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Rodents By: Isidoro Cabrera The trouble with rodents Norway rats The trouble with rodents Polynesian rats The trouble with rodents Roof rats The trouble with rodents Common house mouse •Norway rats and roof rats came form Europe with the first explorers and quickly invaded the continent. Polynesian rats are native to Southeast Asia, but dispersed with humans across the central and western Pacific. After rats, the common house mouse is the second most destructive vertebrate in the world. Rodents spread a wide variety of serious disease, including: Salmonellosis Plague Leptospirosis Hantaviruses Rickettsial pox Rodents consume and contaminate significant percentage of the world’s food supply every year. Rodents carry fleas and other parasites into buildings. Rodents cause a great deal of anxiety for occupants of infested buildings. Rodents cause extensive economic damage by gnawing on structures and wiring which causes fires. The signs of rodent infestation. Look for these common signs. They may indicate an infestation of rodents. Signs of rodent infestation Droppings and urine and left wherever rodents travel or rest, especially in corners. Dark smear or rub marks are left on surface, caused by oil from rodents hairs as they move throughout their territories. Signs of rodent infestation Footprints and tail drag may be seen in dusty locations. To make these trails easier to see, shine a strong flashlight at a low angle across the dust. Signs of rodent infestation Gnaw marks, clearly visible. 1/8 inch tooth marks may be a sign of rats. Gnaw marks with tiny, scratch-like tooth marks may be sign of mice. A distinctive, musky odor may be present. House mouse (Mus musculus) Tail 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long, semi- naked and longer than the head and body combined. Relatively large ears for its size. Eyes small in proportion to the body. Body small and slender, 2 to 3 ½ inches (5 to 9 cm) long. Average weight is 5/8-1 ounce (18 to 28g). Droppings have pointed edges at both ends and average 1/4inch (64 cm) in length. Fresh droppings- soft and dark. Average droppings- 50 per day. Roof Rats (Rattus rattus) Tail longer than head and body, 7.5 to 10 inches long ( 19 to 25 cm). Top and bottom same color. Ears, large and will cover the eyes if bent forward. Eyes, large and prominent. Nose and muzzle, pointed. Body slender, 6.5-8 inches (170 to 340 cm). Average weight, 6-12 ounces (170 to 340g). Dropping have pointed edges at both ends and average ½ inch (1cm) in length. Fresh droppings soft and dark. Averages dropping 3-180 per day. Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Tail, shorter than head and body 6-8.5 inches (15 to 22). Darker color on top than on bottom. Ears, close to the body and do not cover the eyes if bent forward. Eyes, small. Nose and muzzle are blunt. Body, heavy and thick, 7-10 inches long (18 to 25 cm). Average weight is 10-17 ounces (284 to 482g). Droppings have blunt edges at both ends and average ¾ inch (2 cm) in length. Fresh droppings, soft and dark. Average droppings, 30-180 per day. Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans) Is smaller than either the Norway rat or the Roof rat. Polynesian rats have slender bodies, pointed snouts, large ears, and relatively small delicate feet. A ruddy brown back contrast with a whitish belly. Mature individuals are 4.5 to 6 inches long (11.5 to 15.0 cm) from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail and weigh 1.5-3 ounces (40 to 80 g). Tail, prominent fine scaly rings and is about the same length as the head and body. Female Polynesian rats have 8 nipples, compared to 10 and 12 nipples normally found on roof rats and Norway rats, respectively. Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Food Preferences and Consumption Meats, fish, flour cereal grain fruits and vegetables. Eats almost any human food. Consumes ¾ to 1ounce of food each day. Drink ½ to 1 ounce of water each day. Requires water daily to survive. Habits Usually nests in basements and lower portions of the buildings. Extensively burrows in soil. Active primarily at night. Good climber, excellent swimmer. Very strong social hierarchy- the biggest and strongest get the best food and harborage. Color Usually grayish- brown, but color may vary from a pure gray to a blackish- or reddish- brown. The underside is gray to yellow- white. Completely black Norway are common. •House pets, such as cats and dogs, may become agitated because they hear rodents gnawing, digging, running and fighting. Roof Rat (Rattus rattus) Food Preference and consumption Seeds, fruits, vegetables, grain and eggs. Consume ½ to 1 ounce of food each day. Drinks up to 1 ounce of water each day. Water is not essential if everyday food is high in moisture. Habits Usually enters and nests in upper portions of buildings. May nest outside in trees (especially palm), ivy etc. Burrows very little. Excellent climber. Active at night. Color Color varies from black to brownish-gray; the underside varies from gray to white. Polynesian Rat ( Rattus exulans) Food Preference and consumption Polynesian rats eat a wide variety of foods, including broadleaf plants, grasses, fruits, seed, and animal matters. Habits Prefers areas with good ground covers on well drained soil. Live close association with humans. Color A ruddy brown black contrast with a whitish belly. House Mouse ( Mus musculus) Food Preference and Consumptions Omnivores. Cereal grains, seeds, fruits, vegetables and meats. Seeds are the preferred food. Feeds at multiple sites (20 30), eating small amounts. Daily consumption: 1/10 of an ounce. Color Generally, grayish- brown above, and a very light cream color below. Large ears and a semi- naked tail that is longer than their heads and bodies combined. Rat Reproduction Cycle Young Norway and Roof rats can be sexually mature and capable of mating at 3 months of age. Female Norway and roof rats can be pregnant with a new litter and still lactate to feed their young. However, the gestation period may be slightly longer. Female Norway and roof rats average 3 to 7 litters per year. Norway rats usually have larger litters, 6 to 12 pups. Roof rats have 5 to 8 pups. After birth, female Norway and roof rats are capable of being in heat again in 24-48 hours. Norway and roof rats live approximately one year. Polynesian rat reproduction Cycle Polynesian rats breed throughout the year, with peak reproduction occurring in the summer and early fall. Females have an average of 4 litters per year, with range of 3 to 6 and an average of 4 young per liter. The newborns open their eyes about 2 week after birth and weaned when they are 60 to 70 days old. The life expectancy of wild rats is less than 1 year. Mouse Reproduction Cycle The young mouse can be sexually mature and capable of mating in as little as 5 weeks. The female can still be lactating her young and be pregnant with a new litter, although the gestation period might be slightly longer. A female will have an average of 8 liters per year, with each litter averaging 5 to 6 pups. Mice live approximately one year. Selecting the best rodenticide for the job Non –anticoagulants. Bromethalin and zinc phosphide are two examples of acute baits that are occasionally used for clean –outs. Most rodent control professionals, however, prefer anticoagulants. Anticoagulants. These rodenticides inhibit the blood’s clotting mechanism, causing rodents to die from internal bleeding. Mini-Blocks Mini-Blocks are extruded with a center hole all the way through. You can easily secure them to structures or suspend them ideal on in bait stations Bait Formulations After you’ve identified where a rodents problem exits, place a rodenticide where it can do the most good. Each application is unique. Choose the bait which best meets the needs of each situation. For example, Paraffin Blocks Resist moisture, making them ideal for high moisture environments, such as sewers. Bulk Paraffin Pellets Resistmoisture and molding for long –lasting weather ability. Paraffin Pellet Place Packs Allow for easy bait placement. They also provide long-lasting weather ability. Bulk Meal Provides excellent palatability and minimizes the risk of rodents carrying bait to sensitive areas. Meal Place Packs Provide moisture protection and the convenience of pre- measured portions. IPM for Rodents An Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for rodents combines common sense steps that make any environment rodent friendly. Knowledge It may not seem like it, but rodents behave in predictable ways. A rodent control expert learns about rodent behavior, then uses that knowledge to select control tools and techniques. Inspection Perform a thorough inspection, beginning on the exterior of the premises. Think three- dimensionally, looking both high and low. Check all dark areas with a good flashlight. Use a notepad to diagram the facility, indicting problem areas such as: Nests, Feeding site, Burrows, Holes or cracks in structure, Vents and other openings. Identification Usethe information in this brochure to correctly identify the type of rodent involved and the number. This will help determine your control program. Sanitation Eliminate harborages by removing debris from the building and grounds. Trim weeds and brush and keep grass short(3 inches or less) to minimize cover and food sources around the building perimeter. Clean up food debris and spillage daily. Make food hard to reach and put it in secure containers. Clean up standing water and fix leaks to deny rodents access to water. Store products neatly, off the floor and away form walls to make inspection and sanitation easier. Thank you! Any Question!
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