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Final for Rodent by liaoqinmei



 By: Isidoro Cabrera
The trouble with rodents

 Norway   rats
The trouble with rodents

 Polynesian
The trouble with rodents

 Roof   rats
The trouble with rodents

 Common
 house mouse
•Norway rats and roof rats came form
Europe with the first explorers and
quickly invaded the continent.
Polynesian rats are native to Southeast
Asia, but dispersed with humans
across the central and western Pacific.
After rats, the common house mouse
is the second most destructive
vertebrate in the world.
Rodents spread a wide variety of
serious disease, including:

   Salmonellosis
   Plague
   Leptospirosis
   Hantaviruses
   Rickettsial pox
Rodents consume and
contaminate significant
percentage of the world’s food
supply every year.
Rodents carry fleas and other
parasites into buildings.

Rodents cause a great deal of
anxiety for occupants of
infested buildings.
Rodents cause extensive
economic damage by gnawing on
structures and wiring which
causes fires.
The signs of rodent infestation.

   Look for these common signs. They
      may indicate an infestation of
Signs of rodent infestation
   Droppings and urine and
    left wherever rodents travel
    or rest, especially in

    Dark smear or rub marks
    are left on surface, caused
    by oil from rodents hairs as
    they move throughout
    their territories.
Signs of rodent infestation

   Footprints and tail
    drag may be seen in
    dusty locations. To
    make these trails
    easier to see, shine a
    strong flashlight at a
    low angle across the
Signs of rodent infestation

   Gnaw marks, clearly
    visible. 1/8 inch tooth
    marks may be a sign of
    rats. Gnaw marks with
    tiny, scratch-like tooth
    marks may be sign of

   A distinctive, musky
    odor may be present.
House mouse (Mus musculus)
   Tail 3 to 4 inches (8 to 10 cm) long, semi-
    naked and longer than the head and body
   Relatively large ears for its size. Eyes small
    in proportion to the body.
   Body small and slender, 2 to 3 ½ inches (5 to
    9 cm) long. Average weight is 5/8-1 ounce
    (18 to 28g).
   Droppings have pointed edges at both ends
    and average 1/4inch (64 cm) in length. Fresh
    droppings- soft and dark.
   Average droppings- 50 per day.
Roof Rats (Rattus rattus)
   Tail longer than head and body, 7.5 to 10 inches long (
    19 to 25 cm). Top and bottom same color.
   Ears, large and will cover the eyes if bent forward.
   Eyes, large and prominent.
   Nose and muzzle, pointed.
   Body slender, 6.5-8 inches (170 to 340 cm).
   Average weight, 6-12 ounces (170 to 340g).
   Dropping have pointed edges at both ends and
    average ½ inch (1cm) in length. Fresh droppings soft
    and dark. Averages dropping 3-180 per day.
Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
   Tail, shorter than head and body 6-8.5 inches (15 to 22).
    Darker color on top than on bottom.
   Ears, close to the body and do not cover the eyes if bent
   Eyes, small. Nose and muzzle are blunt.
   Body, heavy and thick, 7-10 inches long (18 to 25 cm).
    Average weight is 10-17 ounces (284 to 482g).
   Droppings have blunt edges at both ends and average ¾
    inch (2 cm) in length. Fresh droppings, soft and dark.
    Average droppings, 30-180 per day.
    Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans)
   Is smaller than either the Norway rat or the Roof rat.
   Polynesian rats have slender bodies, pointed snouts,
    large ears, and relatively small delicate feet. A ruddy
    brown back contrast with a whitish belly. Mature
    individuals are 4.5 to 6 inches long (11.5 to 15.0 cm) from
    the tip of the nose to the base of the tail and weigh 1.5-3
    ounces (40 to 80 g).
   Tail, prominent fine scaly rings and is about the same
    length as the head and body. Female Polynesian rats
    have 8 nipples, compared to 10 and 12 nipples normally
    found on roof rats and Norway rats, respectively.
Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
Food Preferences and Consumption

   Meats, fish, flour cereal grain fruits and
    vegetables. Eats almost any human
    food. Consumes ¾ to 1ounce of food
    each day. Drink ½ to 1 ounce of water
    each day. Requires water daily to
   Usually nests in basements and lower
    portions of the buildings. Extensively
    burrows in soil. Active primarily at night.
    Good climber, excellent swimmer. Very
    strong social hierarchy- the biggest and
    strongest get the best food and
   Usually grayish-
    brown, but color
    may vary from a
    pure gray to a
    blackish- or reddish-
    brown. The
    underside is gray to
    yellow- white.
    Completely black
    Norway are
•House pets, such as cats and
dogs, may become agitated
because they hear rodents
gnawing, digging, running and
Roof Rat (Rattus rattus)
Food Preference and
   Seeds, fruits, vegetables, grain and
    eggs. Consume ½ to 1 ounce of food
    each day. Drinks up to 1 ounce of
    water each day. Water is not essential
    if everyday food is high in moisture.
 Usually enters and nests in upper
  portions of buildings. May nest
  outside in trees (especially palm),
  ivy etc.
 Burrows very little.

 Excellent climber.

 Active at night.
   Color varies from
    black to
    the underside
    varies from gray
    to white.
Polynesian Rat ( Rattus exulans)
Food Preference and

   Polynesian rats eat a wide variety of
    foods, including broadleaf plants,
    grasses, fruits, seed, and animal

 Prefers areas with good ground
  covers on well drained soil.
 Live close association with
   A ruddy brown
    black contrast
    with a whitish
House Mouse ( Mus musculus) Food
Preference and Consumptions

   Omnivores. Cereal grains, seeds, fruits,
    vegetables and meats.
   Seeds are the preferred food.
   Feeds at multiple sites (20 30), eating small
   Daily consumption: 1/10 of an ounce.
   Generally, grayish-
    brown above, and a
    very light cream
    color below. Large
    ears and a semi-
    naked tail that is
    longer than their
    heads and bodies
Rat Reproduction Cycle
   Young Norway and Roof rats can be sexually mature
    and capable of mating at 3 months of age. Female
    Norway and roof rats can be pregnant with a new litter
    and still lactate to feed their young. However, the
    gestation period may be slightly longer.
   Female Norway and roof rats average 3 to 7 litters per
   Norway rats usually have larger litters, 6 to 12 pups.
    Roof rats have 5 to 8 pups.
   After birth, female Norway and roof rats are capable of
    being in heat again in 24-48 hours. Norway and roof
    rats live approximately one year.
    Polynesian rat reproduction
   Polynesian rats breed throughout the year, with
    peak reproduction occurring in the summer and
    early fall.
   Females have an average of 4 litters per year, with
    range of 3 to 6 and an average of 4 young per liter.
   The newborns open their eyes about 2 week after
    birth and weaned when they are 60 to 70 days old.
   The life expectancy of wild rats is less than 1 year.
    Mouse Reproduction Cycle
   The young mouse can be sexually mature and
    capable of mating in as little as 5 weeks.
   The female can still be lactating her young
    and be pregnant with a new litter, although
    the gestation period might be slightly longer.
   A female will have an average of 8 liters per
    year, with each litter averaging 5 to 6 pups.
    Mice live approximately one year.
Selecting the best rodenticide
for the job
   Non –anticoagulants. Bromethalin and zinc
    phosphide are two examples of acute baits
    that are occasionally used for clean –outs.
    Most rodent control professionals, however,
    prefer anticoagulants.
   Anticoagulants. These rodenticides inhibit
    the blood’s clotting mechanism, causing
    rodents to die from internal bleeding.
    Mini-Blocks are
    extruded with a
    center hole all the
    way through. You
    can easily secure
    them to structures
    or suspend them
    ideal on in bait
Bait Formulations
   After you’ve identified where a rodents
    problem exits, place a rodenticide
    where it can do the most good. Each
    application is unique. Choose the bait
    which best meets the needs of each
    situation. For example,
Paraffin Blocks
   Resist moisture,
    making them
    ideal for high
    such as sewers.
Bulk Paraffin Pellets

 Resistmoisture
 and molding for
 long –lasting
 weather ability.
Paraffin Pellet Place Packs
   Allow for easy
    bait placement.
    They also provide
    weather ability.
Bulk Meal
   Provides
    palatability and
    minimizes the
    risk of rodents
    carrying bait to
    sensitive areas.
Meal Place Packs
   Provide moisture
    protection and
    the convenience
    of pre- measured
IPM for Rodents
   An Integrated Pest Management
    (IPM) program for rodents
    combines common sense steps
    that make any environment rodent

   It may not seem like it, but rodents
    behave in predictable ways. A rodent
    control expert learns about rodent
    behavior, then uses that knowledge to
    select control tools and techniques.
   Perform a thorough inspection, beginning
    on the exterior of the premises.
   Think three- dimensionally, looking both
    high and low.
   Check all dark areas with a good flashlight.
   Use a notepad to diagram the facility,
    indicting problem areas such as: Nests,
    Feeding site, Burrows, Holes or cracks in
    structure, Vents and other openings.

 Usethe information in this
 brochure to correctly identify the
 type of rodent involved and the
 number. This will help determine
 your control program.
   Eliminate harborages by removing debris from the
    building and grounds.
   Trim weeds and brush and keep grass short(3
    inches or less) to minimize cover and food sources
    around the building perimeter.
   Clean up food debris and spillage daily. Make food
    hard to reach and put it in secure containers.
   Clean up standing water and fix leaks to deny
    rodents access to water.
   Store products neatly, off the floor and away form
    walls to make inspection and sanitation easier.
Thank you!
 Any   Question!

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