was performed
to evaluate the most appropriate apparatus for use in later driving
simulation tests planned in this research. Two sets of experiments were
subsequently conducted. In the first experiment, drivers in three age
groups -- 18-55, 56-74, and 75+ years of age--estimated the time-to-
collision (TTC) of an approaching vechile, from both stationary and
moving perspectives. The conflict vehicle approached at varying speeds,
and was removed from the view of the test subject at varying
times/distances relative to the subject. In the second experiment,
drivers viewed a dynamic roadway scene containing an approaching conflict
vehicle. The subject's task was to judge the ""last safe moment to
proceed"" with a particular traffic manuever in relation to the conflict
vehicle, to determine a gap judgement measure. Both the TTC and the gap
judgement measures were obtained under laboratory conditions using
multiple stimulus presentation methodologies in a driving simulator.
Limited controlled field validation data were also obtained for both
types of dependent measures, using the same test sample. Recommendations
for countermeasures to accommodate older driver difficulties with turning
manuevers at intersections were developed consistent with the results of
these studies."
279|"FHWA-RD-92-097"|"New and Emerging Technologies For Improving
Accident Data Collection"|"Warren E. Hughes, Donald Reinfurt, David
Yohanan, Margret Rouchon, Hugh W. McGee"|"March
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"technology; accident data collection; accident
reporting; accident records systems; notebook computers; pen-based
computers; laptop computers; Global Positioning System (GPS)"|"This study
entailed the identification and examination of technologies and a review
of the current processes related to the collection and management of
motor vehicle traffic accident data. The study identified those
technologies that are most promising in terms of improving the quality,
accuracy, completeness, and timeliness of the accident data and/or/
reducing the demands on police officers, accident investigators, data
coders, and data entry personnel. The technologies that were examined in
detail included the following: form readers/optical scanners, laptop and
notebook computers, pen-based portable computer, idenfitication
technologies including magnetic stripe, bar codes, ""smart"" cards,
Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI), the Global Positioning System
(GPS), and location technologies. Detailed reviews of the processes,
procedures, reporting requirements, and management of information related
to traffic accident data were conducted for a sample of nine States.
Interviews were conducted with people involved at all levels of the
accident data collection and analysis process, including police officers,
data coders, key-entry personnel, safety analysts, State and local
traffic engineers, and computer systems/information management personnel.
In addition, the applications of various technologies to the accident
data collection and analysis process or a related process were identified
and researched."
280|"FHWA-RD-92-098"|"An Analysis of Guardrail and Median Barrier
Accidents Using the Longitudinal Barrier Special Studies (LBSS) File,
Volume I: Final Report"|"Olugbenga Erinle, William Hunter, Maurice
Bronstad, Forrest Council, Richard Stewart, Kathleen Hancock"|"February
1994"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"impact speeds; guardrails; length of need; end
treatment; median barrier; LBSS; National Accident Sampling System"|"In
this study, the Longitudinal Barrier Special Studies (LBSS) file was
cleanses for use in examining the real-world performance of longitudinal
barriers. Given that impact speeds were mostly missing from the LBSS
file, impact speeds were reconstructed for several accidents. An
examination of the accuracy of reconstructed impact speed was also
performed using unput from three experts in barrier accident
reconstruction."
281|"FHWA-RD-92-101"|"Asphalt Mixtures Containing Chemically Modified
Binders"|"K. D. Stuart"|"March 1993"|"7"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"chemical
modification of asphalts; chromium trioxids, maleic anhydride; furfural;
moisture susceptibility; creep test; Gyratory Testing Machine; dynamic
modulus; dismetral test"|"The properties of a mixture containing an AC-20
control asphalt binder were compared to mixtures where the binder was
modified with either: (1) 1.5 percent chromium trioxide (CrO3), (2) 6.0
percent maleic anhydrice (MAH), or (3) 0.75 percent furfural.
Penetration and viscosity data of binders recovered from the four
mixtures indicated that the three chemically modified binders should be
stiffer at high pavement temperatures and softer at low pavement
temperatures compared to the AC-20 control asphalt after mixing and
compaction. The primary measurements for evaluating the susceptibility
to rutting were the permanent strains from a creep test. The three
chemically modified binders decreased these strains by an average of 25
percent. However, this difference was not statistically significant
because of the high variability of the test data. The three chemically
modified mixtures had improved low temperature properties down to
approximately -16 degrees Celcius (3.2 degrees Fahrenheit) based on
diametral test results. All four mixtures had equivalent test results
below this temperature. The MAH-modified mixture passed both engineering
tests used to evaluate moisture susceptibility. The CrO3, furfural, and
AC-20 control mixtures each failed at least one of the tests. The AC-20
control mixture had a high amount of visual stripping, while all three
modified mixtures showed no visual stripping. It was concluded that the
poor engineering test results shown by the CrO3- and furfural-modified
mixtures were related to a loss of cohesion rather than a loss of
adhesion. When the data for the three modified mixtures were compared to
each other, very few differences were found in any of their test
properties."
282|"FHWA-RD-92-113"|"Development of Roadside Safety Data Collection
Plan"|"King K. Mak, Dean L. Sicking"|"February 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cost-
effectiveness model; data collection plans; roadside safety"|"The purpose
of this study is to support the roadside aspect of the FHWA High Priority
National Research Area on ""Highway Safety Design Practices and
Criteria."" The objectives of this study are to (1) identify issues and
gaps in the state of knowledge needed to improve the cost-effectiveness
analysis procedure to be developed under NCHRP Project 22-9, ""Improved
Procedures for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Roadside Safety Features,""
and (2) develop data collection plans for those issues and gaps that can
be addressed with accident data."
283|"FHWA-RD-93-014"|"Heat-Affected Zone Toughness of Electroslag
Weldments"|"D. G. Atteridge, J. H. Devletian, W. E. Wood"|"November
1994"|"3"|"FHWA/LTAP/HDOT"|"electroslag weldments; heat-affected zone;
bridge structures; fatigue charcteristics"|"As part of a research program
to improve the toughness and reliability of electroslag weldments, the
Oregon Graduate Institute has developed a detailed understanding of the
influence of process variables and consumables on the structure and
mechanical properties of electroslag weldments. These results have been
presented in a report by the Federal Highway Administration entitled
IMPROVED TOUGHNESS AND FATIGUE CHARACTERISTICS IN ELECTROSLAG-WELDED
BRIDGE STRUCTURES, FHWA/RD-87/026. While these initial efforts
concentrated on the structure and properties of the weld metal, more
recent efforts focused on the impact toughness behavior of the
electroslag weld, heat-affected zone in both A527 and A588 alloys."
284|"FHWA-RD-93-015"|"Heat-Affected Zone Studies of Thermally Cut
Structural Steels"|"W. E. Wood"|"December
1994"|"6"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"structural steel; oxy-fuel; heat-affected zone;
thermal cutting; mechanical property"|"Thermal cutting is a procedure
that is integral to the manufacture and fabrication of steel. Thermal
cutting is particularly important in the production of plate steels,
where it is commonly used for trimming the as-rolled plate to the
required rectangular dimensions. The influence of the heat-affected zone
generated by thermal cutting on structural steel has been investigated
with respect to heat-affected zone ductility and impact toughness. Due
to the localized natured of the heat-affected zone, special test
specimens and practices were utilized. This report considers the
influence of oxy-fuel cutting conditions on the heat-affected zone
properties of structural steel."
285|"FHWA-RD-93-024"|"Timber Substructures For Bridge Applications"|"J.
F. Davalos, S. H. Petro"|"March 1994"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"bridges;
substructure; timber; piles; lagging; inspection"|"Timber Bridges have
become a viable alternative for new bridge construction on low-volume
roads, where it is imperative that the bridges be economical and long-
lasting. Considerable research on superstructural systems has been
completed in the U.S. and has provied design, construction, and
inspection guidelines for innovative timber bridges. Guidelines for the
design of stress-laminated timber decks have been published by AASHTO.
However, practical recommendations concerning timber substructural
systems are not readily available. Therefore, the objectives of this
booklet are: (1) to present background information on timber
substructures, (2) to present practical design guidelines for various
systems, and (3) present sources of additional information. The
following six systems were selected: timber piles, steel bent-pile
abutments, culverts, crib-wall abutements, and stub abutments."
286|"FHWA-RD-93-032"|"Guide Design Specification For Bridge Temporary
Works"|"John F. Duntemann, L. Edwin Dunn, Safdar Gill, Robert G. Lukas,
Mark K. Kaler"|"November 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"falsework; formwork;
scalfolding; shoring; temporary retaining structures; bridge temporary
works"|"Following the collapse of the Route 198 bridge over the
Baltimore/Washington Parkway in 1989, the FHWA established the temporary
works research program. The program was guided by the Scaffolding,
Shoring, and Forming Task Group as formed by the FHWA. The objective of
this study has been to develop a guide design specification for use by
State agencies to update their existing standard specifications for
falsework, formwork, and related temporary construction. The guide
specification was prepared in a format similar to the AASHTO Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridge Structures."
287|"FHWA-RD-93-033"|"Certification Program For Bridge Temporary
Works"|"Shoring Engineering Committee"|"November
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"falsework; formwork; shoring; temporary structures;
certification program"|"Following the collapse of the Route 198 bridge
over the Baltimore/Washington Parkway in 1989, the FHWA established the
temporary works research program. The program was guided by the
Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forming Task Group as formed by the FHWA. The
objective of this report is to develop a certification program aimed at
the supplier of falsework equipment to the bridge site."
288|"FHWA-RD-93-034"|"Construction Handbook For Bridge Temporary
Works"|"John F. Duntemann, Flora Galabrese, Safdar Gill"|"November
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"falsework; formwork; shroing; temporary retaining
structures; cofferdams; bridge temporary works"|"(None)"
289|"FHWA-RD-93-035"|"Repair of Process-Related Defects in Electroslag
Welding"|"W.E. Wood, J.H. Devletian, D.G. Atteridge, R.B.
Turpin"|"December 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"electroslag weld; weld repair;
repair procedures; electroslag defect"|"The primary objectives of this
program were to develop a welding procedure for repair of electroslag
weldments (ESW) and to determine if repair welding influenced the fatigue
strength of electroslag weldments. Intergral to this effort was to
identification of the most likely types of defects, their causes, and the
potential for effective repair. The electroslag welding process is
capable of producing a higher volume of defect-free weld deposit than
other processes used for joining structural steel. When defects do
occur, however, ESW is not well-suited for use as a repair process since
it is limited to vertical positions, single-pass, full-thickening
welding."
290|"FHWA-RD-93-036"|"Industrial Field Trials Of Oregon Graduate
Institute-Developed Electroslag Welding Technology"|"D. G. Atteridge, J.
H. Devletian, R. B. Turpin, W. E. Wood"|"December
1994"|"7"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"electroslag weld; narrow gap electroslag; weld
trials; electroslag demonstration"|"The primary objective of this program
was to demonstrate that the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) -developed
delectroslag welding (ESW) technology can be successfuly implemented in
commerical fabrication shops. Consequently, opportunity was provided to
evaluate the transferability of ESW technology and to develop additional
ESW mechanical property data from commerically fabricated weldments."
291|"FHWA-RD-93-039"|"Feasibility Of An Automatic Truck Warning
System"|"Hugh McGee, Sarath Joshua, Warren Hughes, Rodney Stickland, Zevi
Bareket, Paul Fancher"|"September 1993"|"6"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"truck; rollover;
detection; warning; accident; prevention; exit ramp"|"One of the
identified truck accident types that occur on curved exit ramps at
interchanges is truck rollover. A truck will overturn or rollover if the
lateral acceleration imposed upon it as it travels around a curve of a
certain radius and superevalation is greater than allowable given its
loading condition. Also, there is a speed at which rollover will occur.
This report deals with an automatic warning system to prevent truck
rollover. Within the study, three different options were identified and
evaluated for feasibility. Of the three, the option selected for further
definition and cost-effectiveness analyses was an inroad
detection/warning system. The system consists of two dectection stations
upstream of the curve with the combined ability to detect a truck speed,
weight and height threshold. The warning system is a combination of a
static warning sign and a fiber-optic warning message sign, which would
be activated if the controller determined that the truck would be
operating at the rollover threshold speed or faster by the time it
reached the point of curvature."
292|"FHWA-RD-93-042"|"Performance-Related Specifications For Concrete
Pavements, Volume I: Development of a Prototype Performance-Related
Specification"|"M. I. Darter, M. Abdelrahman, P. A. Okamoto, K. D.
Smith"|"November 1993"|"2"|"FHWA"|"acceptance tests; quality control;
quality assurance; performance-related specifications; concrete' pavement
performance; pavement construction; life-cycle costs"|"This study
continued the development of performance-related specifications (PRS) for
concrete pavements. Drawing upon previous work, a prototype PRS was
developed that considers the expected life-cycle costs of the as-
constructed pavement as the overall measure of quality. The approach
calls for measurement of in situ concrete properties and explicitly
considers variability and multiple quality characteristics in the
determination of pay adjustments. Extensive laboratory testing was
conducted to determine material relationships needed in the prototype
PRS, and a detailed test plan has been developed for the evaluation of
construction variables (e.g., dowel misalignment) that significantly
affect concrete pavement performance, but are not currently accounted for
in the specification. A computer program, PaveSpec, has been developed
for use with the specification in simulation and in generating pay
adjustments. This volume describes the development of the prototype PRS.
Concrete strength, slab thickness, air content, and initial roughness are
included in the specification as the key quality characteristics.    Both
cost models and distress prediction models are used to computer life-
cycle costs. The difference between the life-cycle costs of the target,
as-designed pavement and the actual, as-constructed pavement is used to
determine the pay adjustment. Numerous example on the use and
sensitivity of the specification are presented. A summary of the
laboratory testing results that were used in the specification is given,
along with a test plan for the evaluation of quality characteristics not
currently included in the specification."
293|"FHWA-RD-93-043"|"Performance-Related Specifications For Concrete
Pavements, Volume II: Appendix A - Prototype Performance-Related
Specification, Appendix B- PaveSpec Users Guide, Appendix C- Annotated
Bibliography"|"M. I. Darter, M. Abdelrahman, T. Hoerner, M. Phillips, K.
D. Smith, P. A. Okamoto"|"November 1993"|"2"|"FHWA"|"acceptance tests;
quality control; quality assurance; performance-related specifications;
concrete' pavement performance; pavement construction; life-cycle
costs"|"This study continued the development of performance-related
specifications (PRS) for concrete pavements. Drawing upon previous work,
a prototype PRS was developed that considers the expected life-cycle
costs of the as-constructed pavement as the overall measure of quality.
The approach calls for measurement of in situ concrete properties and
explicitly considers variability and multiple quality characteristics in
the determination of pay adjustments. Extensive laboratory testing was
conducted to determine material relationships needed in the prototype
PRS, and a detailed test plan has been developed for the evaluation of
construction variables (e.g., dowel misalignment) that significantly
affect concrete pavement performance, but are not currently accounted for
in the specification. A computer program, PaveSpec, has been developed
for use with the specification in simulation and in generating pay
adjustments. This volume includes support documentation for the research
study. The prototype PRS is included in its entirety in appendix A. This
specification is complete for pilot testing, verification, and validation
on simulated and then actual construction projects. Appendix B contains
a users guide for the PaveSpec computer program that has been developed
for use with the specification. Appendix C presents an annotated
bibliography of literature pertinent to construction specifications."
294|"FHWA-RD-93-044"|"Performance-Related Specifications For Concrete
Pavements, Volume III: Appendix D- Laboratory Testing Procedures and
Testing Results, Appendix E- Review of Recent Studies and
Specifications"|"P. A. Okamoto, C. L. Wu, S. M. Tarr, M. I. Darter, K.D.
Smith"|"November 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"acceptance tests; quality control;
quality assurance; performance-related specifications; concrete' pavement
performance; pavement construction; life-cycle costs"|"This study
continued the development of performance-related specifications (PRS) for
concrete pavements. Drawing upon previous work, a prototype PRS was
developed that considers the expected life-cycle costs of the as-
constructed pavement as the overall measure of quality. The approach
calls for measurement of in situ concrete properties and explicitly
considers variability and multiple quality characteristics in the
determination of pay adjustments. Extensive laboratory testing was
conducted to determine material relationships needed in the prototype
PRS, and a detailed test plan has been developed for the evaluation of
construction variables (e.g., dowel misalignment) that significantly
affect concrete pavement performance, but are not currently accounted for
in the specification. A computer program, PaveSpec, has been developed
for use with the specification in simulation and in generating pay
adjustments. This volume contains additional supporting documentation
for the research study. Appendix D describes the laboratory testing that
was conducted under this study for use in the development of the
prototype PRS. The various laboratory tests are described, and a summary
of the data is included in both tabular and graphical form. Appendix E
contains a summary of several key studies that have been conducted on
performance related specifications, and presents a summary of several
specifications that incorporate PRS concepts to some extent."
295|"FHWA-RD-93-055"|"Structural Effects of Epoxy Coating
Disbondment"|"S. B. Chase"|"November 1993"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"reinforced
concrete; epoxy coating; bridge decks"|"This short-term study was
conducted in response to questions about the structural effects of the
loss of epoxy coating adhesion. The study was conducted at the Turner-
Fairbank Highway Research Center from September 1992 to December 1992 and
consisted of three phases. Phase 1 induced disbondment between the epoxy
coating by means of an electrochemical process. This resulted in epoxy-
coated rebar with a significant degree of disbondment (betwen 20 and 30
percent). In phase 2 of the study, experiments were conducted to test
the effects of this degree of disbondment upon the flexural capacity of
reinforced concrete slabs. Three sets of identical reinforced concrete
slabs were fabricated. The control slabs were fabricated with plain
(uncoated) bars and untreated epoxy-caoted bars. The test slabs were
fabricated with the disbonded epoxy-coated bars. The slabs were then
tested to failure in positive and negative moment. Phase 3 of the study
tested the effects of disbondment upon pull-out resistance. The results
of the flexural tests indicated essentially no difference in the negative
moment capacities and some small differences in the positive moment
capacities between the three test groups. The differences were not
considered large enough to constitute a structural safety problem. There
were measurable differences between the results of pull-out tests
conducted with plain bars, untreated epoxy-coated bars, and disbonded
epoxy-coated bars. The pull-out resistance of the test specimens with
disbonded bars was still within the specified acceptable limits. The
conclusion of this limited short-term study is that a 20-30 percent
degree of disbondment between the epoxy caoting and it's steel substrate
for bars used as the main flexural reinforcements of a one-way slab does
not compromise the slab's flexural capacity."
296|"FHWA-RD-93-057"|"Review of Methodologies For Predictions of
Preheating Temperature For Multipass Butt Welds in Bridge Steels"|"D. G.
Atteridge, W. E. Wood, R. M. Dighoe"|"December
1994"|"4"|"FHWA/LTAP/HDOT"|"preheating; welding; carbon steel; hydrogen
cracking; bridge steel preheat prediction"|"The Federal Highway
Administration Department of Transportation (DOT) contracted with Oregon
Graduate Institute of Science and Technology (OGI) for studies concerning
the prediction of weld preheating temperatures for bridge steels. There
are a variety of proposed methods for estimating preheating temperature,
both experimentally and analytically. This report presents a review of
these methodologies for predicting (multipass) butt weld preheating
temperatures for bridge steels, as well as recommendations for their use
and application."
297|"FHWA-RD-93-070"|"Evaluation of Natural Sands Used in Asphalt
Mixtures"|"K. D. Stuart and W. S. Mogawer"|"August
1993"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"natural sands; shape and texture; NAA Method A;
ASTM D 3398; particle index; flow rate; shape-texture index; direct
shear; Gyratory Testing Machine; wheel track testers; rutting"|"Five
tests for sands were studied to determine if they could distinguish good
performing natural sands from poor performing natural sands when used in
asphalt mixtures: National Aggregate Association (NAA) Method A, direct
shear, American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM ) Method D 3398,
Michigan Department of Transportation Method MTM 118-90, and a flow rate
method. Performance was based on the effects of the sands on pavement
rutting. The best methods for predicting how the sands would perform in
pavement were the flow rate method, ASTM Method D 3398, and NAA Method A.
The flow rate method is the easiest method to perform followed closely by
the NAA method. ASTM Method D 3398 is very time consuming. The combined
effects of shape, texture, gradation, and quantity of sand on the
susceptibility of an asphalt mixture to rutting was evaluated using the
U. S. Corps of Engineer's Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM), the Georgia
Loaded Wheel Tested (GLWT) , and the French Laboratoires des Ponts et
Chaussees (LPC) Pavement Rutting Tester. The gyratory stability indexes
(GSI) and gyratory elasto-plastic indexes (GEPI) from the GTM did not
differentiate the poor from the good quality sands. How much natural
sand can be incorporated into a mixture could not be established using
the GTM data. The Marshall design data and the rut depths from the LPC
Pavement Rutting Tester and GLWT also did not differentiate the poor from
the good quality sands. All rut depths were below the maximum allowable
limits. Other mixture tests, or variations of the tests used in this
study, are needed."
298|"FHWA-RD-93-076"|"The History of the Prestressing Strand Development
Length Equation"|"Habib Tabatabai, Timothy J. Dickson"|"February
1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"bridges; prestressed concrete; prestressing strand;
development length; transfer length; moment strength"|"A research study
was conducted to determine the history of the AASHTO prestressing strand
development length equation and to evaluate the significance, with
respect to development length, of changes in the AASHTO provisions for
the determinization of steel stress at ultimate flexural strenght. The
accuracy of the AASHTO provisions in determining steel stress at ultimate
flexural strength was also evaluated for a number of typical cross
sections used in bridge construction. The strand development length
equation was first introduced in the 1963 ACI Building Code and was
adopted by AASHTO in 1973. The original research that formed the basis
for that equation was conducted at the Portland Cement Association (PCA)
in the late 1950's and early 1960's. ACI Committee 423 derived and
proposed the development length equation based on a reappraisal of the
PCA results. The intent of the committee in developing length equation
based on a reappraisal of the PCA results. The intent of the committee
in developing the development length equation was to come up with a
""reasonable mean"" for the data points rather than a conservative
estimate. A comparison of calculated steel stress at ultimate flexural
strength using AASHTO Equation 9-17 and compatibility analyses using the
RESPONSE computer program indicated that for AASHTO I-beams, bulb-tees,
and box section with deck slabs, the results were within 5 percent. The
differences were higher (up to 8 percent) in the cases of box beams
without deck slabs (high reinforcement ratios) and prestressed concrete
piles."
299|"FHWA-RD-93-080"|"Potential Safety Applications of Advanced
Technology"|"P. Fancher, L. Kostyniuk, D. Massie, R. Ervin, K. Gilbert,
M. Feiley, C. Mink, S. Bogard, P. Zoratti"|"January
1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"accident types; countermeasures; vehicle dynamics;
driver reaction time; IVHS; safety benefits; advanced technology; active
safety"|"This report identifies and evaluates the application of new
technology to known highway safety problems, including an assessment of
functional requirements, feasibility, costs, and potential safety
benefits."
300|"FHWA-RD-93-094"|"Long-Term Pavement Performance Information
Management System Data Users Guids"|"Shahed Rowshan, Sandra Harris"|"July
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"LTTP; SHRP; IMS; NIMS; RIMS; Data Module; QA/QC Checks;
Data Release; Data Request; Table; Report; Field; GPS; SPS; Data
Flow"|"The Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Information Management
System (IMS) Data Users Guide provides an overview of the Information
Management System of the LTPP that was inititated under the Strategic
Highway Research Program (SHRP) and is currently managed by the LTPP
Division of the Federal Highway Administration. This document is aimed
to assist the researchers in understanding the types of data collected
under the LTPP Program, how to request the data, the available formats of
the IMS data, and how to use the output from the data base. The guide
also briefly describes the background of the LTPP Program, the data flow
through the IMS, the data quality control checks, and sample reports
generated from the LTPP data."
301|"FHWA-RD-93-122"|"Conceptual Plan For an Interactive Safety Design
Model"|"D. W. Harwood, J. M. Mason, J. L. Graham"|"February
1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"geometric design; safety; computer-aided design;
intersections; ramps; speed-change lanes; roadside safety; design
consistency"|"This report presents a conceptual plan for an interactive
highway safety design (IHSD) model under consideration for development by
FHWA. This report combines elements of three separate plans for the IHSD
model that were developed independently by different contractors. The
report also includes elements of a plan for roadside safety models
developed recently for FHWA. The IHSD model is intended as a tool that
could be used by a designer or design reviewer to assess the safety
effects of specific highway geometric design decisions. The model would
be interactive in that it would allow the designer to make changes in the
geometric design and evaluate the safety effects of those changes as part
of a single software package. A key element of the IHSD model would be
an accident predictive model incorporating statistical relationships
between geometric design elements and safety. Separate submodels would
be provided for roadway sections, intersection, interchange ramps and
speed-change lanes, and roadside areas. The IHSD model would also
include modules for design policy review, design consistency review,
benefit-cost analyses, driver vehicle/dynamics simulation , and graphical
displays of roadway geometrics. The report includes a research plan for
the development of the IHSD model."
302|"FHWA-RD-93-123"|"Human Factors Design of Automated Highway Systems:
First Generation Scenarios"|"H. S. J. Tsao, R. W. Hall, S. E. Shladover,
T. A. Plocher, L. J. Levitan"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"automated
highway system; control; automation; driver research; human
factors"|"Attention to driver acceptance and performance issues during
system design will be key to the success of the Automated Highway System
(AHS). A first step in the process of defining roles and driver-system
interface requirements for AHS is the definition of system visions and
operational scenarios. These scenarios then become the basis for first
identifying driver functions and information requirements, and, later,
designing the driver's interface to the AHS. In addition, the scenarios
provide a framework within which variables that potentially impact the
driver can be explored systematically. Seven AHS operational scenarios,
each describing a different AHS vision, were defined by varying three
system dimensions with special significance for the driver. These three
dimensions are : 1) the degree to which automated and manual traffic is
separated, 2) the rules for vehicle following and spacing, and 3) the
level of automation in traffic flow control. The seven scenarios vary in
the complexity of the automated and manual driving maneuvers required,
the physical space allowed for maneuvers, and the nature of the resulting
demands placed on the driver. Each scenario describes the physical
configuration of the system, operational events from entry to exit, and
high-level driver functions."
303|"FHWA-RD-93-129"|"Curved Steel Bridge Research Porject , Interim
Report I, ""Synthesis"|"A. Zureick, R. Naqib, J. M. Yadlosky"|"December
1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"steel; model test; bridges; plate girders; curved
bridges"|"The objectives of the FHWA Curved Steel Bridge Program are (1)
to conduct fundamental research into the structural behavior of curved
steel flexural members and bridges, and (2) to address construction
issues, in order to provide adequate information to develop and clarify
design specifications."
304|"FHWA-RD-93-130"|"Investigation of the Impact of Medians on Road
Users"|"Brian L. Bowman, Robert L. Vecellio"|"December
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"medians; urban arterials; pedestrian safety; traffic
conflicts; nonlinear modeling"|"The purpose of this study is to determine
the safety impact of raise curbe medians, two-way left-turn lane (TWLT)
medians, and undivided cross sections on vehicular and pedestrian
traffic. This study concentrates on medians located on unlimited access
arterials in central business districts (CBD's) and suburban
environments."
305|"FHWA-RD-93-153"|"A Preliminary Laboratory Investigation of Passive
Railroad Crossing Signs"|"Nancy Bridwell, Elizabeth Alicandri, Doug
Fischer, Ester Kloeppel"|"December 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"railroad crossing;
signs; crossbuck"|"In 1990, 2,378 accidents, or 47 percent of all
accidents that occured at grade crossings, occurred at passively signed
crossings. This demonstrates the need for an effective passive at
railroad crossings to warn motorists and reduce the number of train-
vehicle accidents. The object of this study was to determine the
relative effectiveness of seven candidate passive railroad crossing
signs, including the current standard crossbuck. Forty-two Young/ middle
aged (25 to 45 years) and forty - two Older (65-85 years) subjects were
tested in the experiment. Data on recognition, distance, conspicuity,
comprehension were collected. The results showed no differences between
signs for recognition distance."
306|"FHWA-RD-93-155"|"The Semi-Infinite Plate on the Winkler Base, Free
Along the Edge, and Subjected to a Vertical Force"|"A. D. Kerr, S. S.
Kwak"|"June 1993"|"2"|"FHWA"|"pavement analysis; concrete pavements;
rigid pavements"|"At first, a brief review of published analyses for the
floating semi-infinite plate subjected to a vertical force is presented.
Then a solution is derived for the case when the plate edge is ""free""
and the plate is subjected to a concentrated force at any point on the
plate. As in the reviewed papers, the analysis is based on the linear
bending theory of thin plates. The solution procedure utilizes the
closed-form Green's function for the infinited plate, in conjunction with
the Fourier intergral method. The advantage of the present approach is
that the characteristic response of the plate near the load is
represenetd by the closed-form Green's function which contains the proper
singularity, whereas the other terms represent the needed correction for
satisfying the boundary conditions along the free edge. To study the
mechanical features of the problem under consideration, deflection
profiles and the bending moment distributions were calculated and are
presented as graphs."
307|"FHWA-RD-93-158"|"Comparable Systems Analysis: Evaluation of Ten
Command Centers as Potential Sites"|"Micheal J. Kelly, Jeffrey M. Gerth,
Philip D. West"|"December 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"comparable systems;
IVHS; infrastructure; site selection"|"This report presents a background
and summary of the comparable systems analysis performed to select
potential study sites. Study sites are being evaluated to define the
state of the art in user support and user interface technology that might
be adapted to future Traffic Management Centers (TMC) and to identify
human factors lessons learned in design and implementation of these TMC
systems. Site visits were made to 10 comparable systems related to
highway traffic management and other types of operation control centers.
A correlational analysis of ratings comparing each site to an idealized
traffic management center was used to select four sites for follow-up
study. Approach and methods to devloping rating dimensions and
conducting the correlational analysis are presented. This report
concluded with recommendations for the followup site visits."
308|"FHWA-RD-93-161"|"Safety Impacts of Different Speed Limits on Cars
and Trucks, Final Report"|"David L. Harkey, Ruben Mera"|"May
1994"|"4"|"FHWA"|"speed limit; differential speed limit; accident
involvement; traffic operations; transportation safety"|"The objectives
of this study were to determine whether differential or uniform speed
limits are more benficial to transportation safety and traffic operations
on Interstate highways. The approach to achieving this objective was to
examine speed and accident data from States employing both types of
limits. Speed data were collected in 12 States at rural and urban
locations representing all speed limits currently established on the
Interstate highway system for car/trucks. Accident data were obtained
from nine States which were geographically distributed across the country
and representative of all rural Interstate speed limits currently
established. For the speed data collected, a number of measures of
effectiveness (MOE's) were examined including mean speed, speed variance,
compliance, and speed distribution measures. For the accident data
collected, types of crashes were examined, along with the vehicle type
involvement and crash severity. This final report summarizes the effects
of uniform and differential speed limits on transportation safety and
traffic operations as determined by the examination of speed and accident
data."
309|"FHWA-RD-93-162"|"Using Pavement Performance Data to Develop
Mechanistic-Empirical Concepts for Deteriorated and Rehabilitated
Pavements"|"J. S. Rao, N. S. Shah, G. L. Mueller, M. Y. Shahin, K. P.
George, S. M. Carpenter"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"mechanistic-
empirical concepts; deteriorated and rehabilitated pavements; pavement
condition index; prediction models; data bases; modeling techniques;
model tool box; maintenance and rehabilitation"|"This report summarizes
existing pavement condition indices, and available prediction models for
each condition index. This report also identifies exisiting data bases,
where the required variables for the prediction models have been
collected. Successive chapters detail: the condition indices and their
prediction models; the selected data bases ( HPMS, SHRP-LTPP, Copes, FHWA
Design, FHWA Rehabilitation, Texas CRCP, and FMIS) with analysis and
evaluation of each; significant data elements in the SHRP-LTPP data base;
data elements for future development models; current types of prediction
models and modeling techniques; and a computer flow chart illustrating
data requirements and the conceptual operation of models to select and
design maintenance and rehabilitation alternatives. The conclusions
emphasize the development of modeling tools, rather than specific models.
The proposed MODEL TOOL BOX allows each user to develop models unique to
their environment, soil types, and maintenance and rehabilitation most
frequently used."
310|"FHWA-RD-93-163"|"Nationally Coordinated Program of Highway Research,
Development, and Technology: Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year
1993"|"(NONE)"|"December 1993"|"6"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"highway research;
technology transfer; trafffic operations; highway safety/intelligent
vehicle-highway systems; pavements; highway materials; highway planning;
policy; environment; right-of-way; and motor carrier
transportation"|"This progress report gives an overview of research and
technology transfer being conducted under the Nationally Coordinated
Program (NCP) of Highway Research, Development, and Technology (RD&T)
from October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. The NCP is organized
into categories, programs, and projects. The NCP categories covered in
this 1993 report are: A. Highway Safety, B. Traffic
Operations/Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems, C. Pavement, D.
Structures, E. Materials and Operations, F. Policy, G. Motor Carrier
Transportation, J. Planning, K. Environment, L. Right of Way, and M.
Advanced Research."
311|"FHWA-RD-93-168"|"Older Driver Perception-Reaction Time for
Intersection Sight Distance and Object Detection - Final Report, Volume
I"|"Neil D. Lerner, Richard W. Huey, Hugh W. McGee, Andrew
Sullivan"|"January 1995"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"older drivers; aging;
perception-reaction time; sight distance"|"Four on-road experiments
investigated whether the assumed values for driver perception-reaction
time (PRT) used in AASHTO design equations adequately represent the range
of actual PRT for old drivers. The Case III (stop controlled)
intersection sight distance (ISD) experiment found that older drivers did
not have longer PRT than younger drivers; 85th percentile PRT closely
matched the AASHTO design equation value of 2.0 s. In the stopping sight
distance (SSD) experiment, involving brake reaction times to an
unanticipated event (crash barrel suddenly rolling toward roadway), there
were apparent differences in the distribution of PRT among age groups.
Younger drivers accounted for most of the fastest PRT, but there were no
age differences in the 50th or 85th percentiles. All observed PRT were
encompassed by the current AASHTO design value of 2.5 s. The decision
sight distance (DSD) experiment measured when drivers recognized the need
to make a lane change maneuver, from the first visibility of the roadway
cue used by the driver. Although observed DSD values were generally
longer with increasing driver age, the 85th percentile PRT for all age
groups were well below AASHTO design assumptions. The final experiment
collected judgements about the acceptability of gaps and lags in traffic.
Younger subjects accepted shorter gaps and rejected lags later than older
subjects. Based on these findings, and consideration of the implications
of changes in PRT for sight distance requirements, no changes to design
PRT values, based on older driver performance, were recommended for ISD,
SSD, or DSD. Alternative models for ISD, based on gap acceptance or lag
rejection, were explored. Based on limited data, it is not clear whether
these models offer any significant benefits to the current AASHTO model."
312|"FHWA-RD-93-177"|"Older Pedestrian Characteristics For Use In Highway
Design"|"R. Knoblauch, M. Nitzburg, R. Dewar, J. Templer, M.
Pietrucha"|"February 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pedestrian characteristics; older
pedestrian characteristics; pedestrian walking speed; pedestrian startup
time"|"The objective of this project was to develop traffic planning and
engineering guidelines for the design of pedestrian facilities that are
sensitive to the needs of older pedestrians. A detailed task analysis
and literature review were conducted to identify the aspects of the
pedestrian's tasks that are difficult for older persons, including motor,
sensory, perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral factors. Several
activities were undertaken to identify specific problems experienced by
older pedestrians that could be addressed by changes in design standards
and operational practices. These activities included analysis of
accident exposure data, a survey of older pedestrians, focus group
discussions, and a survey of practitioners. It was determined that older
pedestrians experience difficulties at signalized intersection and often
do not have sufficient time to cross. A field study was conducted to
determine the walking speed, startup time, and stride length of older
pedestrians. More than 7,000 pedestrians in 4 cities were observed in
order to measure these parameters. Specific recommendations for changes
to highway design and operational practices are described."
313|"FHWA-RD-94-001"|"Cathodic Protection Developments for Prestressed
Concrete Components"|"M. Funahashi, J.Wagner, Jr, W.T. Young"|"July
1994"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"cathodic protection; corrosion; prestressed
concrete; post-tensioned concrete; anodes; cathodic protection criteria;
bridges; hydrogen embrittlement; pretensioned concrete"|"This is the
final report in a study that evaluated the feasibility of using cathodic
protection on prestressed concrete bridge members."
314|"FHWA-RD-94-002"|"A System for Calibration of the Marshall Compaction
Hammer"|"H. Shenton, M. Cassidy, P. Spellerberg, D. Savage"|"July
1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"asphaltic concrete; hot-mix paving mixtures; mix
design; Marshall mix design method; compaction equipment;
calibrations"|"The Marshall method is used by many State and local
highway agencies for the design of hot-mix asphalt. Although the
procedure is specified by several industry standards, round-robin testing
programs have confirmed wide variability in Marshall resutls. Much of
the scatter in the data is attributed to compaction hammer variables,
such as variation in drop weight, drop height, friction, hammer
alignment, pedestal support, and foundation. To reduce the variability
in the test results, an easy-to-use and relatively inexpensive system has
been developed for the calibration of mechanical Marshall compaction
hammers. This system consists of a spring-mass device with force
transducer, power supply, and data acquisition system. The spring-mass
device replaces the standard specimen mold during calibration. Force-
time histories from multiple hammer blows are recorded and analyzed to
determine average peak force, energy, and cumulative impluse. Using this
information, a proposed calibration procedure has been developed. The
procedure involves adjusting the number of blows to achieve a standard
cumulative impulse. A limited laboratory evaluation program has been
complete to demonstrate the system. The variability of test results for
specimens prepared in calibrated machines was reduced by as much as 60
percent, as measured by the reduction in standard deviation and range of
data for 15 specimens. A draft calibration standard has been developed
and formatted according to AASHTO standards."
315|"FHWA-RD-94-022"|"Highway Safety Information System (HSIS) Summary
Report: Truck Accident Models"|"(NONE)"|"August
1994"|"5"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
316|"FHWA-RD-94-034"|"Horizontal Alignment Design Consistency For Rural
Two-Lane Highways"|"R.A. Krammes, R.W. Brackett, M.A. Shafer, J.L.
Ottensen, I.B. Anderson, K.L. Fink, K.M. Collins, O.J. Pendleton, C.J.
Messer"|"January 1995"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"rural two-lane highway;
horizontal curves; accident analysis; operating speed; driver
workload"|"The state of the practice in highway geomentric design
consistency was determined through a review of U.S. and foreign geometric
design policy, practice, and research. Models, and a menu-driven
microcomputer procedure for their use, were developed for operating-speed
and driver-workload consistency evaluations of rural two-lane highway
horizontal alignments. The operating-speed model was calibrated based
upon speed and geometry data for 138 horizontal curves and 78 of their
approach tangents in 5 States. The driver workload model was calibrated
based upon 2 occluded vision test studies on a total of 55 subjects. The
operating-speed data suggest that 85th percentile speeds generally exceed
the design speed of horizontal curves whose design speed is less than
drivers' desired speed (i.e., 85th percentile speed on long tangents). A
preliminary evaluation comparing model-estimated operating-speed
reductions versus degree of curvature as predictors of accident
experience was conducted using a data base of 1,126 curve sites in 3
States. The evaluation suggests that accident experience increases as
the requred speed reduction from an approach tangent to a horizontal
curve increases."
317|"FHWA-RD-94-035"|"Relative Visibility of Increased Legend Size vs.
Brighter Materials"|"Douglas J. Mace, Philip M. Garvey, Robert F.
Heckard"|"December 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"traffic signs; legibility;
conspicuity; retroreflectivity; sign size; legend size"|"Static and
dynamic legibility studies were conducted to investigate the effects of
level of reflectivity, letter series, stroke width, letter spacing, font
letter height, and driver age. The dynamic study also considered the
effect of sign size and retroreflectivity on the level of conspicuity."
318|"FHWA-RD-94-042"|"A Simplified Field Method for Capacity Evaluation
of Driven Piles"|"Samuel G. Paikowsky, John E. Regan, John J.
McDonnell"|"September 1994"|"3"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"driven piles; dynamic
analysis of piles; energy approach; CAPWAP; TEPWAP; driven-capacity"|"A
simplified method based on energy balance between the total energy
delivered to the pile and the work done by the pile/soil systems is
proposed. This method, entitled the Energy Approach, assumes elasto-
plastic load displacement pile-soil relations. Calculated transferred
energy and maximum piled displacement from the measured data, together
with the field blow count, are used as input parameters. This method
does not consider the propagation process and is aimed at providing a
real-time pile-capacity prediction in the field. Two large data sets
were gathered at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell. One, PD/LT,
contains 208 dynamic measurement cases on 120 piles monitored during
driving, followed by a static load test to failure. The data were
obtained from various sources and reflect variable combinations of soil-
pile-driving systems. The other, PD, contains data on 403 piles
monitored during driving and ws provided by Pile Dynamis Inc. of
Cleveland, Ohio. All cases were examined and analyzed. The Energy
Approach method was found to provide excellent evaluations of pile
capacity under all conditions. The method is, therefore, proposed to be
used in the field for instantaneous capacity determination. The
predictions of this method were found on the average to provide more
accurate evaluations than the sophisticated office methods, especially
for records obtained at the end of initial driving. The Energy Approach
is, therefore, also proposed to be used as an independent tool to
evaluate the office methods."
319|"FHWA-RD-94-048"|"Characteristics of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite
Materials For Use In Roadside Safety Barriers"|"Binshan Ye"|"July
1994"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"volume-fraction test; composite materials; glass
fiber-reinforced plastics; roadside safety structures"|"The Federal
Highway (FHWA) is interested in the development of barriers composed of
composite materials. Barriers, as well as other roadside safety
appurtenances, are structures subjected to dynamic loading by errant
vehicles. This investigation focuses on the understanding of properties
of glass fiber-reinforced composites. This study attempts to
characterize the mechanical properties of several different fiber
architecture types in glass fiber-reinforced composites. This
characterization of materials examined volume fractions of test specimens
cut from standard, commercially available fiber-reinforced pultruded
composite shapes and laboratory-fabricated composites of four different
fiber geometries. This report also discusses the test and the quasi-
static tests on both pultruded and laboratory-fabricated composite
samples are presented and compared. Also, design considerations and
possibilities for further investigations are recommended."
320|"FHWA-RD-94-049"|"An Analysis of Transfer and Development Lengths for
Pretensioned Concrete Structures"|"C. Dale Buckner"|"December
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridges; prestressed concrete; strand bond; transfer
length; development length; prestressing strand"|"In October 1988, the
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) issued a memorandum that placed
restrictions on the use of seven-wire strands for pretensioned members in
highway bridge applications. As a result of this memorandum, about 12
research projects were initiated at institutions in the United States and
Canada. The research often led to conflicting design recommendations for
transfer and development lengths of pretensioned strands. In an attempt
to reconsile some of the differences in the design recommendations, the
FHWA requested that an independent review of the recent research be
conducted. This report is a summary of that effort. The specific
objectives of the present study were as follows: 1) Conduct a review of
literature related to strand transfer and development length research, 2)
Analyze data from recent studies and rationalize discrepancies among
conclusions drawn from these studies and 3) recommend design criteria for
strand transfer and development lengths consistent with the current state
of knowledge. The objectives cited above were fulfilled.
Recommendations and equations for determining strand transfer and
development lengths are presented."
321|"FHWA-RD-94-052"|"Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway
Bridges"|"Ian G. Buckle, Ian M. Friedland"|"May
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bridges; earthquakes; retrofitting; prioritization;
evaluation; retrofit measures; guidelines"|"This manual is an interim
revision of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication Seismic
Retrofitting Guidelines for Highway Bridges, which was published in 1983
as report no. FHWA/RD-83/007. It describes an evaluation procedure for
retrofitting seismically deficient highway bridges and outlines various
measures to upgrade these structures."
322|"FHWA-RD-94-053"|"Robotices Application to Highway Transportation
Vol. I: Final Report"|"Dr. Ernest W. Kent"|"January
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"robotics; automation; highway; construction;
maintenance; operation; cost-benefit analysis"|"The National Institute of
Standards and Technology, at the request of the Federal Highway
Administration, has conducted a study of potential applications of
automation and robotics technology in construction, maintenance, and
operation of highway systems. The study included a workshop exploring
industry perceptions of needs and barriers to adoption, a workshop and a
literature search to assess current state of the art practices and
trends, and site visits by automation experts to typical highway
worksites. Potential technology opportunities were highlighted for
short, medium, and long-term efforts in a matrix of intersection between
common highway jobs and areas of curent technological thrust. From among
the opportunities identified, six potential research areas were developed
as specific proposals, and subjected to life-cycle cost-benefits
analysis. Four were projected to return significant savings by
comparisons with current practice. Of these, two were identified as also
likely to return benefits of significant impact on total highway
expenditures and the national economy due to their ability to leverage
savings across large numbers of jobs or their effects on a large
percentage of highway traffic."
323|"FHWA-RD-94-062"|"Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis"|"A.
Clarke, L. Tracy"|"April 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"bicycle; bicycle safety;
bicycle facilities; bicycle helmets; bicycle use; highway design; traffic
calming"|"This research synthesis is designed to summarize bicycle
safety-related research and applied research since 1981 in the United
States. The report has been developed for the benefit of researchers and
practitioners in the field. The report updates an earlier synthesis
prepared for the Federal Highway Administration in 1981. The report
reviews research into current levels of bicycle use, potential levels of
use, and the benefits bicycling can bring to society; identifies the
scale and nature of crashes related to bicycle use; discusses engineering
countermeasures that have been tested to prevent crashes; brings readers
up-to-date with current practices related to bicycle facility selection
and design; highlights surface irregularities that endanger bicyclists as
well as countermeasures to correct them; introduces readers to traffic-
calming techniques; review bicyclists' equipment safety and helmet use;
and reviews education programs and enforcement programs to improve
safety. Conclusions on the current state of knowledge in this field are
offered, and where possible, reference to current practices have been
included."
324|"FHWA-RD-94-071"|"National Geotechnical Experimentation Sites:
Central Data Repository (User Manual)"|"J. Benoit, S.M. Sawyer, M. Adams,
P.A. de Alba"|"December 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"NGES; data base; geotechnical;
experimentation; test sites"|"The National Science Foundation (NSF) and
the Federal Highway Administration ( FHWA) recently set up a system of
National Geotechnical Experimentation Sites (NGES) available to the
geotechnical community at-large for the purpose of advancing the state of
the art in such areas as in site testing, field instrumentation, and
prediction of soil behavior. As part of this program, the FHWA also
funded the creation of a data base to document the activities and results
at each test site. This report describes a data base system, the
National Geotechnical Experimentation Sites Data Base (NGESDB) which
stores site information and geotechnical data from the experimentation
sites. NGESDB allows the user to select a site by soil type, State, or
geotechnical activity. Once a site is selected, the NGESDB can be used
to display site information such as the site description, representative
soil properties, boring locations, owner and contact information, and
references with abstracts. Geotechnical data is available for several
laboratory and in site tests as well, including test information details
and complete results for each test. Descriptions of prototype and model
foundations, permanent field instrumentation, and site improvement
activities at each site are also included."
325|"FHWA-RD-94-077"|"Changeable Message Sign Visibility"|"Philip M.
Garvey, Douglas J. Mace"|"April 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"changeagle message
signs; CMS; visibility; legibility; conspicuity"|"The object of this
contract was to identify problems with the visibility of CMS's,
particularly for older drivers, and to develop design guidelines and
operational recommendations to ensure adequate conspicuity and legibility
of in-service CMS's. This project was divided into three main sections:
a field survey of in-use CMS's, a series of laboratory experiments and
static field studies, and a partially controlled dynanic field study.
The research was designed to optimize CMS components, including the
character variables (font, width-to-height ratio, color, and contrast
orientation) and the message variables (inter-letter, inter-word, and
inter-line spacing)."
326|"FHWA-RD-94-080"|"Energy Losses Through Junction Manholes, Volume I:
Research Reprot and Design Guide"|"F.M. Chang, R.T. Kilgore, D.C. Woo,
M.P. Mistichelli"|"November 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"storm drains; energy loss;
power loss; junction manhole"|"The objective of this report is to develop
and test methodologies for computing energy losses at junction manholes.
Laboratory data obtained over a 6-year period at the Federal Highway
Administration's (FHWA) Hydraulics Laboratory are analyzed within the
framework of three methodologies: the energy grade line, power loss, and
neural networks. Descriptions of the methods are presented, along with a
statistical analysis comparing the accuracy with which each method
computes observed depth in the junction manhole. Volume I provides an
overview of the hydraulic conditions at junction manholes and identifies
the need to supplement existing data for development of predictive
equations for computing energy loss."
327|"FHWA-RD-94-086"|"Responsive Multimodal Transportation Management
Strategies"|"Salvatore J. Bellomo"|"February 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"IVHS;
multimodal transportation management; ATMS; ATIS; CVO; APTS; mass
transit; paratransit; urban goods movement; ports; airports; operational
tests"|"The purpose of this study was to investigate new and innovative
ways to incorporate IVHS technologies into multimodal transportation
management strategies. Much of the IVHS research done to date has
addressed the modes individually. This project focused on integrating
Travel Demand Management (TDM) strategies with the IVHS to provide the
synergy and the cost saving achievable by utilizing an [assumed] already
available IVHS infrastructure for implementation of TDM strategies.
Specifically this study was aimed at developing multimodal IVHS
applications for: (1) increasing the market share of mass transit, HOV,
and ride-sharing, (2) enhancing the efficiency of urban goods movemnt,
(3) reducing transportation demand in congested areas, (4) improving
mobility in urban and rural areas, (5) improving operations at ports,
rail facilities, and airports, and (6) addressing air quality issues. A
process was also developed for evaluating the potential utility and costs
of these new applications. Supplementing these evaluations were a series
of 8 1-day workshops held at sites across the country to obtain input and
feedback on these scenarios from transportation professionals."
328|"FHWA-RD-94-087"|"Preliminary Human Factors Design Guidelines for
Driver Information Systems"|"Paul Green, William Levison, Gretchen
Paelke, Colleen Serafin"|"December 1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"IVHS; human factors
engineering; ergonomics; navigation; driver information system; test
methods"|"This document is written for the designers of IVHS-related
driver information systems. It describes how to make those systems safe
and easy to use for ordinary drivers. These guidelines are based on
experimental work carried as part of this project, the literature, and
the authors' human factors experience. This document includes a
description of its objectives, general design principles, and guidelines
for the design of manual controlsl, spoken input, visual displays,
auditory displays, destination entry, visual displays for navigation,
auditory displays for navigation, traffic information, car phones,
vehicle monitoring, IVSAWS (a hazard warning system), interface
integration, as well as an extensive reference section. For most
guidelines, a commentary and examples of how they should be applied are
provided. These guidelines should be viewed as preliminary."
329|"FHWA-RD-94-088"|"Measures and Methods Used to Assess the Safety and
Usability of Driver Information Systems"|"Paul Green"|"August
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"IVHS; human factors engineering; ergonomics;
navigation; driver information system; test methods"|"This report
concerns in-car systems that may be used to present navigation, hazard
warning, vehicle monitoring, traffic, and other information to drivers in
cars of the future. It describes in detail measurements researchers have
made to determine if those systems are safe and easy to use."
330|"FHWA-RD-94-089"|"Suggested Procedures and Acceptance Limits for
Assessing the Safety and Ease of Use of Driver Information Systems"|"Paul
Green"|"December 1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"IVHS; human factors engineering;
ergonomics; navigation; driver information system; test methods"|"This
report (1) identifies measures of the safety and ease of use of driver
information systems, (2) describes test protocols for assessing safety
and ease of use, and (3) identifies levels of acceptance. Only the
driver interface is considered, not system safety considerations. Two
protocols are described: an initial on-road test to assess the basic
interface, and follow-on surveys at driver licensing offices after only
small changes are made to the interface. The on-road test involves use
of an instrumented car. From the data collected, measures of the
standard deviation of lane position, mean speed, spped variance, the
number and duration of eye fixations, and interface-specific performance
measures (e.g., the number of turn error) can be obtained. For each
measure, three levels, of acceptance are specified: best expected,
desired/planned, and worst case. The measures listed above should be
viewed as suggestions only. Normative data on driver performance are
lacking, and validity of the test protocols has yet to be established.
There are also concerns about these procedures not being cost effective."
331|"FHWA-RD-94-092"|"Description of the Integrated Driver
Model"|"William H. Levison, Nichael L. Cramer"|"July
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"IVHS; driver model; driver information systems; human
factors; engineering; attention"|"A simulation model for predicting
driver behavior and system performance when the automobile driver
performs concurrent steering and auxiliary in-vehicle tasks is described.
This model is an integration of two previously existing computerized
models referred to as the ""procedural model"" and the ""driver/vehicle
model"". The procedural component deals primarily with in-vehicle tasks
and with the task-selection and attention-allocation procedures, whereas
the driver/vehicle component predicts closed-loop continuous control
(steering) behavior. Given descriptions of the driving environment and
of driver information-processing limitations, the resulting integrated
model allows one to predict a variety of performance measures for typical
scenarios. These measures include time histories for vehicle state
variables such as lane position and steering wheel deflection as well as
allocation of visual and cognitive attention. Model calibration and
validation are discussed, and use of the model in analyzing complex task
situations and in generating human factors guidelines is demonstrated."
332|"FHWA-RD-94-096"|"Culvert Repair Practices Manual: Volume I"|"Craig
A. Ballinger, Patricia G. Drake"|"May 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"culvert; repair
practices; lining improved inlets and outlets; sliplining; grouting;
concrete and metal culvers; plastic lining"|"This manual has been
developed to provide guidance to highway agencies on procedures that may
be used to repair a wide variety of types of problems that beset metal
and concrete culverts of all types. Many of the procedures are also
applicable to the repair of timber and stone masonry culverts.
Procedures are also presented on ways to improve the inlet and outlet end
of culverts as well as the streambed channels leading to and from them.
Information presented in this manual has been compiled from numerous
contacts with representatives of the culvert industry as well as many
highway agencies through the United States and Canada."
333|"FHWA-RD-94-103"|"The Performance of Bendable and Nonbendable Organic
Coatings for Reinforcing Bars in Solution and Cathodic Debonding
Tests"|"D.B. McDonald, M.R. Sherman, D.W. Pfeifer"|"January
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cathodic debonding tests; chlorides; coating adhesion;
concrete; corrosion; epoxy coating; organic coatings; reinforcing
bars"|"This report describes tests on 22 bendable and 11 nonbendable
organic coatings on steel reinforcing bars. New cleaning and chemical
treatments on the steel surface were used with 17 coatings to enhance
adhesion. The bars, in straight and 4D bent shapes, were tested for
coated adhesion, development of blisters, new holidays or defects, and
corrosion following 28-d immersion tests in four solutions at 55 degrees
Celcius, representative of environments that coated bars may experience.
Adhesion was also tested after severe cathodic disbondment tested on 4D
bent bars with an intentional hole in the coatings."
334|"FHWA-RD-94-105"|"FHWA Workshop on: Mathematical Modeling of Rigid
Pavements (Draft Proceedings)"|"(NONE)"|"April
1995"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"rigid pavement modeling; Portland cement concrete
pavements; finite element analysis; mechanistic models"|"This report
presents the draft proceedings of the FHWA workshop on mathematical
modeling of rigid pavemnts. The workshop is second in a series of ""Load
Equivalency Workshops"" sponsored by the FHWA's Pavements Division of the
Office of Research. It discusses issues pertaining to rigid pavement
mechanistic analysis and design and evaluates the mechanistic methods
used to estimate the impact of today's heavy vehicles on rigid
pavements."
335|"FHWA-RD-94-110"|"LTPP Seasonal Monitoring Program: Instrumentation
Installation and Data Collection Guidelines"|"G.R. Rada, G.E. Elkins, B.
Henderson, R.J. Van Sambeck, A. Lopez, Jr."|"January
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pavement performance; seasonal monitoring; data
collection; pavement instrumentation; field testing; moisture,
temperature, and frost/thaw measurements; pavement testing"|"This report
descibes the operation theory, installation procedures and operation
guidelines for instrumentation selected to monitor changes in internal
pavement moisture and thermal regimes, frost/thaw conditions, and
external climate at test sections in the long-term pavement performance
seasonal monitoring study. The instrumentation includes time domain
reflectometry to measure moisture content of unbound materials,
thermistor sensors to measure pavement temperature gradients and air
temperature, electrical resistivity probes to measure frost locations, a
piezometer to measure the depth of ground water table and tipping-bucket
rain gauge to measure precipitation. These measurements of the external
climate and the resulting changes in the pavement material will be
coupled with monthly or more frequent deflection measurements, seasonal
roughness measurements, elevation profile and distress surveys to study
the cause and effects of seasonal changes in pavement structural
response. Guidelines and procedures for the collection of these data are
also described in this report."
336|"FHWA-RD-94-110"|"LTPP Seasonal Monitoring Program: Instrumentation
Installation and Data Collection Guidelines - Technical
Summary"|"(NONE)"|"April 1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pavement performance; seasonal
monitoring; data collection; pavement instrumentation; field testing;
moisture, temperature, and frost/thaw measurements; pavement
testing"|"(NONE)"
337|"FHWA-RD-94-116"|"Preliminary Human Factors Guidelines for Automated
Highway System Designers - Volume I: Guidelines for AHS Designers"|"Lee
Levitan, Max Burrus, Wende L. Dewing, William F. Reinhart, Pawan Vora,
Robert E. Llaneras"|"December 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"automated highway system;
human factors handbook; human factors guidelines; AHS designers"|"Human
factors is designing to match the capabilities and limitations of the
human user. The objectives of this human-centered design process are (1)
to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of system performance, (2)
to ensure a high level of safety, and (3) to maximize user acceptance.
These objectives are achieved by systematically applying relevant
information and principles about human abilities, characteristics,
behavior, and limitations to specific design problems. This handbook
provides a source document for Automated Highway System (AHS) designers
that will facilitate a human-centered design process for the AHS."
338|"FHWA-RD-94-139"|"TravTek Evaluation Yoked Driver Study"|"V. Inman,
R. Sanchez, C. Porter, L. Bernstein"|"October 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"TravTek;
ATIS; ATMS; IVHS; ITS; real-time traffic information; route guidance;
route planning"|"The Yoked Driver Study was 1 of 12 investigations
conducted as part of the TravTek operational test of an advanced traveler
information and traffic management system (ATIS/ATMS). The TravTek
system consisted of the Orlando Traffic Management Center (TMC), the
TravTek vehicles, and the TravTek Information and Services Center. The
TMC broadcast updated travel times for TravTek traffic links to the
TravTek vehicles once each minute. The TravTek vehicles broadcast their
completed link travel times back to the TMC for transmission to the other
TravTek vehicles. The vehicles were equipped to provide route planning,
route guidance, and a data base of local services and attractions. The
primary purpose of the Yoked Driver Study was to evaluate the value of
real-time traffic information, route planning, and route guidance to (a)
trip efficiency, (b) navigation performance, and (c) driving performance.
The study also examined willingness-to-pay, user perceptions of the
system, and user recommendations."
339|"FHWA-RD-94-147"|"Comparable Systems Analysis: Design and Operation
of Advanced Control Centers"|"Michael J. Kelly, Jeffrey M. Gerth,
Christopher J. Whaley"|"August 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"comparable systems;
IVHS; Traffic Management Center (TMC); Advanced Traffic Management System
(ATMS)"|"This research explored lessons that have been learned involving
human factors in the design and operation of control centers that were
similar to a generic, IVHS- class traffic management center (TMC).
During an initial phase, brief vists were made at 10 existing operation
control centers. Three of these were selected for more detailed study
along with 8 additional centers that were strongly recommended by center
managers and other researchers. During the second phase, structured
interviews were completed with operators and managers at the eleven
centers located in the United States, Canada and Europe. This report
summarizes the critical input, data processing, and output functions that
are expected to be performed by IVHS- class TMC's. It describes how
these functions are currently performed by the sample of existing high-
technology centers and how the functions might evolve with near-term
technology advancements and automation. It addresses a series of
important TMC design considerations including the user-centered design
process, operator selection and training, system evolution and advanced
automation, user interface design, and job performance aids."
340|"FHWA-RD-94-147"|"Comparable Systems Analysis: Design and Operation
of Advanced Control Centers - Technical Summary"|"(NONE)"|"June
1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"ATMS; TMC; human factors; engineering design"|"(NONE)"
341|"FHWA-RD-94-151"|"Finite Element Model of a Small Automobile
Impacting a Rigid Pole"|"Emmanual Cofie"|"June 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"820C;
simulation; finite element model; accelerations; velocities;
displacements; rigid pole force; centerline; left-of-centerline; right-
of-centerline; INGRID; TRUEGRID; TAURUS; DYNA3D"|"A finite element
simulation of a small automobile impacting a rigid instrumented pole
using the nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D is presented in this
report. The vehicle model was based on a 1989 Ford Festiva, a member of
the 820C class of vehicles defined in NCHRP Report 350. The Ford Festiva
is a good representative of the 820C class based on FOIL tests of three
different 820C vehicles. The model consists of beam, shell, and solid
elements. The objective of this report was to develop a computationally
efficient fininte-element model using as few elements as possible, that
can be analyzed ""overnight"", without unduly sacrificing the accuracy of
the results. Nodes were merged at junctions where parts met. Contact
surfaces were defined between parts of the model where contacts was
anticipated during the impact. The rigid pole was modeled as a hollow
semicircle of solid elements with a very large mass. Three impact
scenarios were analyzed for this study: (1) centerline impact, (2) left-
of-centerline impact (strongest spot), and (3) right-of-centerline impact
(weakest spot). Accelerations, velocities, and displacements at the
center of gravity of the vehicle and reaction forces on the rigid pole of
the finite element model are plotted. Results of the centerline impact
are compared with full-scale test results. These finite element analysis
results indicate that computationally accurate results can be obtained
with a relatively simple vehicle model for the test conditions under
consideration."
342|"FHWA-RD-94-153"|"Finite Element Modeling of Motor Vehicles.
Protocol for Developinng INGRID Data Input Decks for DYNA3D Computer
Code"|"Jerzy W. Wekezer"|"February 1995"|"3"|"FHWA"|"protocol;
validation; DYNA3D; INGRID; TAURUS; GRIZ; nonlinear finite element
method; computer simulation; full-scale crash tests; vehicle impact;
model development"|"Techniques and procedures to develop finite element
models of motor vehicles in INGRID preprocessor for DYNA3D computer code
are presented in this report. DYNA3D is a power nonlinear, explici
finite element code, which is used by FHWA for computer simulation of
vehicle impacts. The Protocol developed provides a systematic guidance
to developing finite elemnt models useful for impact simulations. A
model of 1992 Ford Festiva is used as an example to illustrate the
development process. The Ford Festiva is a member of the 820c class of
vehicles defined in NCHRP Report 350. Three full scale crash tests of
Ford Festiva were performed at the Federal Outdoor Impact Laboratory
(FOIL) and results are available from the National Crash Analysis Center
(NCAC). These results were used for validation of the 820c finite
element model. The protocol uses a front bumper, a right frame horn and
a front wheel of the Ford Festiva as a representative examples of almost
30 parts used to build the model. These parts were used to illustrate a
concept of geometric modeling in INGRID, which is a public domain pre-
processor to DYNA3D material types, which are the most popular for
impacting modeling, were also discusses. The report examines the use of
the DYNA3D sliding surfaces, control and interactive commands and
provides listing of two short, illustrative data input decks for DYNA3D.
A complete listing of the 820c model is included in the appendix. The
report examines all major characteristics of the 820c impact with a rigid
pole. Differences between full scale crash tests and DYNA3D computer
simulation results are examined. A quantitative validation procedure is
proposed for evaluation of the performance of the model."
343|"FHWA-RD-94-173"|"Human Factors Aspects of the Transfer of Control
from the Driver to the Automated Highway System"|"J.R. Bloomfield, J.R.
Buck, J.M. Christensen, A. Yenamandra"|"August
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"Automated Highway System; human performance; driving
simulation; traffic flow; automation; intelligent vehicles; human
factors"|"The third in a series of experiments exploring human factors
issues related to the Automated Highway System (AHS) investigated the
transfer of control from the driver of vehicle entering an automated lane
to the AHS. Twenty-four drivers aged between 25 and 34 years drove in
the IOWA Driving Simulator - a moving base hexapod platform containing a
mid-sized sedan with a 3.35 rad (180 degrees) projection screen to the
front and 1.13- rad (60 degrees) screen to the rear. The experiment
focused on a generic AHS configuration in which the left lane was
reserved for automated vehicles, the center and right lanes were reserved
for unautomated vehicles, and in which there was no transition lane and
no barrier.   The driver took the simulator vehicle onto a freeway, moved
to the center lane, and then, after receiving an Enter command, drove
into an automated lane and transferred control to the AHS. Then, the AHS
moved the vehicle into the lead position of the string of vehicles
approaching it from behind."
344|"FHWA-RD-94-174"|"Degradation of Powder Epoxy-Coated Panels Immersed
in a Saturated Calcium Hydroxide Solution Containing Sodium
Chloride"|"J.W. Martin, T. Nguyen, D. Alsheh, J.A. Lechner, E. Embree, E.
Byrd, J. Seiler"|"October 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"anodic blisters; cathodic
disbondment; crevice corrosion; epoxy-coated rebars; infrared
thermography; peel; wet adhesion"|"Blasted-steel panels were coated with
two commercial powder epoxy coatings. Approximately half (80) of the
coated panels were scribed; while the other half remained defect-free.
All of the panels were immersed in a saturated calcium hydroxide solution
containing 3.5 percent sodium chloride maintained at either 35 or 50
degrees Celcius. None of the unscribed panels degraded after 3074 h of
immersion at 35 degrees Celcius; whereas, all of the scribed panels
degraded within 24 h after immersion, regardless of the immersion
solution temperature. Scribed panels degraded in three ways: (1) anodic
corrosion, (2) cathodic disbondment, and (3) wet-adhesion loss. Anodic
corrosion was attributed to localized crevice corrosion. The rate of
anodic growth depended on the immersion solution temperature, but it did
not depend on the type of coating or coating thickness. Liquid-filled
blisters formed above the anodic sites after approximately 1000 h of
immersion at 35 degrees Celcius. The chloride concentration of the
blister fluid was four times greater than that of the bulk solution and
its pH was around 5. The rate of cathodic disbondment was not affected
by the type of coating or coating thickness, but it was greatly affected
by an increase in the temperature of the immersion solution. Wet-
adhesion loss was not affected by coating thickness, but it does depend
on the type of coating and immersion temperature. Also, even though the
wet-adhesion strength of the two coatings differed by a factor of five,
the rate of corrosion for the two coatings was not significantly
different."
345|"FHWA-RD-94-175"|"Corrosion Control of Highway Structural Components
by the Application of Power Coatings"|"J. Peter Ault, Christopher L.
Farschon"|"June 1995"|"3"|"FHWA"|"powder coatings; fusion-bonded
coatings; laboratory testing; exposure testing"|"Recent regulations
concerning volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and certain hazardous heavy
materials have had an impact on the construction and maintenance
practices of transportation authorities. Powder coatings are a 100-
percent solid material that are heat cured, thus they have near-zero VOC
emissions during application. This report presents the results of an
evaluation of various powder coatings designed to protect atmosperically
exposed steel and reinforcing steel from corrosion."
346|"FHWA-RD-94-192"|"Invehicle Safety Advisory and Warning System
(IVSAWS), Volume IV: Appendixes I Through K (Reference Materials)"|"K.
Shirkey, B. Mayhew, B. Casella"|"March 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"safety system;
vehicle safety system; vehicle proximity alerting system; invehicle
safety/warning system; IVSAWS"|"The Invehicle Safety Advisory and Warning
System (IVSAWS) is a Federal Highway Administration effort to develop a
nationwide vehicular information systme that provides drivers with
advance, supplemental notification of dangerous road conditions using
electronic warning zones with precise areas of coverage. The research
study investigated techniques to provide drivers can take appropriate
actions. The technical portion of the study identified applicable hazard
scenarios, investigated possible system benefits, derived functional
requirements, defined a communication architecture, and made
recommendations to implement the system."
347|"FHWA-RD-95-016"|"Durability of Geosynthetics For Highway
Applications Interim Report"|"Tony M. Allen, Victor Elias"|"January
1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"geosynthetics; reinforcement; durability; chemical
degradation; polypropylene; high density polyethylene; polyester;
hydrolysis; oxidation"|"This report provides background and summary of
the scope of work for the pooled fund study, ""Durability of
Geosynthetics for Highway Applications"". Status and a summary of
initital test results for each of the tasks in this study, as well as a
summary of the significant accomplishments to date are provided.
Finally, discussion of geosynthetic life prediction issues and additional
research needs are provided."
348|"FHWA-RD-95-027"|"Federal Highway Administration Research and
Technology Program Highlights
1994"|"(NONE)"|"1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
349|"FHWA-RD-95-032"|"Cathodic Protection Field Trials on Prestressed
Concrete Components"|"J. E. Bennett, T. J. Schue"|"November
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"corrosion; cathodic protection; anodes; bridges;
prestressed concrete; concrete; hydrogen embrittlement; cathodic
protection criteria"|"This is the Interim Report in a study to
demonstrate the feasibility of using cathodic protection (CP) on concrete
bridge structures containing prestressed steel. Past laboratory and test
yard stdies had indicated that overprotection could result in the
evolution of atomic hydrogen and the embrittlement of prestressing steel.
Systems utilizing catalyzed titanium mesh, conductive rubber, and arc-
sprayed zinc anodes were installed on prestressed pilings and girders of
the Howard Frankland Bridge in Tampa, Florida; and systems using flame-
sprayed zince and conductive paint anodes were installed on the soffit of
prestressed box beams of the Abbey Road and West 130th Street bridges
near Cleveland, Ohio. The installation of all systems went well, with
two exceptions. A stong Octover storm caused damage to the substructure
and CP systems installed on the Howard Frankland Bridge, and leaking
joints on the Ohio bridges caused construction delays and additional
work. The three zones using zince anodes were all strated up in
sacrificial mode, but after a few months on-line, polarization of the
steel in these zones was inadequate, and operation will be switched to
impressed current in the near future. The conductive rubber anode used
on seawater pilings initially leaked a large amount of current to the
seawater, but this has moderates as steel below water has become
polarized. The conductive paint anode is showing signs of early
disbondment, and may not be well suited for service in this environment.
A review of literature and early data indicate that constant voltage,
with a current limit, may be the optimal mode of control for structures
containing prestressed steel, and this will be studied in the monitoring
phase of this contract. Following 2 1/2 years of monitoring the CP
systems, components will be evaluated and tests will be conducted to
determine effects on the bond and structural properties of steel."
350|"FHWA-RD-95-053"|"Preliminary Human Factors Guidelines for Automated
Highway System Designers - Volume II: User-System Transactions"|"Lee
Levitan, Max Burrus, Wende L. Dewing, William F. Reinhard, Pawan Vora,
Robert E. Llaneras"|"December 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"automated highway system;
human factors handbook; human factors guidelines; AHS designers"|"Human
factors is designing to match the capabilities and limitations of the
human user. The objectives of this human-centered design process are (1)
to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of system performance, (2)
to ensure a high level of safety, and (3) to maximize user acceptance.
There objectives are achieved by systematically applying relevant
information and principles about human abilities, characteristics,
behavior, and limitations to specific design problems. This handbook
provides a source document for Automated Highway System (AHS) designers
that will facilitate a human-centered design process for the AHS."
351|"FHWA-RD-95-055"|"Photometric and Visibility
Laboratory"|"(NONE)"|"January 1995"|"7"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
352|"FHWA-RD-95-071"|"Hazardous Material Highway Signing"|"Stanley R.
Byington"|"October 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"hazardous materials; highway
signing; traffic control devices; motor carriers; MUTCD; highway safety;
traffic operations"|"The objective of this study was to recommend a
signing system that meets the hazardous materials routing and restriction
needs of State and local jurisdictions. The approach of achieving this
objective involved three data collection efforts. One involved
collection of data from nine States and nine local jurisdictions to
determine their existing practices related to signing of hazardous cargo
routes and prohibitions and to define hazardous material (hazmat) routing
sign needs. Data were also collected from nine motor carriers spread
geographically throughout the United States to determine any problems
they have experienced with existing hazmat route signs and to obtain
feedback on means for correcting the existing signing. Finally, data
were obtained from Mexico, Canada, and The Netherlands to determine how
other countries are dealing with hazmat routing sign needs. These three
data collection efforts were also supplemented with a review of the
literature pertaining to hazmat regulations, polices, and associated
research - both national and international."
353|"FHWA-RD-95-073"|"Environmental Sensor Systems for Safe Traffic
Operations"|"(NONE)"|"October 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"ITS; environmental
sensors; visibility sensors; video image analysis; fog detection; ice
detection; wind detection"|"This report provides the results of a
detailed investigation of environmental sensors and their applicability
in highway operations. It describes the functional requirements for a
weather condition detection device to be applied to the roadway
infrastructure based upon current guidelines of various State and Federal
agencies. The report also analyzes the results of a year-long series of
field tests of visibility sensors. A group of five stationary and one
mobile sensor were examined to determine the applicability of the data
reported by these devices. Among the areaa of focus was the accuracy of
the reported visibility to the actual conditions, time to response to
visibility changes, and the robustment of the systems. The results of
the test appear to indicate that these devices have definite
possibilities for future deployment, particularly in conjunction with ITS
technologies. This report is intended for use by those organizations
with interest in transportation and safety-related issues."
354|"FHWA-RD-95-079"|"Ruggedness Testing of the Dynamic Shear Rheometer
and the Bending Beam Rheometer Test Procedures"|"N. Shashidhar, Brian H.
Chollar"|"December 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"ruggedness testing; bending beam
rheometer; dynamic shear rheometer; complex shear modulus; creep
stiffness; rheological properties; inter-laboratory study"|"Ruggedness
testing of the bending beam rheometer (BBR) and the dynamic shear
rheometer (DSR) was performed. Four laboratories participated in this
effort. Three materials were used for BBR ruggedness testing and four
materials were used for DSR ruggedness testing."
355|"FHWA-RD-95-089"|"Culvert Repair Practices Manual: Volume II
(Apendixes)"|"Craig A. Ballinger, Patricia G. Drake"|"May
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"culvert; repair practices; lining improved inlets and
outlets; sliplining; grouting; concrete and metal culverts; plastic
lining"|"This manual has been developed to provide guidance to highway
agencies on procedures that may be used to repair a wide variety of types
of problems that beset metal and concrete culverts of all types. Many of
the procedures are also applicable to the repair of timber and ston
masonry culverts. Procedures are also presented on ways to improved the
inlet and outlet ends of culverts as well as the streambed channels
leading to and from them.   Information presented in this manual has been
compiles from numerous contacts with representatives of the cuvlert
industry as well as many highway agencies through the United States and
Canada."
356|"FHWA-RD-95-107"|"The Driver's Response to Decreasing Vehicle
Separations During Transitions into the Automated Lane"|"J.R. Bloomfield,
J.M. Christensen, S.A. Carrol, G.S. Watson"|"April
1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"automated highway system; human performance; driving
simulation; automation; intelligent vehicles; human factors"|"This
experiment is one in a series exploring human factors issues related to
the Automated Highway System (AHS). The comfort level of the driver of
the lead vehicle of a string of automated vehicles was determined (a)
under normal AHS operating conditions, and (b) while a second vehicle was
joining the string as the new lead vehicle. The experiment was doncuted
in the Iowa Driving Simulator."
357|"FHWA-RD-95-108"|"Human Factors Aspects of Transferring Control from
the Driver to the Automated Highway System with Varying Degrees of
Automation"|"J. R. Bloomfield, J. M. Christensen, A. D. Peterson, J. M.
Kjaer, A. Gault"|"January 1996"|"3"|"FHWA"|"automated highway system;
human performance; driving stimulation; traffic flow; automation;
intelligent vehicles; human factors"|"This experiment is part of series
designed to explore human factor issues related to the Automated Highway
System (AHS) that is being conducted using the Iowa Driving Simulator
(IDS)."
358|"FHWA-RD-95-116"|"Automated Measurement of Aggregate Indices of
Shape"|"J. D. Wilson, L. D. Klotz, C. Nagaraj"|"December
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"aggregate; natural sands; angularity; angular;
roundness; video; pavement; shape; Hough Transform; digital
imaging"|"Aggregate angularity is a significant factor in determining
pavement resistance to rutting. Determination of aggregate angularity by
direct means allows a more meaningful study of the mechanisms of pavement
deformation. However, direct techniques have not been developed
sufficiently to allow a more advanced study of angularity effects on
pavement. Utilizing modern digital imaging hardware and image analysis
techniques, this project produced an automated system for measuring
aggregate angularity. Combining high resolution video, image capture
hardware, sample transport, and computerized analysis, an instrument was
constructed and used to compare various aggregate samples.
Differentiation of known good quality aggregate from poorer grades was
possible. Shape indicies were developed from basic linear measurements,
and the Hough Transform technique. These indicies appear to have value
in quantifying aggregate shape, and enable the study of mechanisms of
pavement deformation, and possibly the prediction of pavement longevity."
359|"FHWA-RD-95-170"|"Summary Report: Environmental Sensors for Safe
Traffic Operations (Publication No. RD-95-073)"|"Castle Rock
Consultants"|"January 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
360|"FHWA-RD-95-177"|"TFHRC Researcher's
Directory"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
361|"FHWA-RD-95-178"|"1995 Achievement Report, TFHRC
Center"|"(NONE)"|"September 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
362|"FHWA-RD-95-190"|"An Experimental Study of Scour Protection
Alternatives at Bridge Piers - Technical Summary Publication No. FHWA-RD-
95-187"|"(NONE)"|"February 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"riprap; grout mat; grout
bag; extended footing; tetrapod; tile mat; cable-tied block; anchor;
high-density particles; pier; incipient motion; scour; shear stress;
clear-water scour; live-bed scour"|"(NONE)"
363|"FHWA-RD-95-192"|"Human Factors Summary Report - Human Factors Design
of Automated Highway Systems: Scenario Definition"|"(NONE)"|"September
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
364|"FHWA-RD-95-193"|"1995 FHWA Research and Technology Program
Highlights"|"(NONE)"|"1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
365|"FHWA-RD-96-001"|"Research and Technology
Transporter"|"(NONE)"|"October 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
366|"FHWA-RD-96-009"|"Research & Technology ""Transporter"""|"Anne
Barsanti, Jon Schans, Zac Ellis"|"June 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
367|"FHWA-RD-96-021"|"The Performance of Bendable and NonBendable Organic
Coatings for Reinforcing Bars in Solution and Cathodic Debonding Tests:
Phase II Screening Tests"|"D.B. McDonald, M.R. Sherman, D.W.
Pfeifer"|"May 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cathodic debonding tests; solution
immersion tests; chlorides; coating adhesion; concrete; corrosion; epoxy
coating; organic coatings; reinforcing bars"|"This report is a
continuation of the work reported in the January 1995 report No. FHWA-RD-
94-103. That report presented coating adhesion performance data
following cathodic debonding and solution immersion tests on 22 bendable
and 11 nonbendable organic coatings applied to straight and 4D bend shape
reinforcing steel bars. This Phase II report describes tests on 5
bendable and 5 nonbendable organic coatings, 7 of which were selected
from the previous study on 33 coatings. These 10 coatings, 9 epoxies and
1 vinyl, also included the 3M 213 epoxy coating that was commonly used
for many years in bridge construction. The 10 coatings were tested for
adhesion performance on straight and 4D, 6D, and 8D bent bar shapes after
cathodic disbondment tests and solution immersion tests."
368|"FHWA-RD-96-022"|"Technical Summary: The Performance of Bendable and
Nonbendable Organic Coatings for Reinforcing Bars in Solution and
Cathodic Debonding Tests - Phase II Screening Tests (Publication No. RD-
96-021)"|"Janney Wiss"|"May 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cathodic debonding tests;
chlorides; coating adhesion; concrete; corrosion; epoxy coating; organic
coatings; reinforcing bars"|"(NONE)"
369|"FHWA-RD-96-031"|"TravTek Global Evaluation and Executive
Summary"|"V.W. Inman, J.I. Peters"|"March 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"TravTek;
ATIS; ATMS; IVHS; ITS; evalutaion"|"TravTek was an operational field test
of an advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) and advanced traffic
management systems (ATMS) technologies. This paper summarizes the
findings from the series of studies that constituted the TravTek
evaluation. Two field studies, three field experiments, and four
analytical studies are summarized."
370|"FHWA-RDDP-5-1"|"Serrated Soft-Rock Cut Slopes, Final Report"|"Dennis
Richards, David Ham"|"June 1973"|"1"|"FHWA"|"Erosion control; serrated
slopes; slope stabilization; soft-rock cut"|"Considerable success in
slope erosion control was realized in the Gatlinburg, Tennessee, area by
applying the serrating technique to soft-rock cut slopes. To effectively
communicated the principle and advantages of this technique to State
highway and Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) personnel, and other
interested agencies, a demonstration project was conducted which
consisted of an orientation conference and field trips to the Gatlinburg
area projects where the serrated slope technique had been and was being
applied. Subsequently, a 15-minute color movie on the serrated slope
technique was prepared and distributed to FHWA regional offices, and a
guide specification for the construction of serrated slopes was issued by
the FHWA Office of Engineering and Operations. To date, a presentation
on this technique has been given to over 750 FHWA, State, and U. S.
Forest Service personnel. It has been determined conclusively that the
serrated soft-rock cut slope technique is not only highly effective, but
is economically competitive with convential slope excavation methods."
371|"FHWA-RT-88-040"|"Slope Maintenance and Slide Restoration"|"Tommy C.
Hopkins, David L. Allen, Robert C. Deen, Calvin G. Grayson"|"Deceber
1988"|"2"|"FHWA"|"slope; slide; soil mechanics; maintenance; restoration;
highway"|"Each year U. S. highway agencies spend millions of dollars in
maintaining highway embankments, slopes, and other earth structures, as
well as removing rock falls and soil debris from roadways and reparing
landslides. Activities from maintaining highway slopes and restoring
landslides often cause traffic slow down and stoppage that creates
serious safety hazards and consumes significant highway maintenance and
construction funds. In addition, economic losses due to the
inconvenience to the traveling public is often immeasurable. During 1984
and 1985, as part of a continuing project to evaluate and improve
maintenance activities, a study on slope maintenance and slide
restoration was undertaken by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
Office of Implementation. This joint effort by engineers from the FHWA
and six state highway agencies (that is, California, Kentucky, Oregon,
Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wyoming) developed guidelines for slope
maintenance and slide restoration. These guidelines reflect the
collective experience of the six state highway agencies and are
documented in the FHWA report (TS-85-231) entitled ""Guidelines for Slope
Maintenance and Slide Restoration."" This technical note was developed
and based on the above report for use by Technology Transfer Centers
funded through the Rural Technical Assistance Program of the FHWA Highway
Administration in conducting training of the subject title."
372|"FHWA-SA-88-050 / DF-88/001"|"Retroreflectivity of Roadway Signs for
Adequate Visibility: A Guide"|"Hugh W. McGee, Douglas L.
Mace"|"November 1987"|"1"|"FHWA"|"signs; reflectivity; specifications;
inspection; maintenance"|"This manual deals with the reflectivity of
traffic signs. It interprets and explains the specifications and test
procedures in the ""Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and
Bridges on Federal Highway Projects"" (FP-85) dealing with retro-
reflective sheeting and related materrs and provides guidance where
appropriate. Topics covered include: (1) Principle of retroreflection
and characteristics of sign reflective sheeting, (2) Considerations in
selecting different sheeting types, (3) FP-85 specifications and test
procedures, (4) Sign fabrications, (5) Handling, stockpiling, and
installing, (6) Inventory, inspection, and replacement and (7)
Maintenance."
373|"FHWA-SA-90-012"|"The Forgiving
Highway"|"(NONE)"|"1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
374|"FHWA-SA-91-003"|"Breakaway Timber Utility Pole Installations in
Kentucky"|"Ronald D. Hughes"|"January 1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"breakaway;
utility; pole; safety"|"This report describes the installation of ten
breakaway timber utility poles in Lexington, Kentucky. Installations
were made by Kentucky Utilities Company personnel and monitoring has been
performed by Kentucky Transportation Center investigators. Retrofit
hardware is described and locations of modified poles are detailed.
Modified poles have not been struck by vehicles to date. Monitoring will
continue until September 1991 at which time a final report will be
issued."
375|"FHWA-SA-91-033"|"Sign Fabrication, Installation, and Maintenance--
Innovative Practices"|"Hugh W. McGee, Nancy L. Geisler, Lynne F. McGee,
Harold T. Thompson"|"May 1992"|"2"|"FHWA"|"signs; fabrication;
installation; maintenance"|"Many State and local agencies have developed
innovative procedures and devices to facilitate highway sign fabrication,
installation, and maintenance. This handbook describes several of these
innovations. A literature review and nationwide search was made to
gather information on innovations. The innovations that were received
ranged from very simple, but effective tools, to more elaborate sign
trucks. Innovations were developed from new uses for existing equipment
and modifications to existing equipment or procedures to provide a more
efficient use for it. A total of 27 innovations are described in the
report. The information is provided in a consice format and includes a
description, procedure for the product's use, the benefits attained, and
a person to contact for further information."
376|"FHWA-SA-91-039"|"RTAP The Rural Technical Assistance Program:
Reaching Rural America with Innovative
Technology"|"(NONE)"|"1991"|"54"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
377|"FHWA-SA-91-043"|"The Cone Penetrometer Test"|"Jean-Louis Briaud,
Jerome Miran"|"February 1992"|"2"|"FHWA"|"cone penetrometer; soil
parameters; foundation design; in situ testing"|"The cone penetrator test
consists of pushing a series of cynlidrical rods with a cone at the base
onto the soil at a constant rate of 2cm/sec. Continuous measurements of
penetration resistance on the cone tip and friction on a friction sleeve
are recorded during the penetration. The Piezo-cone records pore
pressures in addition to point and friction resistance. The continuous
profiles obtained with the cone penetrometer test allow the user to
visualize the stratigraphy, to evaluate the soil type, to estimate a
large number of fundamental soil parameters, and to directly design
shallow and deep foundations subjected to vertical loads."
378|"FHWA-SA-91-044"|"The Flat Dilatometer Test"|"Jean-Louis Briaud,
Jerome Miran"|"February 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"dilatometer; soil parameters;
foundation design; in situ testing"|"A dilatometer test consists of
pushing a flat blade located at the end of a series of rods. Once at the
testing depth, a cricular steel membrane located on one side of the blade
is expanded horizontally into the soil. The pressure is recorded at
three specific moments during the test. The blade is then advanced to
the next testing depth. The design applications of the dilatometer test
includes; deep foundations under horizontal and vertical load, shallow
foundations under vertical load, compaction control, and any other
geotechnical problems which can be make use of the soil parameters
obtained from the diatometer test."
379|"FHWA-SA-92-022"|"State of the Practice - Design and Construction of
Asphalt Paving Materials with Crumb Rubber Modifier"|"Michael A.
Heitzman"|"May 1992"|"7"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"asphalt additives; scrap tire
rubber; crumb rubber modifier; wet process; dry process; asphalt rubber;
rubber modified hot mix asphalt"|"This document is a comprehensive
overview of the terminology, processes, products, and applications of
crumb rubber modifier (CRM) technology. This technology includes any use
of scrap tire rubber in asphalt paving materials, In general, CRM
technology can be divided into two categories - the wet process and the
dry process. When CRM is incorporated into an asphalt paving material,
it will modify the properties of the binder (asphalt rubber) and/or act
as a rubber aggregate (rubber modified hot mix asphalt). The five
concepts for using CRM discussed in the report are McDonald, PlusRide,
generic dry, chunch rubber asphalt concrete, and continuous bending
asphalt rubber. There are two principarl unresolved engineering issues
related to the use of the CRM in asphalt paving materials. On the
national level, the ability to recycle asphalt paving mixes containing
CRM has not been demonstrated. At the State and local levels, these
modified asphalt mixes must be field evaluated to establish expected
levels of performance. The appendicies provide guidelines for material
specifications, mix design, and construction specifications. An
experimental work plan for monitoring performance and a stack emission
testing program are also included."
380|"FHWA-SA-92-034"|"Technology Applications Programs"|"(NONE)"|"July
1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
381|"FHWA-SA-92-037"|"Work Zone Traffic Control Information
Catalog"|"(NONE)"|"July 1992"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
382|"FHWA-SA-92-044"|"SPILE: A Microcomputer Program for Determining
Ultimate Vertical Static Pile Capacity -- User's Manual"|"Alfredo
Urzua"|"June 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"The objective of this report is
to introduce a microcomputer program for determining the Ultimate
Vertical Static Capcity of piles in cohesive and cohesionless soils. The
program follows the methods and equations presented by Nordlund (1963,
1979), Thurman (1964), Meyerhof (1976), Cheney and Chassie (1982),
Tomlinson (1979, 1985), and the FHWA Pile Manual. The report presents
the equations, analytical procedures and empirical curves utilized by the
program, and examples of the user friendly data entry form capabilities.
The computer program is coded in Turbo Pascal 5.0 language and takes full
advantage of the ""stand alone"" (single-user) characteristics of the
IBM-PC through the use of friendly input menus and data-checking
routines."
383|"FHWA-SA-92-045"|"EMBANK: A Microcomputer Program to Determine One-
Dimensional Compression Settlement Due to Embankment Loads -- User's
Manual"|"Alfredo Urzua"|"May 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"embankment; settlement;
vertical stress; one-dimensional; compression; void ratio"|"The objective
of this report is to introduce a microcomputer program for computing one-
dimensional compression vertical settlement due to embankment loads. The
program follows the equations presented by Lambs & Whitman (1069), Ladd
(1973), and Poulos & Davis (1974). For the case of a strip symmetrical
vertical embankment loading, the program superimposes two vertical
embankment loads. For the increment of vertical stresses at end of fill,
the program internally superimposes a series of 10 rectangular loads to
create the end-of-fill condition. The report presents the equations and
analytical procedures utilized by the program and examples of the
capabilities of the user-friendly data entry form. The computer program
is coded in the Turbo Pascal 4.0 language and takes full advantage of the
stand-along (single-user) characteristics of the IBM-PC through the use
of ""friendly"" input menus and data-checking routines."
384|"FHWA-SA-93-001"|"Roadway Delineation Practices Handbook"|"James
Migletz, Joseph K. Fish, Jerry L. Graham"|"August
1994"|"3"|"FHWA"|"roadway delineation; pavement markings;
retroreflection; driver visibility; traffic paints; thermoplastic;
preformed tapes; raised pavement markers"|"The Roadway Delineation
Practices Handbook was developed to assist design, traffic, and
maintenance engineering personnel in making determinations about roadway
delineation systems, including the appropriate system for a given
situation, when a system has reached the end of its useful life, and how
to maintain a quality delineation system. It may also be valuabe to
consulting engineers, educators, and students."
385|"FHWA-SA-93-011"|"Crumb Rubber Modifier Workshop Notes: Design
Procedures and Construction
Practices"|"(NONE)"|"1993"|"6"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
386|"FHWA-SA-93-025"|"Guidelines for Design, Specification, & Contracting
of Geosynthetic Mechanically Stabilized Earth Slopes on Firm
Foundations"|"Ryan R. Berg"|"October 1992"|"3"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"MSE earth
slopes; reinforcement; geosynthetics; goegrids; geotextiles; design;
specifications"|"This report provides comprehensive guidelines for
design, specification, and contracting of mechanically stabilized earth
slopes. These guidelines were developed for use by transportation
agencies. Both a material specification and a systems specification
approach are addressed. A material specification approach is suited for
in-house design by an agency, and the systems specification approach is
suited to a 'line and grade' process, similar to that widely used with
MSE wall structures. Slopes on firm foundations are specifically
addressedm and embankments over soft soils are not covered. Use of
geosynthetic reinforcement is included in this document, with geogrids
and geotextiles specifically addressed. These guidelines are primarily
based upon existing FHWA report on soil reinfrocement. Specific reports
and guidelines are cited in the text and listed as references."
387|"FHWA-SA-93-028"|"Engineer's Guide to Program and Product
Evaluation"|"Lindsay I. Griffin, III"|"September
1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"program evaluation; product evaluation; technology
assessment; technology applications; research and development"|"Part One
of the Engineers' Guide To Program and Product Evaluation describes the
functions and characteristics of the Federal Highway Administration's
research and development (R&D) efforts and the categories of R&D program
and product evaluation. Part Two of the Guide describes a six-step
procedure for conducting R&D programs/ product evaluation using three
hypothetical evaluation of programs or products that address different
evaluation topics and different circumstances encountered in conducting
evaluations."
388|"FHWA-SA-93-035"|"Guidelines for Evaluating Fluorescent Strong Yellow
Green Crossing Signs"|"M.R. Parker, Jr."|"June
1993"|"26"|"FHWA"|"pedestrian, bicycle, and school crossing signs; driver
behavior; traffic conflicts"|"This manual was prepared to assist States
and local highway agencies in conducting field studies to determine the
effects of fluorescent strong yellow green crossing signs on motorists
behavior at pedestrian, bicycle, and school crossings. These guidelines
were developed to utilize existing personnel and equipment with a modest
time expenditure. A before and after study with comparison site
experimental design is recommended for the effectiveness evaluation.
Field data collection using two observers are readily available
inexpensive equipment is suggested. Included in this manual are
guidelines for selecting study sites, collecting the field data, and
conducting the analysis."
389|"FHWA-SA-93-037"|"Effective Highway Accident Countermeasures: Status
Report"|"(NONE)"|"1993"|"15"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
390|"FHWA-SA-93-049"|"Highway / Utility Guide"|"J. Thorne, D. Turner, J.
Lindly"|"June 1993"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"transportation; highways;
utilities"|"For many years there has been a need to assemble, under one
cover, state-of-the-knowledge guidance on the better practices being
employed to address the full array of issues which can arise from highway
and utility facilities sharing common right-of-way. The Highway/Utility
Guide is such a document. It provides useful information relevant to
joint use issues, a historical perspective, and good current practices.
Issues addresses in the Highway/Utility Guide include: planning and
coordination, design, permits, information management and mapping,
notification procedures, legal, safety, construction, maintenance,
reimbursement, and others."
391|"FHWA-SA-93-050"|"Traffic Models Overview Handbook"|"James R.
Mekemson, Edward T. Herlihy, Shui-Ying Wong"|"June
1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"traffic models; signal timing; simulation;
optimization; intersections; arterials; freeways; computer models"|"This
Handbook provides an overview of a number of Traffic Models for
performing traffic signal timing optimization mainly for arterials and
networks and for performing evaluations of traffic operations and
geometric design plans for intersections, arterials, urban street
networks, and freeways using simulation models. The simulation models
reviewed excompass both macroscopic and microscopic models. The traffic
models reviewed include: PASSER II, TRANSYT-7F, TRAF-NETSIM, CORFLO
(NETFLO 1 & 2 and FREFLO), FRESIM, ROADSIM, PASSER III, MAXBAND, SOAP,
TIMACS, and FREQ. The purpose of the Handbook is to provide the
transportation professional with information sufficient for deciding if a
particular traffic model would be suitable for their applications and an
idea of how much effort and resources would be required to apply the
model effectively."
392|"FHWA-SA-93-053"|"Ice Detection and Highway Weather Information
Systems - Summary Report Test and Evaluation Project 011"|"(NONE)"|"June
1993"|"9"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"ice detection; weather information systems;
technology transfer; highway maintenance; highway safety"|"During the
last 20 years, a number of State Highway agencies have installed ice
detection and highway weather information systems. Their evaluations
have addressed the performance of the system equipment and not its
usefulness, effects on highway safety, and cost-saving aspects. This
project was initiated in 1988 with the objective of documenting the
usefulness of ice detection and highway weather information systems in
maintaining highway safety during winter weather and reducing salt or
winter chemical and personnel needs for snow and ice control. A total of
eight cooperating agencies participated and evaluated their systems over
the winters of 1989 and 1990. Participants' experiences during this
evaluation showed that PROACTIVE use of ice detection and highway
information systems to aid in planning winter maintenance operations can
reduce personnel, material, and equipment needs; reduce the potential for
accident due to icing conditions; and reduce the amount of corrosive or
environmentally harmful chemicals used for snow/ice control."
393|"FHWA-SA-93-054"|"Implementation Plan: Strategic Highway Research
Program Products"|"(NONE)"|"June 1993"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
394|"FHWA-SA-93-061"|"Demonstration Project No. 93: Traffic Control
Equipment and Software -- Participant's Notebook"|"Ziad A. Sabra"|"July
1993"|"9"|"FHWA"|"traffic control systems; NEMA; Model 170; controllers;
controller unit; cabinet; input devices; output devices; communications;
closed loop systems; hybrid systems; distributed systems; testers; UPS;
suppressors"|"This Participant's Notebook was developed as a training and
references aid for the Traffic Signal Equipment and Software workshop.
The notebook is organized to reflect the material presented in each of
the 2-day sessions. The workshop is designed to provie participants
(traffic signal systems engineers and technicians) with information and
an opportunity to discuss and operate examples of the State-of-the-Art
traffic signal technology and equipment on the market today. At the
completion of this workshop, the participant should have an understanding
of: 1) The role and impact of traffic control systems, 2) The resources
and maintenance requirements for implementing and upkeeping traffic
control systems, 3) The concept of NEMA and Model 170 controller unit, 4)
Controller input and outputs devices, i.e., detectors, time switches,
time base coordinators, conflict monitors, flashers, isolators, load
switches; test equipment, UPS, suppression devices, communication
techniques, closed loop systems, centralized signal systems, and signal
timing software and 5) New emerging traffic control and I.V.H.S.
technologies."
395|"FHWA-SA-93-068"|"Soil Nailing Field Inspectors Manual- Soil Nail
Walls"|"James A. Porterfield, David M Cotton, R. John Byrne"|"April
1994"|"1"|"FHWA"|"soil nailing; retaining walls; soil nail walls; nail
testing; geocomposite drain; centralizers; groundwater; grouting;
excavation; performance specifications"|"The purpose of this manual is to
provide field inspectors with the knowledge necessary to effectively
monitor and document the construction of soil nail retaining walls. The
manual provides information userful to both the experienced and
inexperienced soil nail inspector. The manual is organized into two main
parts. Preconstruction Preparation and Construction Inspection.
Checklists are provided throughout the Construction Inspection sections
of the manual which summarize key items discussed in the text. The
inspector is encouraged to copy the checklists for used during
construction."
396|"FHWA-SA-93-075"|"Technology Applications Program"|"(NONE)"|"July
1993"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
397|"FHWA-SA-94-035"|"The Osterberg CELL for Load Testing Drilled Shafts
and Driven Piles"|"Jorj O. Osterberg"|"February
1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"Osterberg CELL; load testing; drilled shafts; pile
foundations"|"The Osterberg Cell (CELL) technology is a new concept of
load testing conceived to revolutionize conventional deep foundation load
testing, facilitate future refinement of design methods, and realize
significant cost savings."
398|"FHWA-SA-94-037"|"A Study of Benefits, Accomplishments, and Resource
Needs of the Local Technical Assistance Program"|"Patsy Pratt
Anderson"|"January 1994"|"2"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"Local Technical Assistance
Program; Technology Transfer Centers; transportation; safety; technical
assistance; pavement maintenance; management"|"This study was undertaken
to document accomplishments of the Technology Transfer Centers, funded
through the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) of the Federal
Highway Administration in partnershop with State highway agencies,
universities, and local governments. The study further documents the
benefits that local governments have derived from the Centers."
399|"FHWA-SA-94-040"|"Assessment of Computer-Assisted Interactive
Applications"|"Roger LaPlante"|"April 1993"|"4"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"interactive;
computer; applications"|"This report presents the results of a
comprehensive study of eight computer assisted interactive applications
located within the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Local Technical
Assistance Program (LTAP), and the Federal Lands Highway Program (FLHP).
A detailed discussion of the advantanges and disadvantages of the
applications is presented as well as recommendations concerning future
applications within the FHWA's technology transfer programs."
400|"FHWA-SA-94-074"|"An Overview of Surface Rehabilitation Techniques
for Asphalt Pavements Instructor's Guide"|"Hassan Raza"|"December
1994"|"3"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"emulsion; polymer; fog seal; sand seal; slurry
seal; micro-surfacing; hot-mix overlay SHRP; maintenance; rehabilitation;
technology transfer"|"This instructor's guide is developed for a 3- to 6-
hour long workshop on surface rehabilitation techniques for asphalt
pavement. This workshop will be useful to FHWA, State, and local highway
engineers and managers involved with the selection, design, and
construction of thin surface rehabilitation techniques. This guide
discusses various types of conventional surface rehabilitation
techniques, along with many of the emerging techniques. The discussion
encompasses design, construction, cost, and performance (where available)
of each technique. Recent efforts to gather and transfer information on
thin surface technology are also briefly discussed including the
Strategic Highway Research Program's efforts and FHWA implementation
activities in the preventive maintenance area."
401|"FHWA-SA-95-017"|"Technology Applications Program"|"(NONE)"|"November
1994"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
402|"FHWA-SA-95-030"|"Highway Safety Performance - 1992: Fatal and
Injury Accident Rates on Public Roads in the United
States"|"(NONE)"|"January 1995"|"5"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
403|"FHWA-SA-95-033"|"The 1995 Annual Report on Highway Safety
Improvement Programs"|"(NONE)"|"April 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
404|"FHWA-SA-95-037"|"Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 1 Dynamic
Compaction"|"Robert G. Lukas"|"March 1995"|"2"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"dynamic
compaction; soil improvement"|"This manual provides state-of-the-practice
methods and techniques to assist the highway engineer in the planning,
design, and construction monitoring of dynamic compaction to improve the
load supporting capacity of weak foundations soils. Guidelines are
presented for: 1) completing a preliminary evaluation to determine if
dynamic compaction is appropriate for the site and subsurface conditions,
2) detailed design for site improvement, 3) preparation of a
specification and 4) construction monitoring. Two case histories of
actual projects are presented to demonstrate the use of the guidelines."
405|"FHWA-SA-95-056"|"Crumb Rubber Modifiers (CRM) in Asphalt Pavements:
Summary of Practices in Arizona, California, and Florida"|"R.G. Hicks,
J.R. Lundy, R.B. Leahy, D. Hanson, and J. Epps"|"September
1995"|"10"|"FHWA/LTAP"|"crumb rubber modifiers; asphalt pavements;
thickness design; mix design; construction procedures; quality control;
pavement performance"|"This report documents the use of crumb rubber
modifier (CRM) in Arizona, California, and Florida. In particular, it
addresses issues including thickness design, materials and mix design,
construction procedure, including quality control, and pavement
performance. The report also addresses the following questions: (10 What
processes are used? (2) why are they used? (3) How are the products
performing?"
406|"FHWA-SA-95-060"|"Pavement Recycling Executive Summary and
Report"|"John Sullivan"|"March 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"asphalt; recycling; hot
mix; pavement; reclaimed asphalt"|"This publication reports on a project
initiated in mid-1992 to assess the state-of-the-practice of recycled hot
mix ashalt production. The scope of this project included site visits to
17 State highway agencies, with at least two state highway agencies in
each FHWA region. Field contacts included discussions with design,
research, and construction individuals from States, contractors, and
industry. This report summarizes the state-of-the practice for the use,
materials mix design, structural design, construction, and performance of
recycled hot mix asphalts."
407|"FHWA-TS-78-220"|"Optimizing Maintenance Activities Fifth Report:
Bituminous Patching"|"Charles W. Niessner"|"May
1978"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"This report summarizes the results of a
cooperative Value Engineering Study on bituminous patching undertaken by
the State Highway Agencies of Arkansas, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Utah,
under sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration. Implementation
of the recommendations in the four study States would result in a total
estimated improved service value in excess of $500,000 annually. Cost of
the study was $88,000. The coordination meetings attended by study
participants during the project yieled significant benefit beyond the
immediate study area. The meeting provided the opportunity for the team
members to observe equipment and procedures being used in the other
States. The major findings and recommendations are in the following
areas: materials, training, procedures and equipment."
408|"FHWA-TS-78-223"|"Optimizing Maintenance Activities Sixth Report:
Sign Maintenance"|"Marv Kaplan"|"1978"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
409|"FHWA-TS-79-219"|"Optimizing Maintenance Activities Eighth Report:
Traffic Stripping"|"(NONE)"|"March 1979"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
410|"FHWA-TS-80-216"|"Hydraulic Flow Resistance Factors for Corrugate
Metal Conduits"|"Jerome M. Normann"|"January
1980"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"Hydraulic design procedures require a reliable
determination of the resistance factors applicable to each shape of
corrugation used in the manufacture or fabrication of corrugated metal
conduits. These resistance factors vary over a wide range for each of
the corrugation shapes now available. In this publication, methods are
presented which allow the designer to estimate resistance factors for all
available corrugation shapes and methods of manufacture. Variables
considered include conduit size and shape, corrugation shape, flow rate,
flow depth, and method of manufacture. Resistance factors are presented
in terms of the Darcy f or the Manning n, and design charts, geometric
tables, and SI conversion factors are included. A method of estimating
resistance for untested corrugations is also included, along with design
examples."
411|"FHWA-TS-80-221"|"Slurry Walls for Underground Transportation
Facilities"|"(NONE)"|"March 1980"|"2"|"FHWA"|"slurry walls, cut and cover
tunneling"|"This volume contains the papers of the 20 speakers who
addressed the topic of Slurry Walls at the Symposium sponsored by the
Federal Highway Administration. The symposium was held at the Hyatt
Regency Hotel in Cambridge, Massachusetts on August 30 & 31, 1979. The
papers provide a thorough coverage of the design, construction,
economics, geotechnical, instrumentation, economic, and legal aspects of
the technique as well as pertinent examples of its application at sites
around the world."
412|"FHWA-TS-80-224"|"Highway Subdrainage Design"|"Lyle K
Moulton"|"August 1980"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
413|"FHWA-TS-81-206"|"Design Manual for Bridge Structural Members Under
Wind Induced Excitation"|"S. Basu, M. Chi"|"March 1981"|"1"|"FHWA"|"wind
induced vibration; strouhal vibration; vortex shedding; design manual;
natural frequency; deflection; stress; wind engineering of structures"|"A
comprehensive design manual for long slender bridge structural members
subjected to wind-induced vibrations is presented in this report. The
vibrations considered herein are caused by vortex shedding in both
subcritical and supercritical ranges of Reynolds numbers. The structural
members are restricted to those whose cross-sections have at least two
axes of symmetry, e. g., circular, rectangular, H-sections, etc. The
design manual provides a stepwise procedure for computing the natural
frequency of a structural member, the critical wind velocity which causes
vortex shedding, as well as the deflection and stress of the member due
to the vortex-induced vibration."
414|"FHWA-TS-84-202"|"Drainage of Highway Pavements"|"Frank L. Johnson,
Fred F.M. Chang"|"March 1984"|"1"|"FHWA"|"pavement drainage inlets; inlet
interception capacity; inlet efficiency; runoff; gutter flow spread;
frontal flow; side flow bypass"|"This edition of Hydraulic Engineering
Circular No. 12 incorporates new design charts and procedures developed
from laboratory tests of interception capacities and efficiencies of
highway pavement drainage inlets. A chart for the solution of the
kinematic wave equation for overland flow and a new chart for the
solution of Manning's equation for traingular channels are provided.
Charts and procedures for using charts are provided for 7 grate types,
slotted drain inlets, curb-opening inlets, and combination inlets on
grade and in sump locations. Charts, tables, and example problem
solutions are included in the text where introduced and discussed."
415|"FHWA-TS-85-231"|"Guidelines for Slope Maintenance and Slide
Restoration"|"Gary Klinedinst, Andy Munoz, Charles W. Niessner"|"April
1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"slide restoration; slope maintenance; maintenance
activities slide identification"|"As part of a continuing project to
evaluate and improve maintenance activities a study on slope maintenance
and slide restoration was undertaken. The problem of slope maintenance
and slide restoration was identified by a number of States as a major
maintenance problem involving a considerable expenditure of maintenance
funds. These guidelines are divided into five chapters: (1) slide
identification and definition of terms, (2) investigation and inspection
of critical slopes and drainage, (3) maintenance activities that will aid
in the prevention and minimization of slides, (4) maintenance activities
that are related to particular distress items, and (5) repair and
restoration techniques including relative cost information. The
guidelines reflect the collective experience of the six participating
States, and are designed for use by the first level maintenance
supervisor, the person responsible for scheduling day-to-day maintenance
work."
416|"FHWA-TS-86-209"|"Design Examples for Steel Box Girders"|"Harold
Clinton, Gerhard Joehnk, Ernst H. Petzold III"|"July
1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"steel box girders; bridges; specifications; flanges;
webs; design"|"The Proposed Design Specifications for Steel Box Girder
Bridges as contained in Report No. FHWA-TS-80-205 are evaluated. The
results of comparative designs done using the ASSHTO code and the
proposed specification are summarized. The differences in the designs
are explained with reference to the differing design requirements of the
two specifications. The practicality and ease of application of the
proposed specification are discussed. The results of parametric studies
done to investigate the application of the proposed specification to the
design of principal elements of box girders are included. The
conclusions and recommendations based on the evaluation are also
included. Appendix A contains comparative design examples contrasting
the use of the ASSHTO code with the proposed specification. Appendix B
contains a discussion of areas of the proposed specification that could
benefit from additional clarification or comment."
417|"FHWA-TS-86-215"|"Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Handbook - 2nd
Edition"|"B.H. Tustin, H. Richards, H. McGee, R. Patterson"|"September
1986"|"1"|"FHWA"|"grade crossing; railroad; traffic control; crossing
surfaces"|"Rail-Highway grade crossing safety and operational problems
involve two components--the highway and the railroad. The highway
component involves drivers, pedestrians, vehicles, and roadway segments
in the vicinity of the crossing. The railroad component involves the
trains and the tracks at the crossing. The element of risk present at a
given location is a function of the characteristics of the two components
and their corresponding elements. Several formulas are described which
seek to quantify the degree of risk, identify the locations most urgently
in need of improvement, and prioritize the hazardous locations which have
been isolated. Various types of at-grade crossing improvements described
include active warning devices, passive warning devices, sight distance
improvements, operational improvements, and crossing surface
improvements. Grade separations, or crossing closures are suggested as
improvement solutions where either extremely high or low demand for the
crossing exists. The ultimate choice for a crossing improvement is
determined by balancing the benefits in accident reduction and reduced
user costs against costs for the improvement. Procedures, models and
computer programs which will assist making these selections are
described."
418|"FHWA-TS-88-021"|"Long-Term Evaluation of the Acoustic Emission Weld
Monitor"|"Theodore Hopwood II"|"February 1988"|"2"|"FHWA"|"acoustic
emission; bridges; fabrication; nondestructive testing; steel
welding"|"The Kentucky Transporation Research Program conducted an
extended 10-month evaluation of the Acoustic Emission Weld Monitor (AEWM)
in a bridge fabrication shop. That device was used to detect welding
flaws during typical production on butt-welds on flanges and webs used in
steel bridges. A total of 153 weld were monitored. AEWM test results
were compared with visual inspection and double-blind results of
conventional nondestructive testing routinely conducted on the welds.
The AEWM did not miss any flaws detected visually or by nondestructive
testing. Three AEWM flaw indications were confirmed by convetional
nondestructive testing (radiography). A large number of AEWM indications
were not related to any detected flaws (228 of 263 indications). Those
were attributed to AE noise that occurs away from the weld and small
flaws that were either missed or overlooked by visual and nondestructive
inspection or were removed prior to inspection by normal fabrication
procedures. The AEWM has shown the sensitivity to detect AWS code-
rejectable defects. In part, the high number of overcalls were caused by
use of excessive system sensitivity. Due to the success of the unit in
detecting flaws, further development is warranted. Specific
recommendations for further research are provided."
419|"FHWA-TS-89-010"|"Value Engineering Study of the Repair of Transverse
Cracking in Asphalt Concrete Pavements"|"Robert H. Rossman, Harold G.
Tufty, Larry Nicholas, Michael Belangie"|"May 1990"|"1"|"FHWA"|"value
engineering; crack repair; crack sealing; asphalt pavements; extend
pavement life"|"This report summarizes the results of a cooperative value
engineering study on the repair of transverse cracks in asphalt concrete
pavements. The objective of the study was to optimize the expenditure of
maintenance funding through an indepth study of the present methods,
materials, and equipments being used, and the development of better
methods, materials, and equipment, and work crews, for optimum and safe
repair of such cracks. This report contains recommendations and
guidelines on crack preparation, materials, equipment, and timing to
effect cost-effective repairs to transverse cracks in asphalt pavements.
All team members agree that timely, effective crack sealing extends
pavement life and reduces future maintenance costs."
420|"FHWA-TS-89-016"|"Forum on Weathering Steel for Highway Structures:
Summary Report"|"Nita Congress"|"August 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"A588; bridges;
chlorides; corrosion; cracking; deicing salts; design; fatigue; joints;
maintenance; performance; steel; weathering steel"|"Only July 12-13,
1988, the Office of Research, Development and Technology of the Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA) hosted a forum on Weathering Steel for
Highway Structures. This conference took place at the Ramada Hotel in
Alexandria, Virginia. The major objectives of this forum were to examine
the state of the art in weathering steel use and maintenance, to develop
rules for its use in new construction, and for maintenance of existing
structures. The forum brought together 131 participants representing
Federal and State governments and industry. The forum was organized into
four main sessions, including a panel discussion and several individual
presentations. This report summarizes the forum."
421|"FHWA-TS-89-033"|"Work Zone Traffic Management Synthesis: Barrier
Delineation Treatments Used in Work Zones"|"Errol C. Noel, Ziad A. Sabra,
Conrad L. Dudek"|"July 1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"delineation; barrier
delineation; work zones; concrete barrier"|"This report is a synthesis of
research findings on current practicies in the delineation of portable
concrete safety-shaped barriers (CSSBs) in work zones. The information
is based on a review of research reports and work zone manuals from a
selection of state and city highway agencies, discussions with highway
officials, and field observations of selected highway construction
projects. The report presents an assessment of the state-of-the-practice
and make recommendations for further research and future revisions of the
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices."
422|"FHWA-TS-89-039"|"Office of Implementation Catalog"|"(NONE)"|"July
1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(NONE)"|"(NONE)"
423|"FHWA-TS-90-025 / ME89-001"|"Evaluation of a Hand Held Microcomputer
as a Data Collection Device- Final Report"|"William A. Pulver"|"June
1989"|"1"|"FHWA"|"208K Ram Husky Hunter Hand Held Microcomputer; field
data collection device; automated data collection"|"This publication is a
final report containing results and conclusions derived from the
evaluation of a hand-held microcomputer as a field data collection
device. The implementation of automated data collection can abbreviate
or eliminate time consuming and error prone procedures that occur in
manual data collection. The 208K RAM Husky Hunter was chosen as the
portable microcomputer for this evaluation due to its physical durability
and its programmable versatility. The Hunter was used for three large
volume data collection activities to demonstrate its adaptability to
various procedures and conditions. Factors examined included the
programming, data collecting and data transferring capabilities of the
Hunter. The results of this evaluation verify the implementation of
automated data collection will stream-line and increase the efficiency of
many data collection activities."
424|"FHWA-TS-90-035"|"Maintenance of Aggregate and Earth Roads"|"Robert
D. Srombom"|"June 1987"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"aggregate; base; balding;
damage; ditch cleaning; drainage; geotextiles; goals; grading;
maintenance equipment; maintenance management; objectives; palliatives
(dust); planning; scheduling; stabilization; subgrade"|"Road maintenance
is characterized as the continuing care of the roadway and providing for
its intended use until such time as needed improvements are identified
and undertaken. Withing the scope of recurrent and deferred maintenance
activities, opportunities are identified to improve cost effectiveness of
surfacing and ditch maintenance and reduce future capital improvements."
425|"FHWA-TS-90-041"|"Value Engineering Study of Bridge Deck Maintenance,
Repair, and Protection"|"Jimmie Carter, J. Jerry Kaufman"|"August
1990"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"value engineering, bridge deck; bridge
maintenance; bridge repair; bridge protection; preventative maintenance;
bridge design; bridge drains; corrosion; modular components"|"A Value
Engineering Study was performed by six State highway agencies;
California, Washinton, Kentucky, Missouri, Virginia and New Hampshire,
covering various aspets of materials and equipment used in the repair of
cracking, scaling and spalling on concrete bridge decks. Numerous types
of qualified and untested equipment, materials and processes were
examined and ranked by the task team. The private sector participated in
the study and shared their knowldge and experience with the team. A
survey was developed and sent to the six participating states and their
neighboring states prior to the start of the three month study, to
determine common and unique procedures. Some of the proposals are:
provide an on site water source to flush bridge facilities, eliminated
bridge deck drains, provide permanent access for inspection, exclude
contaminants from reinforcing steel, cathodic protection to prevent
corrosion in new construction, modular deck components for deck
replacement projects on high-volume bridges, joint pre-final design plan
review, joint post-construction and follow-up review, require certified
construction inspectors, contractor pre-qualification should include
performance capability and quality/durability evaluations, preventative
maintenance considerations, and repair options."
426|"FHWA-TS-90-051"|"Maintenance on High Volume Traffic Roads Technology
Transfer Workshop Proceedings"|"(NONE)"|"December
1990"|"2"|"FHWA"|"traffic control; work zone safety; tort
liability"|"This report summarizes the proceedings of three multi-
regional workshops which focused on applying better procedures, safer
methods, better materials and tim savings equipment that, would result in
more cost-effective and safer maintenance work zone practices and
operations on high volume traffic roads. These workshops were conducted
in St. Louis, MO, Virginia Beach, VA, and Las Vegas, NV in cooperation
with the respective State Highway Agencies. Various individuals from
government , industry and academia addressed specific issues under the
following topics: project planning, contracting repairs, maintenance work
zone management, tort liability, maintenance work zone safety, work zone
traffic control at night, new and innovative materials, new and
innovative equipment, environmental conditions, and research and
training. Upon conclusion of the presentation, small group and panel
discussions were held and recommendations were formulated and adopted
within each area. The workshop formulated two main findings that could
enhance maintenance operations and safety on high volume traffic
roadways. These were: 1) minimize workers' road occupancy time (exposure
to traffic) while performing maintenance and 2) plan and undertake the
work (personnel, equipment and materials ) in the most efficient manner
possible."
427|"FHWA-TS-91-003"|"Proceedings of the Symposium on Work Zone Traffic
Control"|"Hugh W. McGee, Lynne F. McGee, Nancy L. Geisler"|"June
1991"|"2"|"FHWA/HDOT"|"Work Zone Traffic Control; devices;
construction"|"Fatalities from motor vehicle accidents in work zones
continue to increase. To improve safety and efficiency of day-to-day
maintenance and operations of work zones, the Federal Highway
Administration sponsored a two-day symposium, ""Work Zone Traffic Control
Symposium--Making It Work,"" in Orlando, Florida on January 18-19, 1991.
Gathered at the symposium were representatives from Federal agencies,
States, cities, counties, industry and foreign countries. The purpose of
the symposium was to disseminate information on state-of-the-art
procedures, practices , and equipment for making work zone traffic
control work for motorists, pedestrians, and workers on freeways, city
and suburban streets, and rural roads. A wide spectrum of topics was
covered, including the new Part VI of the Manual on Uniform Traffic
Control Devices, contracting procedures, training, speed control
techniques and devices, tort liability, planning and scheduling lane
closures, and public information campains. The symposium included break-
out sessions where the attendees became program participants by sharing
their experiences and procedures for improved work zone traffic control.
The symposium culminated with a tour of the annual trade exhibit of the
American Traffic Safety Services Association that was held at a nearby
hotel."
428|"FHWA-PL-97-002"|"Selected Highway Statistics
1995"|"FHWA"|"1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(None)"|"(None)"
429|"FHWA-RD-96-029"|"Long-Term Effects of Cathodic Protection on
Prestressed Concrete Bridge Components"|"W. Hartt, E. Joubert, S.
Kliszowski"|"November 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"cathodic protection, corrosion
prestressed concrete, pretensioned concrete, cathodic protection
criteria, bond loss, hydrogen embrittlement, bridges"|"While cathodic
protection effectively reduces or stops ongoing corrosion of reinforcing
steel in concrete, applicability of this technology to prestressing steel
has been limited because of concerns of possible bond loss and hydrogen
embrittlement. Within this context the present research was intended as
a comprehensive, multifaceted undertaking to elevate the understanding of
prestressed concrete cathodic protection to the same level as for
reinforced concrete."
430|"FHWA-RD-96-205"|"Research & Technology Transporter October
1996"|"FHWA"|"October 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(None)"|"(None)"
431|"FHWA-RD-96-039"|"Evaluation of Accident Analysis Methodology"|"Olga
J. Pendleton"|"November 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"safety evaluation, high hazard
location, regression-to-the-mean, before/after studies, raised pavement
markers, signalization, speed cange, empirical Bayes"|"This study
compared both traditional and empirical Bayes (EB) methodologies for
ranking high hazard locations and evaluating highway safety treatments
for five case studies. The case studies were either based on data
collected for previous studies or data retrieved from the Highway Safety
Information System (HSIS). These included two high hazard location
ranking studies for New York and Illinois and three treatment evaluation
studies."
432|"FHWA-RD-95-172"|"Load Transfer for Drilled Shafts in Intermediate
Geomaterials"|"M. W. O'Neill, F. C. Townsend, K. M. Hassan, A. Buller, P.
S. Chan"|"November 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"drilled shafts, design soft rock,
hard clay, residual soil, glacial till, load testing, load
transfer"|"This study investigated the resistance and load-settlement
behavior of axially loaded drilled shafts in geomaterials at the boundary
between soil and rock, termed ""Intermediate geomaterials."" The primary
objective of the study was to develop or adapt simple design-level models
to predict resistance and load-settlement behavior. Two models are
proposed. The first is based on finite element modeling, of drilled
shafts with smooth and rough interfaces in cohesive geomaterials, while
the second is based on approximate elasticity solution and correlations
of geomaterial properties with standards penetration test results in
cohesionless geomaterials. Loading tests on seven full-scale drilled
shafts were considered as a means to verify the accuracy of the design
models and to develop recommendations concerning the inputs to the
models. The models are recommended for use pending local calibration."
433|"FHWA-PD-95-028"|"Rebuilding America: Partnership For
Investment"|"Office of Engineering Construction and Maintenance Division
FHWA"|"1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(None)"|"(None)"
434|"FHWA-RD-96-085"|"The Corrosion Performance of Inorganic, Ceramic-
and Metallic-Clad Reinforcing Bars and Solid Metallic Reinforcing Bars in
Accelerated Screening Tests"|"D. B. McDonald, D. W. Pfeifer, G. T.
Blake"|"October 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"aluminum bronze, ceramic-clad,
chlorides, concrete, copper-clad steel, corrosion, galvanizing
polarization resistance, reinforcing bars, stainless steel,
titanium"|"This report describes corrosion tests conducted in the first 2
yr of a 5-yr project on 14 inorganic-, ceramic- and metallic-clad
reinforcing bars and 10 soild metallic alloy reinfocring bars. Tests
results obtained from wetting and drying of bend and straight specimens
in the pH 7 and pH 13 solutions are presented. These tests were
conducted on bars in three different conditions: as-received, with a
drill hole, and after abrasion. Tests conditions were developed to be
representative of concrete."
435|"FHWA-PD-96-001"|"Recording and Coding Guide for the Structure
Inventory and Appraisal of the Nation's Bridges"|"Office of Engineering
FHWA"|"December 1995"|"1"|"FHWA"|"(None)"|"(None)"
436|"FHWA-RD-95-176"|"Development of Human Factors Guidelines for
Advanced Traveler Information Systems and Commerical Vehicle Operations:
Task Analysis of ATIS/CVO Functions"|"W. Wheeler, J. Lee, M. Raby, R.
Kinghorn, A. Bittner, M. McCallum"|"November 1996"|"1"|"FHWA"|"Advanced
Traveler Information System (ATIS), Commerical Vehicle Operations (CVO),
Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS)"|"This working paper documents
Task E of the present project, Task Analyses for Advanced Traveler
Information Systems (ATIS) and Commerical Vehicle Operations (CVO)
systems. The goald of Task E is to conduct detailed analyses of
influence of using ATIS on driving tasks for both private and commerical
vehicle operators."
437|"FHWA-PL-96-014"|"Exploring the Application of Benefit/Cost
Methodologies to Transportation Infrastructure Decision Making"|"FHWA,
Transportation Board, ASCE"|"May 1995"|"2"|"FHWA"|"(None)"|"(None)"

				
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