Chapter 2 Solar Energy, Seasons, and the Atmosphere by 6M3r37qE

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									      Chapter 2
Solar Energy, Seasons,
 and the Atmosphere
   Elemental Geosystems 5e

                    Robert W. Christopherson
                    Charles E. Thomsen
   Solar Energy, Seasons,
    and the Atmosphere
The Solar System, Sun, and Earth
Solar Energy: From Sun to Earth
The Seasons
Atmospheric Composition, Temperature
and Function
Variable Atmospheric Components
    The Solar System, Sun,
         and Earth
Dimensions and Distances, and Earth’s
orbit
Milky Way Galaxy




                   Figure 2.1
Our Solar System




                   Figure 2.1
   Solar Energy: From Sun
          to Earth
Solar wind
Electromagnetic Spectrum of Radiant
Energy
Incoming Energy at the Top of the
Atmosphere
  Solar constant
  Uneven distribution of insolation
  Global net radiation
Solar Activity and Solar Wind
Solar wind is clouds of electrically charged
particles
Sunspots are caused by magnetic storms
Sunspots have activity cycle of 11 years




                                        Figure 2.2
Aurora Borealis




                  Figure 2.4
Wavelength and Frequency




                      Figure 2.5
The Electromagnetic
Spectrum




             Figure 2.6
Solar and
Terrestrial
Energy




              Figure 2.7
Earth’s Energy Budget




                        Figure 2.8
Figure 2.9
Daily Net Radiation




                      Figure 2.10
            The Seasons
Seasonality
Reasons for Seasons
  Revolution
  Rotation
  Tilt of Earth’s axis
  Axial parallelism
Annual March of the Seasons
  Seasonal observations
Revolution and Rotation




                          Figure 2.11
Earth’s Axial Tilt




                     Figure 2.12
Annual March of the Seasons




                  Figure 2.13
Earth–Sun Relationships
Characteristics of the Solstices and Equinoxes
Midnight Sun




               Figure 2.14
Seasonal Observations




                        Figure 2.15
 Atmospheric Composition,
Temperature, and Function
Atmospheric Profile
Atmospheric Composition Criterion
Atmospheric Temperature Criterion
Atmospheric Function Criterion
Atmospheric
Pressure




              Figure 2.18
Atmospheric
  Pressure
Variation with
  Altitude
Profile of
Atmosphere




       Figure 2.17
Temperature
Profile




         Figure 2.20
Protective
Atmosphere




         Figure 2.21
    Atmospheric Function
Ionosphere
  Absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays,
  some UV rays
Ozonosphere
  Part of stratosphere
  Ozone (O3) absorbs UV energy and converts it
  to heat energy
  Atmospheric Composition
Heterosphere – Outer Atmosphere
  80 km (50 mi) outwards, to thermosphere
  Layers of gases sorted by gravity
Homosphere – Inner Atmosphere
  Surface to 80 km (50 mi)
  Gases evenly blended
Composition
of the
Homosphere




      Figure 2.19
         Importance of Ozone
Ozone filters out most of the UV radiation from the
Sun
Decreased concentration allows more of these harmful
wavelengths to reach Earth’s surface
   Increase risks of skin cancer
   Impair the human immune system
   Promote cataracts, clouding of the eye lens that reduces vision.
   May cause blindness if not treated
Montreal Protocol was developed under the
sponsorship of the UN to eliminate the production and
use of CFCs
Antarctic
Ozone
Hole




      Figure FS 2.1.1
ClO and O3




             Figure FS 2.1.2
Carbon Dioxide
Variable Atmospheric Components
  Natural Sources
  Natural Factors That Affect Air Pollution
  Anthropogenic Pollution
  Benefits of the Clean Air Act
 Natural Factors That Affect
       Air Pollution
Winds
Local and Regional Landscapes
Temperature Inversion
Wildfires




            Figure 2.22
Temperature Inversion




                        Figure 2.24
  Anthropogenic Pollution
Photochemical Smog Pollution
Industrial Smog and Sulfur Oxides
Particulates
Air Pollution




                Figure 2.25
Photochemical Smog




                     Figure 2.26
Benefits of the Clean Air Act
Total direct cost $523 billion
Direct monetized benefits $5.6 to $49.4
trillion – average $22.2 trillion
Net financial benefit $21.7 trillion
206,000 fewer deaths in 1990!
  End of Chapter 2

Elemental Geosystems 5e


               Robert W. Christopherson
               Charles E. Thomsen

								
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